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Science and Technology Peat bogs and climate change Wet, wet, wet科技 泥炭沼泽及气候变化 湿!湿!湿!Forests are not the only habitat whose conservation matters to the climate森林并不是唯一事关气候保护的栖息地RUSSIA does not normally spring to mind as being in the forefront of the fight against climate change. The citizens of Moscow, however, need no explanation of one aspect of the problem—the importance of wetlands. Earlier this year they had an abrupt and lethal lesson on the dangers of peat-bog fires. An unusually hot summer set such fires across the country and the peatlands around Moscow generated a smog that blanketed the city with carbon monoxide and soot. By August 9th the daily death rate had climbed to 700, twice the normal level for that time of the year.俄罗斯通常并不想冲在应对气候变化斗争的最前线。但是莫斯科公民不需要任何解释,就知道湿地的重要性。今年早些时候的泥炭湿地火灾给他们上了一课,火灾地发生让人措手不及却关系生死。一个不同寻常的酷暑在全国各地引发了多起类似火灾,而莫斯科周围的泥炭湿地火灾更是让整个城市笼罩在一氧化碳和煤灰的烟雾中。 8月9日的日死亡人数上升到700人,是往年这个时候的2倍。Whether peat-bog fires are being encouraged by climate change is debatable. But it is clear that they release prodigious quantities of climate-changing carbon dioxide when they happen. And even in the absence of fire, draining peatlands—for example, for agriculture—liberates a lot of carbon dioxide. In Russia such drainage is reckoned to free 160m tonnes of the gas every year. In Indonesia the figure is 508m tonnes. All told, the global total is about 1.3 billion tonnes—6% of man-made carbon-dioxide emissions even without the effect of fire. That is far more than the contribution made by aviation, for example.虽然泥炭湿地大火是否是由气候变化所引发的仍有争议,但当火灾发生时,它们会释放出大量致使气候变化的二氧化碳却显而易见。即使在没有火灾发生的情况下,排水后的泥炭地(比如让地于农业)就会释放出大量二氧化碳。在俄罗斯,这类排水后的泥炭地估计每年释放出1600万吨的气体,而在印度尼西亚,该数字是5080万吨。全球排放总量约为13亿吨,即使在没有火灾发生的情况下依然占人类二氧化碳排放总量的6%,远高于航空业所作的;贡献;。This is both a problem and an opportunity, as climate negotiators now realise. The solution to those fires (and, indeed, to all peat-related carbon-dioxide emissions) is simple and relatively cheap: stop draining wetlands and allow water to accumulate in them again. On December 11th climate negotiators at the ed Nations meeting in Cancún, Mexico, agreed that peatland ;rewetting;, as it is rather inelegantly known, could be a way for some countries to offset emissions of carbon dioxide from other sources, under the Kyoto protocol or any agreement that follows it.气候谈判代表普遍认为,这既是一个问题,又是一个机遇。解决这些火灾(包括所有泥炭地相关的二氧化碳排放)的方法很简单,也很便宜:停止湿地排水,让水重新聚集。在12月11日,联合国在墨西哥坦坤举行的气候大会上,气候代表都同意泥炭湿地;恢复湿润;,这种做法可以让有些国家不需要通过其它手段就可以达到京都议定书及其它相关协议关于二氧化碳减排的要求,因而难免有些难登大雅之堂。Guidelines for doing so will now be developed. But for these to have any practical effect, a final agreement will be needed over how more general changes in land use will be treated within any new climate deal. The next global climate gathering, in South Africa in December 2011, will attempt to arrive at one.关于这项措施的指导方法正在制定中。不过要想产生任何实际效果,又有多少土地使用将会在其它新的气候合约中被纠正,还需要一个最终协议。下一次全球气候聚会将于2011年12月在南非举办,人们希望至少能达成一项协议。