首页 >> 新闻 >> 正文

吉安市第一人民医院做双眼皮多少钱中华新闻吉安复合彩光嫩肤哪家医院好

2019年11月19日 09:59:35来源:网上乐园

FLORENCE, Italy — WE think of our senses as hard-wired gateways to the world. Many years ago the social psychologist Daryl J. Bem described the knowledge we gain from our senses as ;zero-order beliefs,; so taken for granted that we do not even notice them as beliefs. The sky is blue. The fan hums. Ice is cold. That#39;s the nature of reality, and it seems peculiar that different people with their senses intact would experience it subjectively.意大利佛罗伦萨——我们把自己的感官想成是通往世界的既定大门。很多年前,社会心理学家达里尔·J·贝姆(Daryl J. Bem)把我们通过感官获取的认知描述成“零级信念”。它们被如此强烈地视为理所当然,以至于根本没有被我们留意到,这其实是一种信念。天空是蓝色的,风扇会发出嗡嗡声,冰是冷的。这是现实世界的本质,而感官完好的不同族群会对此有主观体验的想法,似乎有些奇怪。Yet they do. In recent years anthropologists have begun to point out that sensory perception is culturally specific. ;Sensory perception,; Constance Classen, the author of ;The Deepest Sense: A Cultural History of Touch,; says, ;is a cultural as well as physical act.; It#39;s a controversial claim made famous by Marshall McLuhan#39;s insistence that nonliterate societies were governed by spoken words and sound, while literate societies experienced words visually and so were dominated by sight. Few anthropologists would accept that straightforwardly today. But more and more are willing to argue that sensory perception is as much about the cultural training of attention as it is about biological capacity.然而,人类确实就是这样。近年来,人类学家已经开始指出,感官知觉和文化有关。《深层感知:触摸的文化史》(The Deepest Sense: A Cultural History of Touch)的作者康斯坦斯·克拉森(Constance Classen)说,“感官知觉既是一种生理行为,也是一种文化。”有一个存在争议的说法因马歇尔·麦克卢汉(Marshall McLuhan)的坚持而出了名。他坚称,没有文字的社会是由口语和声音主导的,而有文字的社会会用视觉来体验词语,因此是由视觉统领的。如今的人类学家,基本不会简单地接受这个说法。但他们当中越来越多的人愿意提出,感官知觉和注意力的文化训练的关系,不亚于与生物学能力的联系。Now they have some quantitative evidence to support the point. Recently, a team of anthropologists and psychologists at the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and Radboud University, both in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, set out to discover how language and culture affected sensory awareness. Under the leadership of Asifa Majid and Stephen C. Levinson, they made up a kit of systematic stimuli for the traditional five senses: for sight, color chips and geometric forms; for hearing, pitch, amplitude and rhythm variations; for smell, a set of scratch-and-sniff cards; and so forth. They took these kits to over 20 cultural groups around the world. Their results upend some of our basic assumptions.现在,他们获得了一些持这个观点的量化据。近日,一个由人类学家和心理学家构成的小组开始研究语言和文化对感官意识的影响。这些学者来自荷兰奈梅亨的两所院校:马克斯·普兰克心理语言学研究所(Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics)和奈梅亨大学(Radboud University)。在阿西法·马吉德(Asifa Majid)和史蒂芬·C·莱文森(Stephen C. Levinson)的带领下,他们配置了一个工具包,用来系统化地刺激传统的五感:对视力,使用色卡和几何形状;对听力,使用音调、振幅和节奏变化;对嗅觉,使用气味刮刮卡,诸如此类。他们把这种工具包带到世界各地的20多个文化群体中进行实验。研究结果颠覆了我们的一些基本假设。For example, it#39;s fairly common, in scientific literature, to find the view that ;humans are astonishingly bad at odor identification and naming,; as a recent review of 30 years of experiments concluded. When ordinary people are presented with the smell of ordinary substances (coffee, peanut butter, chocolate), they correctly identify about half of them. That#39;s why we think of scent as a trigger for personal memory — leading to the recall of something specific, particular, uniquely our own.