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2019年06月21日 01:58:39|来源:国际在线|编辑:问医典范
Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;Segregation in cities城市里的种族隔离Living in black and white黑白时代How different races inhabit cities不同的种族如何共居于城市Segregation: A Global History of Divided Cities. By Carl Nightingale.《种族隔离:城市分裂的全球史》,卡尔·南丁格尔著。 Carl NightingaleS history of segregation claims to be a detailed account of how cities were, for millennia, divided along racial lines. But it is really a history of how colonialism affected the construction, governance and policing of great urban areas.卡尔·南丁格尔的这本著作讲述了种族隔离的历史,并据称详细描绘了几千年来,城市是如何在种族界限中分裂的。但事实上,它也是一段有关殖民主义如何影响大城市的建设、政府管治和政策制定的真实历史。For the past 500 years white Europeans have often used their economic and military power to build and rebuild urban landscapes in order to grab the safest, healthiest and nicest parts for themselves. Even in places where colonial rule is now a distant memory, many urban environments cannot be understood without recalling their foundation as a fortified enclave for Europeans bent on procuring commodities or opening markets. Calcutta (now Kolkata) was set up in 1690 by a member of Britains East India Company, in defiance of the local Muslim overlord. It later vied with London as the biggest metropolis in the British empire.在过去的500年,为便于强取豪夺最安全、最健康、最好的地区,欧洲白人殖民者往往动用经济和军事力量来建造或改建当地城市的风貌。甚至现在,某些地区的人们觉得殖民统治是一段遥远的记忆。但是,如果要完全明白很多城市的环境,我们就不得不追溯至这些城市被创立的时期。满脑子只想着采购商品、开拓市场的欧洲人将这些城市隔离为巩固飞地。加尔各答(印度城市,原为Calcutta ,现为 Kolkata),由不列颠东印度公司1690年创立,目的在于挑战当地穆斯林霸主。随后,加尔各答开始与伦敦竞争大英帝国的最大大都会的头衔。Both colonialism itself and the divided cities it spawned reached their zenith on the eve of the first world war. As Europeans migrated in large numbers to far-flung corners of their expanding empires, the need to keep them comfortable, both physically and psychologically, meant that other groups were treated with ever greater ruthlessness. Mr Nightingale shows how the roots of apartheid in South Africa, for example, are to be found much earlier than the 1948 election victory of the National Party; they lie in the colonial project which led to the creation of Johannesburg half a century earlier with white and non-white areas. This was made much more explicit after 1948—and this shocked a world where racial ideologies and colonialism were being challenged and dismantled. But segregationist zeal did not flare in a vacuum; it built on an existing system of allocating space which reflected the needs of an imperial elite.第一次世界大战前夕,殖民统治和割裂的城市均发展到鼎盛时期。当时,大批迁徙至版图不断扩大的大英帝国的偏远地区的欧洲人,他们需要物质上和精神上都有舒的状态,这意味着他们变本加厉的无情对待其他种族。书中,南丁格尔先生道出为何人们认为南非种族隔离制度的起源比1948年国民党大选成功得更早。其实,隔离制度早就存在于隔离计划中。早在半个世纪以前,割裂为白人区和非白人区的约翰尼斯堡(位于南非东北部)的创建,就是拜隔离制度所赐。1948年后,种族隔离制度更加毫不遮掩地暴露出来——这让世界为之震惊,因为当时的种族主义和殖民主义的观点都受到挑战,有的也被废除。但是,人们对种族隔离的热情并非空穴来风。隔离制度存在于空间已经被分配的现存体系中,而且反映着帝国精英的需求。Those needs were complex and shifting. After their defeat of the Boers in 1902, the British masters of South Africa wanted labour for the gold mines that had given birth to Johannesburg; but they also wanted to attract white, English-speaking immigrants, and to promise them a life in which other races featured only as house servants. Ever more ingenious forms of separation emerged, including the foundation of present-day Soweto beside an urban sewage farm. In Cape Town, a new effort to divide, aimed at keeping Europeans healthy, began after the arrival of bubonic plague at the start of the 20th century. The scourge had been sping westward from Chinas ports; in many cities, infectious diseases were the catalysts for grand segregationist projects, and were underpinned by racist ideologies.