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Scientists have been debating this question for a long time.科学家们围绕这个问题已经争论了很长的时间。Some believed that snakes evolved on land,and that their ancestors were small,burrowing lizards.一些科学家认为蛇从陆地上进化而来,它们的祖先是小的,穴居的蜥蜴。And others believed that snakes evolved fromthe mosasaurs, giant swimming lizards that lived 144 to 65 million years ago.另一些科学家认为蛇由沧龙进化而来,沧龙是生活在一亿四千四百万年前至六千五百万年前的一种巨型水生蜥蜴。Except its difficult to analyze the genes of the extinct mosasaurs.分析已经灭绝的沧龙的基因是非常困难的。So instead, scientists at Penn Stateanalyzed the genes of their closest living relatives, the monitor lizards.所以宾夕法尼亚州立大学的科学家们分析了它们现存的最近亲属巨蜥的基因。In fact, these scientists examinedgenetic material representing all nineteen living lizard families, and seventeen of the twenty-five familiesof living snakes.实际上,这些科学家们检查了代表所有19种现存蜥蜴家族以及蛇的25种现存家族中的17种基因材料。They analyzed the differences in genetic structure that inevitably result from the slight mutations that develop over time.他们分析了随着时间的推移,遗传结构中不可避免的微小变化所带来的差异。This enabled them to map a genetic family tree.这让他们能够绘画出一个基因家谱图。They discovered that snakes arentclosely related to monitor lizards.他们发现了什么呢?他们发现了蛇与巨蜥并没有密切的关系。Now, because the mosasaurs– the monitor lizards ancestors–werethe only marine lizards around when snakes evolved, snakes must have evolved from lizards living onland.现在,因为沧龙-巨蜥的祖先-是蛇进化时周围唯一的海洋蜥蜴,所以蛇应该是从在陆地上生活的蜥蜴进化而来。Theres a strong correlation between the burrowing lifestyle and very small limbs or the complete lossof limbs.从穴居生活到非常小的四肢,再到完全丧失四肢,这之间的关联非常强。Some burrowing lizards have reduced limbs and some have lost one or both pairs.一些穴居蜥蜴的四肢减少,一些已经失去了一个或者所有的四肢。After all,you could fit into much smaller openings if you didnt need a pelvis or shoulders to support your limbs.毕竟,你需要适应更小的通道,如果你不需要骨盆或肩膀来撑你的肢体。 201411/344512。

听力参考文本:A bus company in Detroit sees a future for the city where every kid can get a free ride to their after-school programs, and then back to their door for free.The Detroit Bus Company is trying to make that dream a reality with the Youth Transit Alliance, which currently runs during the week in Southwest Detroit.The bus takes 20-50 kids from 10 different schools to their after-school programs, and makes sure they get home safely afterwards.The YTA began last year, and in its pilot year they gave rides to more than 5,000 kids.;The goal is increased engagement,; says Andy Didorosi, president of the Detroit Bus company. ;Its to show kids that theres a world outside of their ... neighborhood that they can go and learn and do lots of amazing things that they otherwise wouldnt think possible, and have opportunities available to them now that werent available, and its just via a simple bus ride.;Salvador Villagrana is a senior at Detroit Cristo Ray high school. He takes the bus to get back and forth from robotics.;What were doing now could help us out on our transcript, and going to college. And it opened my eyes as in wanting to go into engineering. I wanted to start off with being a pre-occupational therapist, and it kinda changed my mind.;Didorosi has seen the benefits these after-school programs have had on former riders of the YTA. Two kids last year got scholarships to college that they may not have been able to get otherwise.;To see a teacher tell