举例来说,科学文献中有一个相当普遍的结论,借用一篇回顾30年实验研究的综述文章中的话来说,那就是“人类极不善于识别和指认气味”。当普通人嗅闻到常见物品(咖啡、花生酱、巧克力)的气味,他们可以正确识别其中大约一半。这就是为什么我们把气味当作个人记忆触发器的原因——它能勾起一些具体、特别且个人独有的回忆。It turns out that the subjects of those 30 years of experiments were mostly English-speaking. Indeed, English speakers find it easy to identify the common color in milk and jasmine flowers (;white;) but not the common scent in, say, bat droppings and the leaf of ginger root. When the research team presented what should have been familiar scents to Americans — cinnamon, turpentine, lemon, rose and so forth — they were terrible at naming them. Americans, they wrote, said things like this when presented with the cinnamon scratch-and-sniff card: ;I don#39;t know how to say that, sweet, yeah; I have tasted that gum like Big Red or something tastes like, what do I want to say? I can#39;t get the word. Jesus it#39;s like that gum smell like something like Big Red. Can I say that? O.K. Big Red, Big Red gum.;其实在30年来的这些实验中,受试者大多都讲英语。确实,讲英语的人容易识别牛奶和茉莉花均会呈现的颜色(“白色”),但却很难识别同样的气味,比如蝙蝠粪便和姜叶的共有气味。当研究小组使用美国人本应熟悉的一些气味时,比如肉桂、松脂、柠檬和玫瑰等等,却发现他们在指认这些气味时表现糟糕。研究者写道,闻到肉桂味的刮刮卡时,美国人会说:“我不知道怎么讲,这个很香甜,恩;我以前吃过这种味道的口香糖,比如大红牌(Big Red),或者有这个味道的什么东西,我想说什么来着?我想不起那个词了。天啊,就好像口香糖,有点像大红牌的。我能那么说吗?好吧,就是大红牌,大红牌口香糖。”When the research team visited the Jahai, rain-forest foragers on the Malay Peninsula, they found that the Jahai were succinct and more accurate with the scratch-and-sniff cards. In fact, they were about as good at naming what they smelled as what they saw. They do, in fact, have an abstract term for the shared odor in bat droppings and the leaf of ginger root. Abstract odor terms are common among people on the Malay Peninsula.嘉海人生活在马来半岛的热带雨林,以觅食为生。研究小组在他们那里发现,嘉海人对于气味刮刮卡的回答很简洁,而且更加准确。事实上,他们指认气味的能力,不亚于他们指认看到的东西的本领。他们还有一个抽象的术语,用来描述蝙蝠粪便和姜叶同样的味道。在马来半岛上的族群中,描述气味的抽象词语很常见。The team also found that several communities — speakers of Persian, Turkish and Zapotec — used different metaphors than English and Dutch speakers to describe pitch, or frequency: Sounds were thin or thick rather than high or low. In later work, they demonstrated that the metaphors were powerful enough to disrupt perception. When Dutch speakers heard a tone while being shown a mismatched height bar (e.g., a high tone and a low bar) and were asked to sing the tone, they sang a lower tone. But the perception wasn#39;t influenced when they were shown a thin or thick bar. When Persian speakers heard a tone and were shown a bar of mismatched thickness, however, they misremembered the tone — but not when they were shown a bar mismatched for height.该研究小组还发现,有几个社会——使用波斯语、土耳其语和萨波特克语的人——用来描述音调或声音频率的形容词是粗和细,而不是英语和荷兰语使用者说的高和低。在后来的实验中,研究者明了这些隐喻效力强大,足以影响人们的知觉。当荷兰语使用者听到一个音,同时看到高度与之不匹配的条块(例如,听到一个高音,看到的却是较低的条块),然后被要求唱出这个音的时候,从他们口中发的音调会比较低。但当他们看到粗细不同的条块时,知觉不会受到影响。当波斯语使用者听到声音,并看到粗细与之不匹配的条块时,他们就会记错音调——但看到高度与之不匹配的条块时,则不受影响。The team also found that some of these differences could change over time. They taught the Dutch speakers to think about pitch as thin or thick, and soon these participants, too, found that their memory of a tone was affected by being shown a bar that was too thick or too thin. They found that younger Cantonese speakers had fewer words for tastes and smells than older ones, a shift attributed to rapid socioeconomic development and Western-style schooling.