As Susanna Tol of Wetlands International, an environmental lobby group, observes, only a portion of the worlds wetlands will eventually be rewetted. Exactly which bits are restored to pristine sogginess will depend on local questions, such as the availability of land, the alternative uses for drained peatland and the price of carbon-dioxide offsets.国际湿地组织(一个环境游说团体)的Susanna Tol指出,全世界只有部分湿地将最终被;恢复湿润;。究竟是哪些部分将被恢复到原始湿地状态取决于当地的一些问题,比如土地供应,排干的泥炭湿地的其它用途,以及降低二氧化碳排放的成本等。In poor and boggy Belarus, for example, Ms Tol says it costs a mere /201301/221090。

And then there is this PR headache for Apple. There have been allegations of extremely long working hours, underage employees and unsafe conditions at one of its biggest Chinese suppliers, Foxconn. Alison Kosik is at the New York stock exchange. Alison, what does Apple say about all this?苹果公司近日陷入公关危机,其在中国最大的代工厂富士康面临着工人超时工作,雇佣未成年人,工作环境不安全等指控。现在连线美国纽约券交易所的Alison Kosik。Alison,苹果对此有什么回应?Hey, Fredricka. So Apple is actually coming out defending its reputation. Its CEO Tim Cook spoke at a tech conference in California yesterday. He said Apple will not stand for any abuses at suppliers factories in China or anywhere else. Cook says the top priority is stopping suppliers from employing kids, in fact, hes calling that “a firing offense” now. But he did concede that there are instances of long working hours which is a violation of Apples work rules. Now this whole uproar, it actually goes back to 2010 when several Foxconn workers committed suicide. Since then, allegations of unsafe conditions have gotten louder and louder. Foxconn and other manufactures are currently being investigated this week by an independent labor group. That was actually brought in by Apple. Fredricka.嗨,Fredricka。其实苹果是在努力挽回名誉。苹果CEO蒂姆·库克昨日在加利佛利亚的技术研讨会上发言。他表示苹果不持在中国及其它地区的代工厂里发生任何劳工争议事件。库克说目前要把制止生产商雇佣童工放在首位。他称雇佣童工就是与其“解约”。但他承认确实存在工作时间长这个问题,这也违反了苹果的工作原则。目前的混乱局面,又让人忆起2010年富士康几名工人跳楼事件。从那时起,声讨工作环境不安全的呼声就越来越大。目前这星期,富士康还有其他的生产商正接受独立劳工协会的调查。而劳工协会正是由苹果公司引进的。So Alison, has this in any way kind of affected the bottom line for Apple?那么,Alison,那么这会不会从某些方面影响苹果的盈亏底线?And that was interesting. It hasnt. Apple has actually posted record iPad, iPhone and Mac sales last quarter and overall, you know, its shares are doing really well. Its shares are over 0, thats how they are trading these days. As for the overall market, its looking in the opening higher on word out of China, saying it will keep buying European bonds during its bid to help the debt situation in Europe, Fredricka.这问题很有趣。没有影响。苹果发布的iPad, iPhone and Mac的销售额创历史记录,总体上来说,你也知道,股市也相当给力。如今每股超过500美元,这就是苹果这些天的交易现状。至于总体市场方面,苹果把眼光放得更长远,不止注重在中国的舆论,据说苹果会在竞标期间一直在购买欧债,帮助缓解欧债危机,Fredricka。All right, Alison Kosik, thank you so much at the New York Stock Exchange.好了,非常感谢位于纽约券交易所的Alison Kosik。原文译文属!201206/188450。