这些需求复杂且变化不定。继1902年大败波尔人后,英国南非的统治者希望为金矿的发展增加开发过约翰尼斯堡的劳动力,但他们也想吸引讲英语的白色人种移民前来。所以统治者承诺移民能过上一种把其他种族当做家仆来使唤的尊贵生活。不同隔离形式“推陈出新”的出现,比如现今的索维托(南非城市)就建在城市污水处理厂旁。二十世纪初黑死病肆虐开普敦后(Cape Town,南非西南部港市),为了让欧洲人保持健康,人们开始采用一项新的隔离方法。这场瘟疫爆发始于中国港口,并不断扩散;在很多城市,传染病成为庞大种族隔离运动的催化剂,并沦为种族主义者的“合法工具”。Mr Nightingale, a professor at the State University of New York in Buffalo, makes a fair case for studying the emergence of colonial cities as a single phenomenon. More contentious is his argument that modern Chicago presents a comparable example of rich white people forcing racial minorities, especially blacks, to live separately and badly.居住在布法罗(Buffalo,纽约州第二大城市)的纽约州立大学教授南丁格尔先生,为了保公平,把殖民城市的出现当做一个简单的现象来研究。更容易引起争论的是,他认为现代的芝加哥市提供了一个可比案例——富裕的白色人种逼迫少数人种,尤其是黑人,住在环境恶劣的隔离地区里。Even when black people were enfranchised and began asserting their civil rights in the 1960s, politics in Chicago was manipulated in ways whose end-result was not so different from apartheid, he argues. One early factor was the emergence of a property market that was distorted by covenants which specified the race of the purchaser. The Supreme Court allowed the practice in 1926, but struck it down in 1948. Later, so-called urban-renewal projects were used to move black communities to less desirable locations, Mr Nightingale says. Poor areas were cleared to build highways that would enable rich commuters to travel more easily between offices and their suburban homes.他认为,甚至在20世纪60年代黑人得到解放时,他们开始强烈要求拥有自己的民主权利,但芝加哥的政治却被人们以不同方式操控,最终黑人得到的结果也与种族隔离制度相差无几。其中,一个早期的因素是房地产市场的兴起。当时有条款详细规定购房者的种族,房产市场因此被扭曲。最高法院在1926年允许这种做法,直到1948年才废除它。南丁格尔先生说,之后的所谓“城区重建项目”成为把黑人社区搬迁至更糟糕地区的借口。贫民区被拆除只是为了建高速公路,以便让富有的上班族可以更方便地乘车往返于办公室和乡村的住房。Mr Nightingale is right to point out that segregation can exist without a formal regime. But he surely underestimates the difference between a country like the ed States, where the disadvantaged have legal and political tools at their disposal, and apartheid South Africa where no such tools were available. So powerful is his belief in a handful of “master narratives” that he sometimes shoehorns facts to fit his theories. The demons which haunt his universe are imperial elites, property markets (which he imagines as a causal④agency, not an instrument) and racial ideologies. All of these factors, he believes, operate in a “top-down” and often co-ordinated way to advance the interests of the powerful and marginalise weaker groups.南丁格尔先生提出一个好的观点,即把殖民城市的出现当作一个独立的现象来研究。不过显而易见的是,他低估了国与国的不同,比如美国,弱势群体有自主的法律和政治工具,但在种族隔离严重的南非,没有这样的工具。南丁格尔先生对少数“主人公视角”的故事深信不疑,以至于在某些情况下,他试图用部分事实牵强附会地明自创的理论。让他着魔的是帝国精英、房地产市场(他将其视为一个有因果关系的中介,非一项工具)和激进的意识形态。他坚信,这些因素,一起创造了一个“自上而下”、协调一致的途径,以提高权势群体利益或削减弱势群体的利益。But not everything can be explained in those terms. For example, the violence which erupted on the streets of Northern Ireland in 1969, and entrenched segregation, may have had its roots in imperial policy, but it clearly had a local momentum of its own. It is nonsense to suggest, as he does, that the Protestant mobs that attacked Catholic areas in the early days of the troubles were “cheered on” by “right-wing British politicians” in London.但这些规则并不能解释所有的事情。比如,1969年北爱尔兰大街上爆发的暴力事件和人们心中根深蒂固的隔离制度等发生的根源,也许在帝国政策中能找到,但毫无疑问的是,隔离制度肯定会受到当地势力的扶持。南丁格尔先生认为,在新教暴民袭击天主教区这样的麻烦事发生的早期,伦敦的右翼政治家本应该在旁煽风点火。