you, my kids are now successful and they wouldnt have been otherwise without this bus is moving, and its powerful,; Didorosi said.But some of the kids that take the bus arent thinking about college – theyre elementary schoolers who like riding this big, colorful bus with their friends.;I would say this bus looks like it came from outer space and came to earth, that it chose us,; says eight-year-old Daniel Estrella.Theres a supervisor, or ;conductor; who is especially important for the little ones that ride the bus. The conductor helps them with homework, and walks them to their door at the end of the day.;I had a few moments last week where it was really kind of emotional, to walk them to their door and to make sure they get them home safely, and to be the one responsible for that,; says conductor Mary Mares.Some kids ride the bus every day. Others ride just once a week. Participation in the program has been growing as more parents hear about the service. Because participation fluctuates, the bus route changes every day. Its kind of a logistical nightmare for the people running the operation. But for the kids, its free, safe, and reliable.;The kids have something that they can rely on every day, day in and day out,; says Didorosi. ;They see the same adult on the bus, the same driver, theyre expecting them. That bus is there on time, it will wait for them if they dont show up. This is a level of customer service that these kids dont have in their daily life.;But if the company doesnt find money, and fast, the buses could stop running.The Skillman Foundation funded the first year of the YTA, but this year the Detroit Bus Company has had to come up with money to keep the YTA moving. If it doesnt make its fundraising goal, the bus will stop running in April.201503/365655。

All right yesterday was superbowl Sunday that means today is classical joke Monday那么昨天是超级碗星期天 这就意味着今天是经典笑话星期一Oh,its popular.Its catching on哦 好流行啊 好赶时髦啊So todays joke is sport theme,are you y everybody?所以今天的笑话是运动主题 大家准备好了吗Why cant you play sports in the jungle,why为什么你不能在丛林做运动 为什么Because some of the animals are cheaters,you are welcome因为有一些动物是骗子 不用谢了哈Dont ow me you when you know you gonna be told later别吆喝我 当你知道我会马上揭晓 So valentines day is next week and I know what you thinking那么下个周就是情人节了 我知道你们想什么呢What can I get love one to show how much I care给我爱的人买点什么能明我的爱and there is only one answer,something from the Ellen shop那么只有一个 就是Ellen商店的东西So we selling some Valentines day theme items我们卖一些情人节主题的东西This is a shirt that we selling,that I really like a whole lot这有个我们卖的上衣 我真的很爱Its a love T-shirt which is just dress and cool looking这是一个;爱;的T恤 穿上看起来很酷and we also have red and black Ellen underwear that were selling我们还有红黑的Ellen内裤 正在热卖We have little underwear like that,and little boy short like that我们有像这样的小女生内裤 还有这样的小男孩内裤and everytime we design something new,we keep adding the new theme to the Ellen shop.每一次我们设计新款时 我们总会在Ellen商店里增加新款式There always few that they dont quite work out,this year we have some things that I though但总有一些没效果的 我觉得今年我们有一些东西Would spice up you know I just thought,Ellen addable underwear is popular会像我想的那样使你们更有情趣 Ellen可增加花样的内裤很流行So why not Ellen addable underwear,we got the addable part right所以为什么不用这种内裤呢 我们有可增加花样是对的But well we just made mistake I think,we use pretzels and I feel like但是我觉得我们犯了个错误 我们用了椒盐脆饼干 我觉得I dont know,well we found out during the focus group we found out我不知道呀 我们通过售点小组发现there is two things people dont want on the underwear,cream and salt人们不喜欢两种东西在他们内裤上 奶油和盐 /201607/453019。

