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时间:2019年08月25日 19:38:16

Turkey’s president Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Russian president Vladimir Putin will hold talks on Tuesday to hammer out details of restoring the two countriesrelationship after seven months of stand-off over Turkey’s shooting down of a Russian military aircraft.在土耳其击落一架俄罗斯军机,导致两国陷入对个月以后,土耳其总统雷杰#8226;塔伊#8226;埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)和俄罗斯总统弗拉基米#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)将于周二举行会谈,以敲定恢复两国关系的细节。Mr Putin will meet Mr Erdogan in St Petersburg, the Russian president’s home town, the two leadersfirst encounter since they met at the G20 summit in the Turkish city of Antalya last November. Just weeks after that, Turkey downed the Russian military jet which Ankara said had entered Turkish airspace from Syria.普京将在自己的家乡圣彼得堡会见埃尔多安,这将是两人去1月在土耳其安塔利亚(Antalya) 20G20)峰会上会面之后的首次见面。在上次会面仅数周后,土耳其击落了俄罗斯军机,安卡拉方面表示这架飞机从叙利亚进入了土耳其领空。Following the incident, in which one of the two Russian pilots was killed, Moscow suspended contacts with Ankara and slapped economic sanctions on Turkey.这起事件造成两名俄罗斯飞行员中的一人身亡,此后俄罗斯暂停与土耳其接触,并对土耳其实施了经济制裁。The measures, including an embargo on agricultural products, a ban on tour travel, a freeze of energy talks, a partial exclusion of Turkish construction companies and restrictions on Turkish citizens working in Russia, added to Turkey’s deepening economic woes.这些措施包括对农产品实施禁运、禁止旅游、冻结能源谈判、部分排除土耳其建筑公司、限制土耳其公民在俄罗斯工作等。这使土耳其日渐恶化的经济困境进一步加深。But the two countries have sharply reversed course since the Kremlin said in late June that it had accepted an apology from Mr Erdogan. Since then, the two governments have started negotiations on normalising their economic ties.但在克里姆林月下旬宣布接受埃尔多安的道歉后,两国迅速改弦易辙。在那之后,两国政府开始就经贸往来的正常化开启谈判。The Kremlin said last week that much more time would be needed to restore trust. However, the summit will be closely watched for signs whether Turkey moves closer to Russia amid tension with its Nato allies over western criticism of Mr Erdogan’s crackdown following last month’s military coup attempt.克里姆林宫上周表示,恢复信任所需的时间还要长得多。然而,在西方批评埃尔多安在上月国内军事政变未遂后对内镇压,导致土耳其与其北约(Nato)盟友关系紧张之时,外界将密切关注这次峰会,留意土耳其向俄罗斯靠拢的迹象。来 /201608/459322