该小组还发现,其中一些差异可以随时间改变。他们教荷兰语使用者把音调想成粗或细,很快他们就发现,这些受试者对音调的记忆,也受到了显示条块过粗或过细的影响。他们还发现,在讲粤语的人群中,由于社会经济的快速发展和西式教育的盛行,与年长者相比,年轻人对描述口味和气味的词汇量掌握较少。I wrote this in Florence, Italy, a city famous as a feast for the senses. People say that Florence teaches you to see differently — that as the soft light moves across the ocher buildings, you see colors you never noticed before.撰写本文时,我正好在意大利佛罗伦萨。这是一座出了名地提供感官盛宴的城市。有人说,佛罗伦萨教你用不同的眼光看待事物——柔和的光线在赭石建筑物上移动,让你看到以前从未注意过的颜色。It taught Kevin Systrom, a co-founder of Instagram, to see differently. He attributes his inspiration to a photography class he took in Florence while at a Stanford study-abroad program about a decade ago. His teacher took away his state-of-the-art camera and insisted he use an old plastic one instead, to change the way he saw. He loved those photos, the vintage feel of them, and the way the buildings looked in the light. He set out to recreate that look in the app he built. And that has changed the way many of us now see as well.它教会了Instagram的联合创始人凯文·斯特罗姆(Kevin Systrom)用别样的眼光看东西。斯特罗姆说,自己的灵感来自大约10年前通过斯坦福大学的海外交流计划在佛罗伦萨参加的一门摄影课程。老师拿走了他的高精尖相机,坚持让他用一台老旧的塑料相机,来改变他的观看方式。他很喜欢这样拍出来的照片和那种复古感,以及建筑物在光线中的模样。他设法在自己创建的应用中重现了那种模样。于是,这款应用也同样改变了我们很多人的观看方式。 /201409/329262。

  • For Michele Leonhart, the administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration, there is no difference between the health effects of marijuana and those of any other illegal drug. “All illegal drugs are bad for people,” she told Congress in 2012, refusing to say whether crack, methamphetamines or prescription painkillers are more addictive or physically harmful than marijuana.在美国禁毒署署长米歇尔·莱昂哈特(Michele Leonhart)看来,大麻引起的健康问题和其他违禁药品引起的健康问题是没有区别的。“所有违禁药品都对人们有害,”她在2012年的时候对国会做了上述表示,但她不愿意评价精炼可卡因、冰毒或处方止痛药是否比大麻更容易上瘾、对身体的危害更大。Her testimony neatly illustrates the vast gap between antiquated federal law enforcement policies and the clear consensus of science that marijuana is far less harmful to human health than most other banned drugs and is less dangerous than the highly addictive but perfectly legal substances known as alcohol and tobacco. Marijuana cannot lead to a fatal overdose. There is little evidence that it causes cancer. Its addictive properties, while present, are low, and the myth that it leads users to more powerful drugs has long since been disproved.关于大麻,科学上已经有清晰的共识,认为它对人体健康的害处远比大多数禁药要小,危险性也比酒精饮料和烟草等合法的高成瘾性物品要低,但莱昂哈特的词反映出,陈旧的联邦法规强制措施与科学共识之间有着巨大的鸿沟。过量使用大麻不会引起致命后果。几乎没有据表明它能致癌。它虽然有成瘾性,但极其微小,关于它会导致使用者尝试更强烈的毒品这一神话早就被明是假的。That doesn’t mean marijuana is harmless; in fact, the potency of current strains may shock those who haven’t tried it for decades, particularly when ingested as food. It can produce a serious dependency, and constant use would interfere with job and school performance. It needs to be kept out of the hands of minors. But, on balance, its downsides are not reasons to impose criminal penalties on its possession, particularly not in a society that permits nicotine use and celebrates drinking.这并不意味着大麻完全无害;事实上,当前品种的药效可能会令几十年没有尝试过它的人感到震惊,特别是作为食物口使用。