Drought in California加州旱情Painting the lawn green把草坪喷绿Californians find novel ways to cope with drought加利福尼亚州居民奇思妙想治旱灾JACK MELLIGAN, a prison guard in Sacramento, was tired of staring at his brown, patchy lawn—a side-effect of the drought that has parched California for the past three years. He thought about replacing it with shop-bought turf, but worried that he might incur hefty fines for watering it, under new statewide water restrictions. So he paid someone 0 to spray-paint his lawn a cheery green instead.萨克拉门托(美国加州首府)狱警杰克·梅丽甘盯着自己家干枯斑驳的草坪,厌倦了——这是在过去三年里,干旱炙烤着加州所带来了的一个不良反应。杰克正在考虑用商店买来的草皮代替,但遍布加州的限水令却让他担心,若给草坪浇水,则面临巨额罚款。所以他花了180美元,雇人给自己家的草坪喷漆,喷上一片让人心情愉快的绿色。In a state known for special effects, such fakery is to be expected. If Hollywood can make a green screen look like a terrifying desert on an alien planet, it is only natural that Californians should seek ways to make the terrifying deserts in their front yards look verdant. Mr Melligan is not alone; your correspondent has a wardrobe full of green-stained shoes to prove it.因加州以特效而闻名,所以像这样的造假草坪是在意料之中的事。假如好莱坞能制造一个绿色屏幕,看起来像外星球的可怕荒漠,那么加州的居民想方设法让门前荒地变得绿油油,就再自然不过的事情了。The fad for trompe loeil gardening has been a boon for lawn-painters such as David Bartlett, the owner of Xtreme Green Grass, whose business has grown 75% this year. Over the same period Jim Power, who runs a lawn-paint supply company called LawnLift, has seen sales triple. “It has become more socially acceptable to paint your lawn,” he says, “especially as its become more socially shameful to water it.” At the same time, fewer Californians are buying new turf, says Jurgen Gramckow, who grows the stuff and says sales at his farm in Oxnard are down 20% this year.仿真园艺热潮给草坪画家大卫·巴特利特带来了商机,他是Xtreme Green Grass的老板,今年工作量增加了75%。同期,吉姆·鲍尔名下的草坪喷漆供应公司LawnLift销售量翻了两翻。“给你的草坪喷漆已经被大家接受,”吉姆说道,“特别是在这个时候,给你的草坪浇水,是很可耻的一件事。”与此同时,种植草皮的Jurgen Gramckow表示,越来越少的加州居民购买草皮,而且他在奥克斯纳的公司今年销售量下降20%。The drought, one of the worst in a century, has pushed the state to waste a bit less water. In July California banned such things as allowing sprinkler water to run off lawns on to streets and washing cars with hoses that have no shut-off nozzle. And on August 29th the state legislature passed three bills that would allow local agencies, for the first time, to curb excessive pumping of groundwater by landowners.百年一遇的旱灾已经让加州节约用水了。今年七月,加州禁止诸如向草坪浇水和没有自动闭合喷嘴的水管洗车等之类的行为。8月29日,州议会通过了三项法案,首次允许当地机构控制土地所有者过分的使用地下水。Historically, California has resisted groundwater regulation, favouring local property rights even as every other western state embraced state control. But sentiment has shifted with the realisation that the water might run out. By some measures, the states billion agricultural industry aly accounts for 62% of water consumption. And it is getting thirstier, as profitable fruit trees and vines have replaced other crops. As surface reservoirs are depleted, farmers are forced to drill deeper. Perhaps 65% of Californias water could come from underground this year, up from 40% in average years, according to the California Water Foundation, a green group. Over-use of wells means that salt water can invade coastal aquifers, and also that fresh water disappears. A recent study by the California Department of Water Resources found that, in about half of the wells surveyed, water levels had aly fallen to their lowest point for a century.