The ed Nations imposed new restrictions on North Korea’s ability to export coal on Wednesday, the latest attempt by the international community to tighten a sanctions regime that has not halted Pyongyang’s drive towards a nuclear programme.联合UN)周三对朝鲜的煤炭出口能力施加了新的限制,这是国际社会试图收紧对朝制裁的最新举措,此前的一系列制裁措施未能阻止朝鲜推进其核计划。The 15-member UN Security Council voted unanimously to approve the new sanctions which could reduce North Korea’s export revenue by as much as a quarter if fully implemented, diplomats said.多名外交官表示,联合国安理会(UN Security Council) 15个成员国一致批准了新制裁措施,这些措施一旦得到全面执行,将令朝鲜出口收入最多减少四分之一。The new round of sanctions follows North Korea’s fifth nuclear test in September and a series of missile launches that it has conducted in recent months which have all added to the momentum behind its nuclear programme.新一轮制裁是在朝月进行第五次核试验、近几个月还开展了一系列导弹发射活动之后出台的,这些试验和发射加大了朝鲜核计划的发展势头。Amid high uncertainty about how a Trump administration will approach North Korea, the new sanctions also come amid a growing debate in Washington about the need for a different approach towards Pyongyang.新制裁措施出台之际,关于特朗普领导的美国新政府将对朝鲜采取什么样的政策,存在高度不确定性。此外,华盛顿关于是否有必要转变对朝策略的争论也越来越激烈。The resolution builds on a package of sanctions from earlier in the year which tried to limit North Korea exports of commodities, including coal its biggest source of hard currency copper, nickel and silver.今年早些时候安理会就通过了一揽子制裁方案,试图限制朝鲜多种大宗商品的出口,包括煤炭(这是朝鲜最大的硬通货来源)、铜、镍和银等。US officials said that a clause in the previous sanctions designed to prevent undue suffering by the North Korean people had been used to accelerate coal sales. Under the new rules, a cap has been placed on annual coal exports at 7.5m metric tonnes or around 0m, which would reduce export earnings from coal by 60 per cent.美国官员表示,此前的制裁措施中一则旨在防止朝鲜人民承受过大苦难的条款被利用来加快煤炭销售。新规定对朝鲜的年度煤炭出口能力设了上限,出口总量不能超过750万公吨或出口价值不能超过大亿美元,这会令朝鲜的煤炭出口收入减少60%。Samantha Power, US ambassador to the UN, said that the resolution imposed “unprecedented measureson North Korea. “No resolution in New York will persuade Pyongyang to cease its relentless pursuit of nuclear weapons,she said. “But this resolution imposes unprecedented costs on the DPRK [North Korean] regime for defying the UN’s demands.”美国驻联合国大使萨曼莎.鲍尔(Samantha Power)表示,该决议对朝鲜实施了“史无前例的举措”。她表示:“联合国总部没有任何决议能说平壤方面停止对核武器的坚定追求。但是这一决议会让朝鲜政权为违抗联合国的要求付出史无前例的代价。”Ban Ki-moon, the UN secretary-general, said that it was incumbent on members of the Security Council to implement the new rules. “Sanctions are only as effective as their implementation,he said.联合国秘书长潘基Ban Ki-moon)表示,安理会成员国有责任贯彻实施这些新规定。他表示:“制裁只有得到执行才有效。”The impact of the new sanctions will ultimately depend on China’s willingness to enforce the new export caps. Liu Jieyi, China’s ambassador to the UN, said: “The resolution adopted by the council today demonstrates the uniformed stand of the international community against the development by DPRK of its nuclear and ballistic missiles.”新一轮制裁会产生多大影响,最终要看中国执行新出口上限的意愿。中国驻联合国大使刘结一表示:“当天安理会通过的决议,表明了国际社会反对朝鲜发展核导计划、维护国际核不扩散体系的一致立场。”The apparent advances in North Korea’s nuclear programme have led US officials to admit that the policies aimed at containing Pyongyang’s ambitions have largely failed. James Clapper, director of national intelligence, admitted in September: “I think the idea of getting North Korea to denuclearise is probably a lost cause.”朝鲜核计划的明显进展使得美国官员承认,旨在遏制朝鲜核野心的政策基本上失败了。今月,美国国家情报总监(DNI)詹姆克拉珀(James Clapper)曾承认:“我认为,让朝鲜无核化的想法也许注定要失败。”David Pressman, until recently US ambassador at the UN for special political affairs who was involved in the sanctions negotiations, said that the new restrictions if implemented were an important element in increasing economic pressure on North Korea, but would not by themselves change Pyongyang’s calculations.曾参与磋商对朝制裁事宜的戴维.普雷斯曼(David Pressman)表示,在对朝鲜增加经济压力方面,新制裁措施一旦实施将起到重要作用,但是它们本身不会改变朝鲜政府的盘算。“The idea that we are going to deal with this problem through more sanctions alone is a folly,said Mr Pressman, now at the law firm Boies, Schiller and Flexner. “We need more options on the table and we need more enforcement.”他说:“那种认为我们只会通过加大制裁处理这个问题的想法很愚蠢。我们需要把更多选项摆到桌面上讨论,我们需要加大实施力度。”目前,普雷斯曼供职于Boies, Schiller and Flexner律师事务所。来 /201612/481323


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