这完全是废话(因为这种事件本来就受到当地势力的扶持)。Another gripe is that the book promises an account of “70 centuries of city-splitting” but fails to deliver on that, despite a perfunctory opening chapter which looks, among other things, at sacred space in prehistoric and pre-modern times. To state the obvious, Western imperialists were not the only dividers of cities. In traditional empires—Ottoman or tsarist, for example—cities were split because society itself was rigidly divided, although not always physically, into ethnically or religiously based communities where the individuals everyday life was controlled by the leader of his or her group, who in turn delivered the groups loyalty to the sultan or emperor. The elites of each group had a stake in enforcing separation. A comprehensive look at urban segregation would have teased out the difference between traditional and modern separation.让我不满的另一点是,此书承诺要描述出“城市分裂的70个世纪”,却没有对此进一步阐述,除了看起来敷衍了事的开篇章节:讲述的是在史前时期和前现代时期,发生在神圣空间里的其他事情。而显而易见的是——西方帝国主义者并非分裂城市的罪魁祸首。传统意义上的帝国——比如土耳其帝国与俄罗斯帝国,遭遇城市分裂的原因在于它们的社会已经界限分明。尽管这种分裂并不总是表现在物质上,而是表现在个体参加以种族和宗教为区分基础的群体,他(她)的日常生活被所在群体的领导者所控制,该领导者进而把这种忠诚度延伸到苏丹(某些伊斯兰国家统治者的称号)或国家统治者身上。这些群体的精英阶层都是隔离政策实施的既得利益者。如果全面看待城市种族隔离,我们本应能理清传统式隔离和现代式隔离间的不同。Mr Nightingales view of how power works makes his own task harder. He struggles to deal with the fact that the white elite in both Britain and South Africa were willing to make tactical concessions to non-whites when it suited them; the white workers who went on strike (under the slogan “Workers e for a White South Africa”) to stop black workers being promoted in the mines in the early 1920s were brutally suppressed.此外,南丁格尔先生对权力如何运作的观点让他的写作任务变得难上加难。他无法处理这样的事实——当情况有利时,英国和南非的白人精英都愿意对非白人做出策略性的让步;20世纪20年代初,为了阻止黑人工人升职,一些罢工抗议的白人(打着“工人们联合起来,打造一个白色南非”的口号)劳工也受到了残忍的打压。In the present day, too, a “top-down” view of power has limits. Take Northern Ireland, where over 90% of a vast public housing stock is segregated by religion. Government officials in London and Belfast would love to change that, but it seems beyond their capacity to challenge the forces that keep most streets “pure”. Urban division in this case is a measure of government weakness, not ruthless strength. Segregation is not always something imposed by those who hold political power over the weak and vulnerable.即使在当今,“自上而下”的权力观也有局限性。以北爱尔兰为例, 90%以上的庞大公共住房资源以宗教为界限隔离。伦敦和贝尔法斯特的官员很希望改变它,但他们似乎无法挑战各种希望保持街道“纯正”的势力。在这一点上,城市的隔离体现出政府的脆弱性,而不是表现铁腕政治。隔离制度并不总是握有权力的强者对弱者的压迫。201208/195514Its Friday, March 25th.Im Natali Morris and its time to get loaded. Rumor has it that Google is testing its music service internally. Google Music has been a long-anticipated product that would stream music to any web-connected device, or so we thing. Google did not respond to inquiries from CNET about this possible new launch.今天是三月25日,周五。我是Natali Morris是时候了解最新鲜的资讯了。有传言称谷歌正在对其音乐务进行最后一轮测试。谷歌音乐是一款大家已经期待已久的产品,它将使所有联网设备都可以听音乐或者收听我们的节目。不过,谷歌并没有联系CNET询问联合发布的相关事宜。Everyone wants in on the group discount business these days. The New York Times launched TimesLimited, a daily deal site. Unlike Groupon, TimesLimited does not require a minimum amount of people to commit to the deal for the deal to be valid. Unfortunately it is only good for deals in the New York area for now at least.现在,所有人都用团购网。纽约时报发布了一个名叫TimesLimited的每日交易网站。不像团购网Groupon,TimesLimited不会像用户收取小额交易保金。但不幸的是,目前这一网站还只用于纽约地区,至少现在是。