它可以造成严重的依赖,持续使用会影响工作与学习表现。未成年人必须远离它。但是总体来说,它的副作用并不足以持对持有者施加刑事惩罚,更何况这个社会允许使用尼古丁,还赞美饮酒。Marijuana’s negative health effects are arguments for the same strong regulation that has been effective in curbing abuse of legal substances. Science and government have learned a great deal, for example, about how to keep alcohol out of the hands of minors. Mandatory underage drinking laws and effective marketing campaigns have reduced underage alcohol use to 24.8 percent in 2011, compared with 33.4 percent in 1991. Cigarette use among high school students is at its lowest point ever, largely thanks to tobacco taxes and growing municipal smoking limits. There is aly some early evidence that regulation would also help combat teen marijuana use, which fell after Colorado began broadly regulating medical marijuana in 2010.大麻对健康的负面作用成为对其采取强硬措施的理由,在限制滥用合法物品方面,强硬措施作用显著。科学界与政府已经获得不少经验,比如说,该怎样让未成年人远离酒精饮料。通过禁止法定年龄以下的人饮酒的强制性法令,以及切实有效的市场宣传,2011年,未成年人饮酒率降低到24.8%,低于1991年的33.4%。受益于烟草税和日渐增加的市政吸烟限制规定,中学生的烟草使用率也已达到有史以来的最低点。已有若干早期据表明,制定相关规定有助于减少青少年对大麻的使用——2010年,科罗拉多州开始宏观管理医用大麻,青少年对大麻的使用率也随之下降。Comparing the Dangers危险性对比As with other recreational substances, marijuana’s health effects depend on the frequency of use, the potency and amount of marijuana consumed, and the age of the consumer. Casual use by adults poses little or no risk for healthy people. Its effects are mostly euphoric and mild, whereas alcohol turns some drinkers into barroom brawlers, domestic abusers or maniacs behind the wheel.与其他消遣物相比,大麻对健康的影响视使用频率、药效、使用量,以及使用者的年龄而定。健康的成年人偶尔少量使用,是几乎乃至完全没有任何危险的。大麻的效果主要是令人精神愉快,变得温和,而酒精则会令有些饮酒者在酒吧里惹是生非,在家里施行暴力,或者危险驾驶。An independent scientific committee in Britain compared 20 drugs in 2010 for the harms they caused to individual users and to society as a whole through crime, family breakdown, absenteeism, and other social ills. Adding up all the damage, the panel estimated that alcohol was the most harmful drug, followed by heroin and crack cocaine. Marijuana ranked eighth, having slightly more than one-fourth the harm of alcohol.2010年,一个英国独立科学委员会对比了20种药品对个体使用者的伤害,乃至对社会整体的伤害(包括导致犯罪、家庭破裂、旷工旷课,乃至其他社会问题)。将所有的伤害综合在一起后,该小组认为酒精是最有害的物品,海洛因与精炼可卡因紧随其后。大麻位列第八,伤害性约相当于酒精的1/4多一点。Federal scientists say that the damage caused by alcohol and tobacco is higher because they are legally available; if marijuana were legally and easily obtainable, they say, the number of people suffering harm would rise. However, a 1995 study for the World Health Organization concluded that even if usage of marijuana increased to the levels of alcohol and tobacco, it would be unlikely to produce public health effects approaching those of alcohol and tobacco in Western societies.联邦政府的科学家说,酒精与烟草带来的伤害较高,主要是因为它们可以合法获取,因此他们认为,如果大麻也合法化、可以轻松获取的话,那么受到伤害的人数也会增加。然而,1995年,世界卫生组织的一项研究推断,即便大麻的使用率增长到和酒精与烟草同样的水平,它在西方社会所引发的公共健康问题也不太可能达到酒精与烟草的程度。Most of the risks of marijuana use are “small to moderate in size,” the study said. “In aggregate, they are unlikely to produce public health problems comparable in scale to those currently produced by alcohol and tobacco.”这项研究声称,使用大麻所带来的大部分危险在等级上处于“很小或中等程度”。“总体而言,它导致的公共健康问题不太可能达到目前烟草与酒精所导致的这种规模。”