有史以来,加州不管制地下水,偏爱当地产权问题,然而在西部的其他州,地下水受到州政府监管。但是随着旱情加重,水资源短缺,加州开始发愁了。加州产值450亿美元的农业已经消耗62%的水。因高利润的果树和葡萄藤已经取代了其他庄稼,天气越来越干旱了。随着地表水库消耗殆尽,农民不得不往地下更深处汲水。据加州一个绿色环保组织California Water Foundation指出,今年,大概有65%的水来源于地下,地下水用量平均增加了40%。过分使用地下水,意味着海水将流入滨海蓄水层,而且淡水也从此消失。加州水利部门最近的一项研究发现,所有考察过的井中,大约有一半井水的水位线降至历史最低。Several cities are trying to conserve water. Earlier this year Santa Cruz began enforcing rationing for every home and a ban on filling hot tubs and jacuzzis, with weighty fines and “Water School” for transgressors. The results are striking: in July citywide water use fell 26% compared with last year. In comparison, statewide water use had declined by only 7.5% from the previous year, despite recent pleas from Governor Jerry Brown to all Californians to cut water use by 20%.有些城市试图蓄水。今年年初,圣鲁克兹开始实行家庭定量配给水资源,并禁止任何形式的浴缸用水,违背者接受巨额罚款,并送至“Water School”进行教育。效果很显著:今年七月,较去年全城用水量减少26%,但全州用水量降低只有7.5%,虽然地方长官杰瑞·布朗最近号召加州居民减少用水量20%。The states water shortages can be resolved only by putting a sensible price on water. State law will eventually require water metering on all buildings, but not until 2025. “We are finally moving toward a pricing system,” says Barton Thompson, a professor of natural resources at Stanford Law School, “which is really the only way to truly encourage people to conserve.”要解决加州水资源短缺问题,只能通过设定一个合理的水价位。加州的法律最终要求所有的建筑物上按照仪表测量用水,但不是到2025年。“我们最后制定一个定价系统,” 斯坦福大学法学院自然资源教授巴顿·汤普森说道,“而这确实是鼓励人们节约用水的唯一办法。” /201409/331497。

Dozens of people are dead Sunday after a suicide bomber attacked a park in Lahore, Pakistan. 周日,巴基斯坦拉合尔一公园发生自杀式袭击造成数十人死亡。The death toll stands at 50 people but it is almost certainly to increase. 当前死亡人数为50人,但几乎肯定会继续增加。New outlets are reporting that women and children were the primary victims. 新媒体报道称,妇女和儿童是主要的受害者。The explosion apparently went off near a swing set in the park. 爆炸发生在公园秋千附近。The blast injured at least 200. There were no immediate claims of responsibility for the attack.爆炸至少造成200人受伤。没有组织立即声称对袭击负责。译文属。201603/433602。

Leaders Abortion in America Back in court社论精粹 美国堕胎问题 重返公堂It may poison the 2016 election, but the Supreme Court should strike down Texass restrictive abortion law堕胎问题的争论或许会阻碍2016年大选,但最高法院应该驳回德州的限制堕胎法案AS if next years presidential election were not shaping up to be contentious enough, the Supreme Court has picked 2016 to issue its most consequential ruling on abortion in 20 years.美国明年总统大选的争议似乎还不够,最高法院也来凑凑热闹,竟决定在2016年对堕胎问题做出20年来最重要的裁决。This will add fresh impetus to a cultural battle that has raged, unresolved, on Americas national stage for almost half a century.此举将为堕胎与反堕胎的论战注入新动力,这场文化道德斗争在美国国家政治舞台上活跃了将近半个世纪,愈演愈烈,至今仍悬而未决。That is regrettable.斗争虽令人遗憾,It is also necessary.但也是必要的。At issue is whether a law passed by the Texas legislature called HB2 is constitutional.现在问题的争议点在于德克萨斯州议会通过的一项名为HB2的法案是否符合宪法。The state has piled regulations on abortion clinics with the aim (so far rather successful) of closing them down.德州政府针对堕胎诊所颁布了大量政策条规,目的就在于整垮它们(目前战绩相当不错)。The number of such clinics in the state has dropped from 41 in 2012 to 18 at the last count.