Starz Channel will no longer allow its original programming to stream to Netflix the day after the show airs. Instead, the channel will require a 90-day waiting period for for new episodes starting April 1st.In other Netflix news, the site had an outage on Tuesday and the watch instantly service was down. Netflix is offering customers 3% credit on their next bill to make amends.在其节目播出后,Starz Channel电台拒绝其原创节目流入网飞,而是要求节目播出90天后上线,以有时间筹备4月1日开始的新节目。还有另一则有关网飞公司的消息,这家网站周二将会暂停使用一段时间,即时观看务将停止。网飞公司将为用户下月账单提供3%额外积分来弥补这一措施造成的后果。Facebook updated Facebook Questions this week. This is the sites question and answer feature that lets you crowd source things you might want to know. The new Facebook Questions facilitates short, poor like answers in addition to long form responses. It also links directly to relevant items in Facebooks directory of fan pages which is useful is you are looking for information a movie or a restaurant. The updates are in limited roll out to English-speaking users only.脸谱网本周升级了问答系统Facebook Questions。这一网站是用问答的形式为用户提供大量所需信息。新版的脸谱问答系统中的问题更短,相比冗长的更加简单。它将直接提供相关的网络连接到好友社区的目录中,这将大大方便你查询电影和餐馆信息。回答问题的形式也被限定为英语用户投票产生柱状图表的形式。Walgreens has purchased drugstore.com for 409 million dollars. This will add three million customers and 60,000 new products to Walgreens digital presence. Drugstore.com will keep its name and site up and running for the time being. The deal is set to close in June.沃尔格林(美国最大连锁药店)耗资4亿9百万收购了drugstore.com网站。这一举动将为沃尔格林公司电子商务带来3百万客户和6万款新产品。drugstore.com网站将保留原网站名和域名并继续运营下去。这笔交易将于6月完成。And Duke Nukem Forever has been delayed once again. The software maker announced that the long-anticipated game had one last minute snafu that will move its May 6th release date to June 10th.《永远的毁灭公爵》又一次推迟发售。软件制造商宣布这款备受期待的游戏还有最后一个错乱程序需要修补,这将把发售日期从5月6日推迟到6月10日。Weve waited years and years and what is a few more weeks. Thats your news for the day and for the week. Im Natali Morris for CNET and youve just been loaded.我们已经等了一年又一年,再等几周也无妨。以上就是今天的也是本周最新信息。我是CNET的Natali Morris,感谢您的收看。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201210/205673Abe Manhas has been a motorman for 21 years. Today,he is driving his favorite route, the number 3 line.阿比;麦哈斯是一名驾龄已经有21年的驾驶员。今天,他仍旧驾驶着自己最喜欢的线路;;3号线。I think its one of the nicest line in the system, just moving toward through the city, Harlem, Brooklyn, Manhattan,Chinatown;我想这条线路是最好的线路,会穿过市区,哈莱姆区,布鲁克林区,曼哈顿区及唐人街。His route takes in through some of worldrsquo;s most famous real estate: Central Park, a green oasis in a nestful jungle; Broadway, theater capital of the world; The Empire State Building, the worldrsquo;s most famous skyscraper; Greenwich Village, Americans haven for bohemians; Wall Street, New York best in the finance and plot of Hallowed Ground, the open grave of World Trade Center.他的线路通过一些世界最著名的房地产景观:中央公园,这是丛林中的绿洲;百老汇,世界剧院的首都;帝国大厦,世界上最著名的天大楼;格林威治村,美国人的波西米亚;华尔街,纽约最好的金融及神圣之地,世界贸易中心敞开的坟墓。Since the first line opened a hundred years ago, the subway and the city have shared the single fate, their history runs on the same track, whatever lies ahead, city and subway will falter or prosper as one.自从一百年前开通了第一条线路,城市和地铁线路的命运就交织在了一起,他们的历史运行在同样的轨迹下,不管前路如何,城市和地铁终极结伴而行,一起步入繁荣。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/171634