While tobacco causes cancer, and alcohol abuse can lead to cirrhosis, no clear causal connection between marijuana and a deadly disease has been made. Experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the scientific arm of the federal anti-drug campaign, published a review of the adverse health effects of marijuana in June that pointed to a few disease risks but was remarkably frank in acknowledging widesp uncertainties. Though the authors believed that legalization would expose more people to health hazards, they said the link to lung cancer is “unclear,” and that it is lower than the risk of smoking tobacco.吸烟会导致癌症,酗酒则会导致肝硬化,而大麻与任何致死疾病之间都没有清晰的因果联系。国家药物滥用研究所的专家们是联邦反毒品行动中的科学力量,他们于6月发布了一份关于大麻对健康损害的报告,指出大麻有若干致病风险,但它也非常坦白地承认,这些风险存在着不确定性。尽管报告作者们相信,大麻合法化会使得更多人蒙受健康风险,但报告也说大麻与肺癌之间的关系“不明确”,而且吸大麻比吸烟的风险要低。The very heaviest users can experience symptoms of bronchitis, such as wheezing and coughing, but moderate smoking poses little risk. A 2012 study found that smoking a joint a day for seven years was not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function. Experts say that marijuana increases the heart rate and the volume of blood pumped by the heart, but that poses a risk mostly to older users who aly have cardiac or other health problems.最为频繁的大麻使用者会有气管炎的症状,比如气喘和咳嗽,但一般用量的使用者风险很小。一项2012年的研究表明,连续七年每日吸一大麻卷烟不会引起肺功能损害。专家说大麻会加快心率,以及心脏的供血量,但这主要是对已经患有心脏病和其他健康问题的老年使用者有风险。How Addictive Is Marijuana?大麻的成瘾性有多高?Marijuana isn’t addictive in the same sense as heroin, from which withdrawal is an agonizing, physical ordeal. But it can interact with pleasure centers in the brain and can create a strong sense of psychological dependence that addiction experts say can be very difficult to break. Heavy users may find they need to take larger and larger doses to get the effects they want. When they try to stop, some get withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleeping difficulties and anxiety that are usually described as relatively mild.大麻的成瘾性与海洛因完全不能相提并论。戒除海洛因非常痛苦,是对身体的严峻考验。但是大麻可以与大脑中的快乐神经中枢互动,产生强烈的精神依赖,药物成瘾专家说这种联系很难消除。重度使用者可能会需要更大的剂量,才能达到自己想要的效果。想要停止使用时,会出现易怒、睡眠障碍和焦虑等戒断症状,这些症状通常被描述为相对轻微。The American Society of Addiction Medicine, the largest association of physicians specializing in addiction, issued a white paper in 2012 opposing legalization because “marijuana is not a safe and harmless substance” and marijuana addiction “is a significant health problem.”美国成瘾药物协会是最大的专攻成瘾药物的医生组织,2012年,它发表了一份白皮书,反对大麻合法化,因为“大麻不是一种安全无害的物品”,而且大麻成瘾“是严重的健康问题”。Nonetheless, that health problem is far less significant than for other substances, legal and illegal. The Institute of Medicine, the health arm of the National Academy of Sciences, said in a 1999 study that 32 percent of tobacco users become dependent, as do 23 percent of heroin users, 17 percent of cocaine users, and 15 percent of alcohol drinkers. But only 9 percent of marijuana users develop a dependence.不管怎样,这种健康问题远比其他合法或不合法物品所带来的健康问题要轻微得多。药学研究中心是国家科学院的健康分部,它在1999年的一份研究报告中说,32%的吸烟者会上瘾,23%的海洛因使用者会上瘾,17%的可卡因使用者会上瘾,15%的饮酒者会上瘾,但只有9%的大麻使用者会上瘾。“Although few marijuana users develop dependence, some do,” according to the study. “But they appear to be less likely to do so than users of other drugs (including alcohol and nicotine), and marijuana dependence appears to be less severe than dependence on other drugs.”“大麻上瘾者人数很少,但确实有人会上瘾,”这项研究说,“但是和使用其他药品(包括酒精与尼古丁)相比,大麻的成瘾率很低。”