Books and Arts;New fiction;A swans song;文艺;新生代小说;天鹅之歌;Peter Careys delightful double story: The Chemistry of Tears,by Peter Carey.彼得·凯里悦人的双线故事:《泪水制剂》,彼得·凯里著。Few writers manage so consistently and delightfully as Peter Carey to conjure wondrous scenes populated with idiosyncratic yet credible characters. “The Chemistry of Tears”, Mr Careys 12th novel, does not disappoint.鲜少有文墨之人能像彼得·凯里那样执着又讨喜,将一个个角色塑造得如此独特又不失真实感,再将其一并投入完美的场景中,共同构造出一幕幕戏法般的情节。凯里的第十二部小说《泪水制剂》,再一次没让我们失望。As it opens, Catherine Gehrig, a conservator of clocks at a London museum, learns that her colleague and secret lover of 13 years has died. To comfort her in her grief she is assigned a new project: to reconstruct a fantastical 19th-century clockwork swan.故事从一家伦敦物馆的钟表管理员凯瑟琳·格里克(Catherine Gehrig)身上开始说起。凯瑟琳得知了她的同事(同时也是她长达十三年的地下情人)的死讯,为了抚平悲痛,她接受了一项新任务——修复一个十九世纪精美的天鹅钟表。Mr Carey loves grand projects and intricate crafts. In “Oscar and Lucinda” (which won the Booker prize in 1988) he follows an extraordinary glass and iron church downriver to its final destination; the art of forgery pervades “Parrot and Olivier in America”. In “The Chemistry of Tears”, the inner workings of a clocks reliable tick-tock contrast with the ultimate betrayal of human flesh.凯里总爱在故事中给角色各种宏大任务和各种精细的手艺。在《奥斯卡于露辛达》(荣获1988年布克奖)一书中,他描写了一座由玻璃和铁制成的教堂的构想,并且让这个构想随着主人公的旅程顺水而下,直到它的目的地,直到故事的最终;同样的,在小说《奥利维尔与鹦鹉》(“Parrot and Olivier in America ”暂无官方译名)中,他又痴情于仿品工艺,贯穿始终。在《泪水制剂》中,钟表发条永远忠实的滴答声与血肉人类最终的忘弃形成了鲜明对比。Two stories intertwine. One strand, set in 2010, follows Catherine, an “oddly elegant tall woman” with seaweed hair. She muses on her lovers fate, “trapped beneath the earth, all his beauty turned into a factory, producing methane, carbon dioxide, rotten egg gas, ammonia.” She drinks vodka and rages at the weather, “hail and hate, the entire back garden stoned to death.”小说分两个故事面,有如两缕丝线般难解难分。一条,是追随着凯瑟琳的,定点在2010年。凯瑟琳,这个一头海藻般头发的女人,这个“奇妙而优雅的高挑女人”,沉浸在爱人的命运中不可自拔,“那美丽的生命深陷在地底,如同化工厂一般制造着沼气、二氧化碳、硫化氢和氨气”;她用伏特加麻醉自己,她为坏天气而暴怒,“冰雹夹着憎恨,整个后花园犹如石刑后的死寂。”A second narrative traces the clocks original manufacture. Henry Brandling, a sorrowful, rich Englishman, travels to Germany to commission a “mechanical marvel” so wondrous it will raise his consumptive son from his sickbed.另一条,追随着发条天鹅,回溯到其最初的诞生。富裕却忧伤的英国男子亨利·布兰德林(Henry Brandling)来到德国,希望能找人制造出一个美妙的“机械奇迹”,好让他身患肺痨的儿子能从中汲取战胜病魔的希望。Henrys story, scrawled in 11 notebooks, comforts Catherine as her lover can no longer. Yet as she s and works, the distinction between the animate and inanimate blur. She brings Henrys preening swan to life but eradicates the afterlife of her adultery, the e-mail trail between her and her lover: “I deleted, for ever, the celestial light through the pine forest behind Walberswick, the heath at Dunwich in full flower”; she lingers over his final e-mail, “I kiss your toes”, sent hours before he died.这位亨利先生的故事潦草地记叙在他留下的11本笔记中,让凯瑟琳的心得到了死去的情人再也无法给予的抚慰。然而随着凯瑟琳对亨利遗稿的探读,也随着她修复工作的深入,生命与器物的界限开始模糊:她让亨利精美的发条天鹅重现生机,却抹去了她不光的感情的一切遗迹,抹去了她与情人间通情的电邮:“我永远地抹去了Walberswick后那片松林里,透过叶隙而下的缕缕阳光;也永远地告别了Dunwich平原上,彼时的繁华似锦”;在最后一封电邮前,凯瑟琳迟疑着,那是她的情人去世前几个小时发给她的字句,“我亲吻你的趾尖”,邮件中如是写道。