Sprint is getting y to release the highly anticipated HTC EVIL 4G, Americas first 3G/4G Android handset. Tonight you are gonna get a sneak peak of both.这个春季,美国Android系列首款3G或4G手机,也就是大家翘首企盼的HTC EVIL 4G即将上市。今天我们将一睹为快。Clayton Morris, here at the Sprint launch of the HTC 4G EVIL, one of the superfast phones to the market, superfast and that beautiful screen.Lets take a look at some of the features inside the phone. Its got lightning-fast apps on running android 2.1, and we jumping Youtube, internet loads up very quickly. You can stream all of your contexts throught HDML out to a high-defination television which is great. And you can sit on the dark, and actually stream that same content using one of the sprints over pipe carries the dark / with the product. Another incredible feature with this phone,this phone turns you into a mobile hotspot, so imaging you have this sitting in your car, dark in your car, up to 8 other people can jump onto this network and you have Internet access from your phone turns you into a mobile hotspot on the globe.这是Clayton Morris从HTC EVIL 4G新品发布会上发来的报道,这是一款超快的手机,速度超快,而且屏幕更棒。让我们进一步看看这款手机的特殊功能。在安卓2.1系统持众多应用程序,使用户快速应用优酷,打开网页。用户可以把需要的视频从HDML转换为高分辨率视频。这样,你就可以坐在暗处,细细品味高速手机带来的享受。这款手机另一个不可思议的功能在于强大的上网功能。想象你坐在车里,车里一片漆黑,只能手机上网打发时间,有8个人在和你争夺网速,但只有你的手机能联网。The HTC EVIL 4G, the Amercias first 4G device, its got a host of capabilities. So its the largest screen, 4.3-inch screen, its a full touch screen, its also got an 8 mega pixel of camera, its got a back camera. Thats a 8 mega pixel, but its also has a front facing camera, 1.3 mega pixel, which is camera and camera. So you can record as well as camera. The front facing gives you the ability to have a chat and we announce today a chat application, its also got one ;gigger-hurts; proccessor, so the fastest processor in the market, and yet its the first 4G device. And the 4G is actually next generation network that operates ten times faster than 3G.HTC EVIL 4G手机是美国最早的4G手机,它十分强大,具有4.3英寸超大触屏屏幕,8百万像素,有后置摄像头。这可是8百万像素,同时它还配备有1千3百万像素的前置摄像头,集照相与摄像功能与一身。因此,你可以在摄像过程中进行拍照。前置摄像头可持视频聊天,也就是配置有现在的视频聊天软件。另外,它还有高运行速度的优点,在4G手机市场中,这还是头一部。而4G手机的运行速度是3G手机的10倍。Sprint is really counting on their 4G network which is really fast and all the screen testers we have seen so far, its network, its lightning-fast compared with another network — 3G load time of . Just take a look at this demo that putting on stage, A 4G versus 3G load.今年春季真的是4G手机的发布季,它真的很快,而且屏幕更好。和3G手机相比,它的网络加载速度,运行速度快了许多。看看手机发布会的样片,4G vs 3G。;This is playing a standard quality, this is what most people on their iphones,the model of all products,the range of products they are used to. The biggest thing youll notice is on the motor work joint,the quality of pictures its a lot smaller, its blockier. There is not much of color on contrast in the ,and the sound quality tends to be a little bit less stereo-like. When you look at the EVIL 4G, the biggest thing youll notice is that it is a higher quality picture, its got more contrasts, more colour,and the sample is phenomenal. And you know really if you put these things side by side, you can really tell the difference, so we have manufacture this, this is very really the same faith for both the devices. That exercise is really amazing. ;“这是3G手机播放视频时候的标准模式,这就是大多数iPone和托莫拉用户使用时候的情景。我们注意到3G手机的最大问题就是画面质量,3G手机的更小,成块状画面。视频中画面颜色的对比度并不大,声音质量没有立体声。当你看着EVIL 4G这款手机,最吸引你的就是高质量的画面,对比度更高,色更鲜明,这个例子很明显。而且,如果你把3G和4G手机并排放在一起,你能看到很明显的区别。因此我们生产了后者,两者的要达到的目标是一致的。4G手机真的是很神奇的电子设备。”Here, it is the Sprint HTC 4G EVIL which launches on June 4th for 199 dollars.这就是7月4日上市的HTC 4G EVIL手机,售价199美元。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201206/187074

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