There’s no need to ban a substance that has less than a third of the addictive potential of cigarettes, but state governments can discourage heavy use through taxes and education campaigns and help provide treatment for those who wish to quit.完全没有必要禁止一种成瘾率不到香烟1/3的东西,但各州政府可以通过征收重税和教育来防止人们大量使用大麻,并对需要戒断的人提供治疗。Impact on Young People对年轻人的影响One of the favorite arguments of legalization opponents is that marijuana is the pathway to more dangerous drugs. But a wide variety of researchers have found no causal factor pushing users up the ladder of harm. While 111 million Americans have tried marijuana, only a third of that number have tried cocaine, and only 4 percent heroin. People who try marijuana are more likely than the general population to try other drugs, but that doesn’t mean marijuana prompted them to do so.反对大麻合法化的人最常用的论据之一,就是大麻会导致使用者尝试更危险的毒品。但各种广泛研究明,大麻与使用者升级使用更危险的物品之间不存在因果关系。1.11亿美国人都曾尝试使用大麻,尝试使用可卡因的人只有该数字的1/3,尝试使用海洛因的人只相当于这个数字的4%。在使用大麻的人群中,尝试其他毒品的人数比例要比普通人群为高,但并不是大麻导致了此行为。Marijuana “does not appear to be a gateway drug to the extent that it is the cause or even that it is the most significant predictor of serious drug abuse,” the Institute of Medicine study said. The real gateway drugs are tobacco and alcohol, which young people turn to first before trying marijuana.药学研究中心的报告说,大麻“并不是一种入门药物,并不是药物严重滥用的原因,甚至也不是药物严重滥用的重要预示因素”。真正的入门药物是烟草和酒精,年轻人早在尝试大麻之前就已经接触到它们了。It’s clear, though, that marijuana is now far too easy for minors to obtain, which remains a significant problem. The brain undergoes active development until about age 21, and there is evidence that young people are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of marijuana.不过,对于未成年人来说,如今获取大麻显然非常容易,这仍然是个严重的问题。大脑发育活动要持续到21岁,有据表明年轻人更容易受大麻副作用影响。A long-term study based in New Zealand, published in 2012, found that people who began smoking heavily in their teens and continued into adulthood lost an average of eight I.Q. points by age 38 that could not be fully restored. A Canadian study published in 2002 also found an I.Q. loss among heavy school-age users who smoked at least five joints a week.2012年,一项新西兰的长期研究表明,从十几岁开始大量使用大麻,并在成年期持续使用大麻的人到38岁时智商会下降8分,无法完全恢复。另一项加拿大于2002年发布的研究表明,学龄期大量使用大麻(每周至少吸五大麻烟卷)会导致智商下降。The case is not completely settled. The New Zealand study was challenged by a Norwegian researcher who said socio-economic factors may have played a role in the I.Q. loss. But the recent review by experts at the National Institute on Drug Abuse concluded that adults who smoked heavily in adolescence had impaired neural connections that interfered with the functioning of their brains. Early and frequent marijuana use has also been associated with poor grades, apathy and dropping out of school, but it is unclear whether consumption triggered the poor grades.这项结论并未完全定案。新西兰的研究受到挪威一个研究者的质疑,他声称社会经济因素也可能导致智商下降。但国家药物滥用研究所最近的专家报告认为,从青春期就大量使用大麻的人的神经连接会受到损害,从而影响大脑功能。过早经常使用大麻也与成绩不佳、缺乏兴趣和辍学有关,但成绩不佳是否由使用大麻导致,目前尚不明确。Restricting marijuana to adults is more important now that Colorado merchants are selling THC, the drug’s active ingredient, in candy bars, cookies and other edible forms likely to appeal to minors. Experience in Colorado has shown that people can quickly ingest large amounts of THC that way, which can produce frightening hallucinations.