Mr Carey is one of the finest living writers in English. His best books satisfy both intellectually and emotionally; he is lyrical yet never forgets the imperative to entertain. His fault as a novelist is that at times he is too enamoured of his constructs and risks losing the er. “The Chemistry of Tears” is a shorter and less ambitious book than some of his earlier works—but a wholly enjoyable journey.凯里是现今仍然在世的最杰出的英语作家之一,他的佳作在理智与情感上都给人以犒赏;凯里极具诗意但从来不忘作品的必须——让读者享受其中。他的小说唯一不足的就是时常过分珍视自己的构思而几近忘记了读者。《泪水制剂》较于其早先的一些作品来说要短小一些,也少了几许气势,但终归来说,这份故事仍旧是一次美妙的旅程。 /201209/202084。

Gentlemen, these are nerds. They are back. Theyre back. Dont panic.男士们,他们是书呆子。他们回来了,卷土重来了。别慌张。And theyre back who really reach the wall for that one. Thats the clip from the 1980s movie Revenge of the nerds II . And todays job market is all about the nerds. Growing up, your parents may have wanted you to be a doctor, a lawyer, a banker, maybe airline pilot. Those were the rock stars, right?他们抵达那堵墙后又返回来了。这是上个世纪80年代的一部电影《鬼马天堂2》里的一段精对白。如今的雇佣市场被书呆子们占领。长大后,你父母想让你当医生,律师,家或者飞行员。这些职位很炙手可热,对吗?But the rock stars of today:science, technology, engineering and math. Software engineer ranks as the best job of 2012. This is, according to Careercast, paying around ,000 a year. Petroleum engineers even average 6 figures, a 114,000-dollars a year. Call them nerds, but its cool to have a career that pays.但是如今炙手可热的行业却变成了科学,技术,工程和数学。软件工程师位居2012年度最佳职位榜首。根据Careercast,软件工程师年薪为9万美元左右。石油工程师平均年薪甚至达到6位数字,114,000美元一年。虽然称他们为呆子,但有如此丰厚的待遇,做呆子也很酷。They dont come any cooler than Ainiss Ramirez, Scientist and former professor of mechanical engineering at Yale University. Welcome to the program.但跟Ainiss Ramirez相比,他们还不够酷。Ainiss Ramirez是科学家兼前耶鲁大学机械工程专业教授。欢迎您做客我们节目。Heheh..Thank you for having me.呵呵,感谢邀请我参加。Ainiss, you call yourself a ;sciences evangelist;. The point here is engaging kids, from kindergarten to college, in STEM field. How do we do that?Ainiss,你称自己为“科学传教者”。观点就是吸引从幼稚园到大学的孩子们加入到STEM领域。我们该怎么做呢?Well, weve gotta get them excited about the science. As you know, some science classes, math classes just dont capture childrens imaginations. So, we have to figure out how to do that. So, instead of telling children to be a software engineer, ask them Hey, would you like to be the next Zukberger You have to put them in contexts and get them excited about these careers. Thats what I did.好吧,我们要让他们对科学感到兴奋。你也知道一些科学课、数学课并不能抓住孩子们的想象力。所以我们得弄清楚怎么做。所以,与其直接告诉孩子们长大作科学家,还不如问他们“想不想成为下一个软件工程师”。你必须让他们置身于环境中,让他们对这些职业感到兴奋。我就是这么做的。The 2012 Teacher of The Year was so interesting. She gets her kids to design an app in first, or second grade. Write apps, I mean, this is you gotta do it right away, doing something that they understand. But when we, you know, talk about the top jobs in this fields, engineering, in particular, still boys club. Look at these 88,000 degrees were handed out in 2010, just 15,000 of those went to women. Um, Why arent women getting more excited about STEM: science, technology, engineering and Math. Is that, Is that also happening in the schools?2012年度最佳教师就很有趣。