最新数据显示,德州的堕胎诊所数量由2012年的41间逐渐减至18间。If the court rules next year that HB2 is constitutional, that number will shrink further.如果明年最高法院判定HB2符合宪法条陈,那么诊所的数量将进一步锐减。Other states keen to restrict legal access to abortion would follow suit.其他热衷对堕胎实施法律约束的州将效仿此举。Aly there are four that have only one clinic for the whole state, making the legal termination of a pregnancy a right that exists in theory but not in practice.现在美国已经有四个州全州只有一个堕胎诊所,使得合法终止妊娠这一权利只空于理论,却无实践。A clear majority of Americans have, for decades, told pollsters that abortion should be legal in most cases.数十年来,绝大多数美国人告诉民意调查者们,在大多数情况下堕胎应该是合法的。More recently, a narrower majority has emerged for outlawing abortion after 20 weeks, with some exceptions.近来,微弱多数人认为20周以后堕胎违法,特殊情况除外。That position—access to abortion that is legal and unrestricted until late in the second trimester, with some restrictions thereafter—is not unlike the compromise reached in other countries.妊娠中期前堕胎是合法的,不受任何限制的,之后堕胎则有法律约束,这与其他国家在堕胎问题上的折中点是类似的。In more secular Britain abortion is banned after 24 weeks, with exceptions in cases where to continue the pregnancy would threaten the life of the mother, or where the child is likely to be severely disabled.英国更开化,规定怀24周以后禁止堕胎,除非继续妊娠会危及母亲生命或胎儿很可能会重度残疾。 译文属译生译世 /201603/431932。

Britain the Co-op英国 运动Victorian secret维多利亚的秘密The member-owned business has regained its mojo会员制商业模式重获魔力The ovoid structure near Victoria station, to the north of Manchester city centre, is the most striking of the city’s many modern glass buildings. It is to be the home to the Co-operative Group, which is Britain’s fifth largest food retailer and a growing presence in financial services. Peter Marks, the Co-op’s chief executive, jokes that a flash headquarters can be a sign of a bloated corporate ego. It should instead be seen as a symbol of the Co-op’s modernisation, he says. The building’s green design will cut energy costs in half. And the staff scattered in a warren of draughty old offices nearby will soon be under one 21st-century roof.在曼彻斯特市中心北面、维多利亚车站附近的那个卵形建筑,是这个城市众多的现代玻璃建筑中最闪耀的一个。这个建筑就是Co-operative 集团的总部,Co-operative 是英国第五大食品零售商,在金融务业它也是一股不断增长的力量。Co-op 的董事长Peter Marks自嘲说这个拉风的总部显示出公司是多么的自大,但事实上他认为这个建筑应该被视为Co-op公司现代化的标志。这个建筑采用的绿色设计可以降低一半的能耗。以前散布在附近老办公室中一个个通透的小隔间里的员工将会搬到21世纪的屋檐下。The sort of self-confidence embodied in the Co-op’s new head office is felt also in the wider co-operative “movement” (as its devotees refer to it). Tales of corporate greed have revived interest in co-ops. Nick Clegg, the deputy prime minister, has extolled the virtues of a “John Lewis economy”, referring to a much-loved employee-owned retailer. Yet the history of the Co-op’s retailing arm in Britain shows that the member-owned business model has weaknesses as well as strengths.公司新总部所体现出的那种自信在更加广泛的联营“运动”中也可以感受到。企业贪婪的故事有望在联营企业重新上演。英国副首相Nick Clegg曾经赞扬过“John Lewis 经济模式”的优点,其中提及一个受人爱戴的员工所有制的零售商。但是Co-op的零售部门在英国的历史明会员制的商业模式有利也有弊。The Co-op started in 1844 when a group of textile workers clubbed together to set up a grocers in Rochdale, a few miles from Manchester. The idea quickly sp. By the early 20th-century co-op stores accounted for a large slice of grocery sales. From the 1960s onwards, shareholder-owned rivals began to catch up. Twenty years ago the Co-op had a share of the grocery market similar to Tesco’s. Then Tesco took off and left it behind.Co-op是在1844年由一群纺织工人在洛奇代尔(距曼彻斯特几英里)联合成立的一家百货店。