目前,更重要的是把大麻的使用局限在成年人范围之内,科罗拉多州商人正在贩卖掺入四氢大麻酚(这是大麻的活性成分,简称THC)的糖果、饼干,以及其他可食用物品,这对未成年人来说可能很有吸引力。科罗拉多的经验表明人们可以通过食用途径,迅速吸收大量THC,这有可能导致可怕的幻觉。Although marijuana use had been declining among high school students for more than a decade, in recent years it has started to climb, in contrast to continuing declines in cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Marijuana was found -- alone or in combination with other drugs -- in more than 455,000 patients visiting emergency rooms in 2011. Nearly 70 percent of the teenagers in residential substance-abuse programs run by Phoenix House, which operates drug and alcohol treatment centers in 10 states, listed marijuana as their primary problem.尽管十年多以来,大麻在高中生中的使用率已经下降,但近年又开始出现攀升,与此同时,吸烟和喝酒的比例一直在下降。2011年,有45.5万名急诊病人被发现使用大麻(以及其他药品)。“凤凰屋”(Phoenix House)在10个州中经营着毒品与酗酒治疗中心,在它所主办的家庭反滥用毒品计划中,近70%的受助青少年将大麻列为自己最初的问题。Those are challenges for regulators in any state that chooses to legalize marijuana. But they are familiar challenges, and they will become easier for governments to deal with once more of them bring legal marijuana under tight regulation.这些都是选择将大麻合法化的各州管理者所面临的挑战。但这都是一些熟悉的挑战,各州政府一旦将合法化的大麻置于严格管理之下,问题就会变得容易应付得多。 /201408/322918。
  • Economies in Southeast Asia are not the only things growing in the region. Waistlines are too -- and that has doctors and health experts worried about the strains a clutch of new health problems could put on many countries still in the process of developing. 伴随着东南亚地区经济一同增长的,还有人们的腰围――医生和卫生专家担心,一系列新的健康问题可能会对许多发展中国家造成负担。 Rapid economic growth has created new and expanding middles classes in places like Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam. But new affluence is also driving up the rate of #39;life-style#39; diseases, including hypertension, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory illness, say doctors. 在印度尼西亚、菲律宾和越南等地,快速增长的经济催生了不断壮大的新兴中产阶级。而据医生称,全新的小康生活也促使高血压、癌症、糖尿病、慢性呼吸道疾病等“生活方式疾病”的发病率上升。 Together, those diseases account for 80% of the deaths in Asia, but health experts say it need not be that way -- most could be addressed by people simply changing the way they eat and live. 亚洲的因病死亡人口中,这些疾病加一起占了全部死亡原因的80%,但卫生专家称,通过日常生活和饮食方式的调整,就可以扭转这一形势。 #39;We must have behavior change,#39; Shin Young-soo, the World Health Organization#39;s regional director for the Western Pacific, said during a recent health summit in Manila. 近期在马尼拉举行的健康峰会上,世界卫生组织(World Health Organization)西太平洋地区主任申英秀(Shin Young-soo)呼吁人们对生活习惯做出改变。 As regional incomes improve, people have more money to spend on fast food and processed snacks. In recent years, demand for meat and dairy has also risen dramatically in many of Southeast Asia#39;s emerging economies. 伴随着地区收入状况的改善,人们有更多的钱来购买快餐和加工食品。近年来,许多东南亚新兴经济体内对于肉制品和奶制品的需求也在急剧上升。 But changes in diets combined with lack of exercise has made Asians more prone to diabetes than their counterparts in the West, said Dr. Shin, one of nearly 200 health and development experts attending a week-long gathering here aimed at discussing non-communicable diseases and finding way to combat them. 申英秀说,然而饮食的变化和缺乏运动结合在一起,使得亚洲人糖尿病的发病率高于西方。申英秀与近200位出席峰会的卫生和发展专家聚在一起,将对非传染性疾病以及应对策略进行为期一周的探讨。 