她让自己的孩子设计一款一级或者二级的应用程序。我的意思是编程,做自己能理解的事,这就是你应该立刻投身去做的。但是当你谈论这个领域内最火的专业,尤其是工程类专业仍然是男孩子的天下。在2010年授予的88,000个这类学位中,只有15,000个是女生。嗯,为什么女生对STEM(科学、技术、工程、数学)不感冒了?在学校也是这种情况吗?Uh, its a sad fact, but its definitely true. Women are about 20% of the bachelors degrees, that are, you know, coming out the engineering. And its, theres no gender bias in terms of how people perform in math, that means girls and boys do math just equally as well.这个事实很令人难受,但确实存在。只有20%的女生获得的是工程类学士学位。其实就学生学习数学的天赋而言,并不存在性别差异。也就是说女生可以同男生一样学好数学。原文译文属!201207/190305。

Two years after a tainted milk scandal that left six children dead and 300,000 sick, Chinese researchers have discovered natural ;biomarkers; in cows milk which they intend to use as a new standard for testing the quality of milk.曾经导致6名儿童死亡,300,000名儿童生病的毒奶粉事件已经过去两年了,日前,中国科研人员研发了检测牛奶的新标准,他们发明了“生物标记法”。Weve found that there is a new group of molecules in milk called microRNAs. There are special characteristics related to these microRANs in the milk, so in the end we selected seven microRNAs as boimarkers to test its quality in raw milk and for using quality control.我们在牛奶中发现了一种名为microRNAs的分子。在牛奶中,microRNAs具有的独特特性使它成为了生物标记法的重要载体。科学家们选择了7种microRANs作为原料乳的生物标记和对比标记。In the paper published in Cell Research on Tuesday June 15th, Chinese scientist discribed how they analyzed raw milk taken from a farm in eastern China and found that they contain naturally occurring molecules called microRNAs.在6月15日周二发表的关于细胞研究的论文中,中国科学家们描述了他们是如何从华东地区的农场中选取原料乳,加以分析研究,并最终发现天然牛奶中携带的microRNAs分子。They can be used to test the quality of milk made in different places, but these seven microRNAs are relatively stable as we examine milk from different origins in stages of production. Since it is stable throughout, we can use it as a measure in testing raw milk.被标示的7种核糖核酸microRNAs将被用来检验不同地区牛奶的质量,而在检验过程中,这7种核糖核酸相对稳定。正是因为核糖核酸自始至终都很稳定的这一特质,它们才被用来检测原料乳。At least 50,000 babies across China were hospitalized in 2008. Many of them with kidney stones after drinking poor quality milk tainted with melamine. The scandal sparked intense public fury, and as a result many Chinese families who can afford to now rely on imported formula for their children.在2008年的毒奶粉事件中,有至少50,000名儿童住院接受治疗。喝了三聚氰胺超标的牛奶后,许多儿童都患上了肾结石。该事件引起了社会一片哗然。中国的家长们纷纷选择进口奶粉。Theoretically, if the milk is deluded or other things are added to the milk, theres no way to restore the microRNAs to its original level, so as long as we test and confirm the level of microRNAs, well be able to tell original raw milk from milk that has other additives.理论上说,假牛奶或含有添加剂牛奶中的核糖核酸是不能再恢复到原本形态的,所以只要我们能检测出牛奶中的核糖核酸,我们就能判断这些原料乳是否含有添加剂。Zhang said the seven molecules or biomarkers can be used to design test kits for sampling milk.张先生表示,这7中核糖核酸,或者说是生物标记,是用来检测牛奶的生物试剂。Jill Kitchener reports,Reuters.Jill Kitchener,路透社消息。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/188663。