这个概念迅速传播。到20世纪初,联营商店已经在百货零售业占了很大一个份额。从20世纪60年代开始,股份制的竞争对手开始后来居上。20年前Co-op在零售市场上的份额与Tesco的相当。然后Tesco发展迅速,逐渐将其甩在身后。The problem was that what looked like a single entity was in fact a loose alliance of local co-ops, each with its own management. Fleet-footed rivals were better able to reap scale economies from centralised buying and marketing. They could raise capital quickly to build bigger stores. And a new breed of grocer, exemplified by Tesco’s Jack Cohen, understood that retailing is part showbiz. He hired well-known comedians to open his stores. The Co-op movement was slow-witted and dowdy by comparison. “It didn’t co-operate and it rarely moved,” recalls Mr Marks.联营模式的问题是它看上去是一个统一的实体的企业,实际上只是一些本地合作社之间松散的联盟——各自进行自己的管理。而其飞毛腿般的对手却可以通过集中购买和销售来收获规模经济带来的利益。他们可以快速集资来建造更大的商场。由Tesco 的Jack Cohen示范的一种新型零售店则悟出零售业其实是一个性行业。他雇佣著名的喜剧演员来开店。两相对比使合作社运动看上去反应迟钝、跟不上时代。“以前联营的商场之间没有合作,并且很少变动” Marks回忆道。A series of mergers has brought most co-op stores under the umbrella of the group. The acquisition of the Somerfield chain in , plus a revamp of its own stores, has improved its market share. The rising cost of regulation means its banking business also needs scale if it is to survive. In July the Co-op agreed to buy 632 branches from Lloyds Banking Group, which has been forced by EU regulators to slim down. Its share of current accounts will triple to around 7% once the deal is completed next year.Co-op集团通过一系列的并购已经把大多数的联营商场纳入旗下。年收购索寞菲尔德产业链,再加上自身商场的改进,提高了它的市场份额。日益增长的管理成本意味着公司的业务要想生存就必须扩大规模。在今年7月Co-op同意收购劳埃德集团的632家分行,后者被欧盟监管机构强制“瘦身”。一旦这个交易在明年完成,它的流动账户将会增至原来的3倍达到7%的市场份额。Banking scandals have served to emphasise the main strength of co-ops, which is public trust. There is less incentive for a member-owned business to price-gouge or mis-sell. Part of the appeal of the Victorian co-op stores was that they could be relied upon to sell unadulterated food. It also explains why the Co-op is strong in funeral services, where customers are stressed, under pressure to act quickly and unlikely to know what a fair price is. Mr Marks sees a similar opportunity for a trusted supplier of legal services dealing with personal-injury claims and divorce.业的丑闻强化了联营企业的主要实力,后者拥有公众的信任。一个会员制的企业进行价格欺诈和误导销售的动机更小。维多利亚联营商场的部分魅力来自于他们在销售纯正食物方面赢得了信赖。这也解释了为什么Co-op很擅长殡葬务业,因为在这个行业他们的顾客处于压力中,这种压力导致顾客要很快决断因而也就不大可能知道一个什么样的价格才算合理。Marks还看到了一个相似的机遇:为个人伤害索赔和离婚索赔提供可受信赖的法律务。The movement’s bigwigs, gathered this week in Manchester to celebrate the UN year of the co-operative, sense opportunities. Ed Mayo, the head of Co-operatives UK, a trade body, injects a note of caution. “We’ve won the battle to say that we are ethical. The challenges are innovation and service levels.” Still, he thinks there are businesses where the member-owned model might be deployed: rail franchises, for instance. That would have a pleasing Victorian ring to it. Shareholders did not achieve great returns from the 19th-century railway mania. The main beneficiaries of the boom were the railway’s customers.这场运动的头头脑脑们于本周在曼彻斯特相聚来庆祝co-operative联合的一周年,并嗅探新的机会。Co-operatives UK(一个贸易机构)的老大Ed Mayo提出了一个警告。“我们已经赢得了道德制高点,接下来的挑战是如何创新和提高务水平”他认为还有其他或许适合联营模式开展的业务,比如铁路专营权。股民没有从19世纪的铁路热中获得很大的回报。铁路潮主要的受益者是铁路客户。翻译:郁炳睿译文属译生译世 /201608/460551。