Recent studies show that as much as 12% of Chinese adults have diabetes and half are prone to developing the disease. In South Korea, Japan and Vietnam around one in every 10 adults has diabetes. 近期研究表明,多达12%的中国成年人患有糖尿病,而一半的人口有患病风险。在韩国、日本和越南,大约每10个人就有一人是糖尿病患者。 Half a century ago, non-communicable diseases weren#39;t a priority among health experts, said WHO director-general Margaret Chan. 世界卫生组织(WHO)总干事陈冯富珍(Margaret Chan)说,半个世纪前,非传染性疾病还不是健康专家重点探讨的话题。 #39;Diets were rich in fruits and vegetables,#39; she said. #39;Fish was the principal source of protein. People drank water.#39; 她说,当时人们的膳食中多蔬菜水果,鱼是蛋白质的基本摄入来源。水是人们的饮品。 Over a short period, however, diets have remarkably shifted to white b, white rice, white sugar, sugary beverages, and highly processed foods, including canned luncheon meats. That, said Dr. Chan, has resulted in an increase in cases of diabetes and a 75% incidence of obesity -- the highest in the world -- in some Pacific island countries. 然而没过多久,餐桌上瞬间变成了白面包,白米饭,白糖,含糖饮料和午餐肉之类的精加工食品。陈冯富珍说,这一变化导致了糖尿病发病几率增加,并致使一些太平洋岛国的肥胖症发病率达到了75%,为全世界最高。 The main factors that place people at risk of developing these life-style diseases include tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol -- all of which are avoidable. For now, however, doctors say the prevalence of these risk factors is high -- and rising in many places. 促使人们患上这类生活方式相关疾病的主要原因包括吸烟、饮食不健康、缺乏锻炼以及过度饮酒,而这些均可以避免。但医生称,现在这些不良习惯仍然盛行,在很多地方甚至愈演愈烈。 The Asia-Pacific is home to about one-third of the world#39;s smokers -- many of them concentrated in China and Indonesia, two of the world#39;s biggest cigarette markets. Nearly 70% of men over the age of 15 smoke in Indonesia, according to the WHO, which says health care costs associated with tobacco-related illnesses ring in at around .7 billion each year. 亚太地区的吸烟人群占全世界的三分之一,多数集中在中国和印度尼西亚,两国也是世界两个最大的香烟市场。据世界卫生组织称,印度尼西亚超过70%的15岁以上男性人口是烟民,这使得该国因吸烟相关疾病而产生的医疗费用高达每年17亿美元。 Meanwhile, in China, Dr. Chan said, researchers estimate that 114 million adults have diabetes -- while an additional 493 million people at risk of developing the disease. 陈冯富珍说,在中国,研究人员估计约1.14亿中国人患有糖尿病,4.93亿人面临患病风险。 #39;Think about what this means in the world#39;s second largest economy,#39; she said. 她说,可以想一想这对于世界第二大经济体来说意味着什么。 The could eventually bankrupt the health care system in China. For other countries whose economies are just beginning to take off, the burden of having to deal with an increasingly unhealthy population could derail development goals and scale back the benefits of economic gain. In the region as a whole, it means added pressure on health care systems that, in many places, are aly over-stretched. 这可能会最终使得中国的医疗保险体系面临崩溃。对于其它经济刚开始起步的国家,与日俱增的不健康人口所造成的负担,可能会使其经济目标发生偏离,经济成果的收益大打折扣。而对于整个地区来说,这意味着许多地方本已不堪重负的医保系统将承受更大的压力。 The growing rate of diabetes, for example, has caused a rise in visual impairment, which can severely compromise educational opportunities, gainful employment and productivity, say health experts. By 2020 the global economic loss from visual impairment is expected to reach US0 billion annually, up from US billion in 2000. 卫生专家举例说,不断上升的糖尿病患病率已导致了视力缺陷症状不断增加,这会对教育、就业以及社会生产力造成严重影响。预计到2020年,全球每年因视力缺陷而导致的经济损失将从2000年的420亿美元上升到1,100亿美元。 /201311/265572。
分页 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29