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武汉包茎包皮费用ask在线咸宁市嘉鱼县龟头炎症

2019年10月21日 10:40:38
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7.Theodora – Byzantium7.狄奥多拉——拜占庭Born in 500 AD, Theodora was the daughter of a bear trainer and grew up in the hippodrome, where her actress mother started to teach her the tricks of the trade. By 15 she had become a child star in the arts of comedy, mime, and, well, prostitution. Her exploits were legendary, rough housing, flashing, and performing acts with geese we#39;d rather not imagine. Supposedly, she#39;d frequently take on 10 men at a time, and when they tired, she#39;d take on all of their servants. She had a lot of stamina, is what we#39;re trying to say.狄奥多拉生于公元500年,她是一位训熊师的女儿,在马戏团中长大。她的母亲是位演员,也是在这里开始传授她演技的诀窍。15岁时她已经是一个童星了,从事着喜剧、哑剧以及,卖淫工作。她的事迹是个传奇,在简陋的房屋中,她闪耀着光芒,与鹅共舞的场面,我们最好还是不要去想象。据说,她常常同时接十个客人,当嫖客累了,她又去接待他们的仆役。我们想说的是,她的精力十分旺盛。After finding religion at 18, the emperor Justinian I was struck with her beauty, so much so that he changed the law just so that he could marry her. She began taking on several of the emperor#39;s duties, including passing laws and consulting with foreign rulers. She also tried to end the sex slave trade and issued anti-rape legislation, becoming one of the earliest champions of women#39;s rights.狄奥多拉18岁找到信仰之后,东罗马帝国的皇帝查士丁尼一世(Justinian I )被她的美貌迷住了,为了能够娶她为妻,查士丁尼一世甚至修改了法律。此后,狄奥多拉开始着手处理一些皇帝的事务,包括通过法律、会见外国首领等等。她还尝试终止性奴隶贸易,颁布了反强奸法案,成为女权运动最早的拥护者之一。6.Maximinus Thrax – Rome6.马克西米努斯·色雷克斯——罗马Maximinus Thorax was was a shepherd and reportedly a giant, said to have been more than eight feet tall. Being thought a giant with superhuman strength, it was no surprise when he began working his way up through the Roman military. In 235 AD, when in command of a force of recruits in Germany, the soldiers decided they would prefer Maximinus to be their ruler, killing Alexander and putting the giant into a position of ultimate power.据说,马克西米努斯·色雷克斯是个高大的牧羊人,身高超过八英尺(约2.44米)。人们认为他身材魁梧,力能扛鼎,因此他自然能在罗马军队中平步青云。公元235年,马克西米努斯在德国负责统帅新兵团。士兵们极力拥护他称帝,并杀了当时的罗马帝国皇帝亚历山大·塞维鲁(Alexander),从而把这位巨人推向权力的巅峰。With war being all he knew, he extorted and confiscated lands from the property owning class, finally heading to Italy to suppress his challengers to the throne. He never made it to Rome though, as his troops killed him in 238 AD after apparently realizing size isn#39;t everything, and he was a pretty terrible leader. He carries the distinction of being a Roman emperor who never actually visited Rome. Well, except for his severed head, which his mutinous soldiers brought to the city after removing it from his neck.只会打仗的马克西米努斯不断侵占或没收所有者阶级的领土,还率军向意大利挺进,意图减少意大利对他皇位的威胁。但公元238年,在尚未抵达罗马之前,马克西米努斯就被部下们杀害了,因为他们意识到光有魁梧的身材是远远不够的,而且他是一位非常糟糕的领袖。马克西米努斯成为了一位独特的罗马皇帝,因为他从来没有去过罗马。当然了,他那被部下砍下的头颅,还是被带进过罗马城的。5.Liu Bang – China5.刘邦——中国Born in 256 to a peasant family, Liu was a troublemaker and a truant as a child. It was only when he saw the emperor riding in a magnificent carriage that he thought he wanted the high life for himself and began to work toward achieving his goals of wealth and power. After spending time working his way up the administration ladder, he saw an easier path to become emperor and became a rebel leader.刘邦于公元前256年出生在一个农民家庭。儿时的刘邦调皮捣蛋,十分懒散。直到某日,他看到乘坐气派马车的秦始皇,从而燃起了对荣华富贵的渴望,并开始了求富逐权之路。在他努力攀爬权利阶梯之时,却发现想要成为君主有一条捷径可走,于是率兵揭竿起义。It took Liu just two years to beat his arch rival Xiang Yu in capturing the capital, but was forced to spend the next four years keeping his rival at bay. Once he had finally beaten his enemy#39;s larger rebel army, he became known as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and began the Han dynasty that lasted for 400 years. He never did lose his childish ways, though, once urinating into a scholar#39;s hat to show his disdain for education.刘邦领兵征战两年,最后先于劲敌项羽占领秦都咸阳城,但他在接下来的四年里却一直受到项羽的牵制。最终,汉军大败楚军,刘邦登基,成为了众所周知的汉高祖,存世400年的汉朝也由此登上历史舞台。虽然刘邦已成为一国之君,但他依旧保持儿时的顽皮——他曾为了表示对教育的不屑,朝夫子的帽子里撒尿呢!4.Toyotomi Hideyoshi – Japan4.丰臣秀吉——日本A peasant born in 16th century Japan, Toyotomi was fatherless at the age of seven, a peasant, and pretty famously ugly. So in other words, he got a pretty crappy start in life. With nothing else going for him, he went looking for adventure and joined the Oda clan, where he proved himself brilliant in battle and rose through the ranks. He earned the trust of a man named Oda Nobunaga (commonly referred to as the Demon King), who gave Toyotomi control of his own troops to lay siege to castles, capture cities, and force generals into committing suicide. As luck would have it, those were some of Toyotomi#39;s favorite hobbies.丰臣秀吉出生在16世纪的日本,他七岁丧父,生来就是农民,又长得极其丑陋,所以换句话说,他早年过的很差劲。一无所有的他决定出去闯荡还投靠了织田家。在战场上他的才智得以发挥,并通过战绩得到提拔。丰臣深得织田信长(人们所熟知的第六天魔王)的信任,并被派去带领其军队攻城略池,以及逼迫将领自尽。而碰巧这些都是丰臣秀吉喜欢做的事情。When Oda Nobunaga was killed, Hideyoshi brought his killer#39;s head to his grave as vengeance, because flowers just won#39;t do. He continued taking over Japan, eventually ending the warring states period that had lasted 150 years. As the new regent of Japan he launched two invasions of Korea, put an end to social mobility since he didn#39;t think a peasant should be a ruler. Presumably because there wasn#39;t a Japanese word for ;irony.;织田信长被杀之后,丰臣秀吉取了杀手的首级,并放到他的墓前祭奠他,这件祭品的复仇意义是鲜花所不能替代的。此后,丰臣秀吉逐步控制日本,最终结束已经持续了150年的战国时代。作为日本新的统治者,丰臣秀吉两次征讨朝鲜,并设法禁止社会阶层的流动性,因为他认为农民无法成为统治者。大概日语中并没有;讽刺;这个词。审稿:张茜 Freya然 校对:CMX /201507/386028武汉华夏割包皮会痛吗武汉江夏区有治疗前列腺炎吗Lose weight or lose jobs丢掉体重还是丢掉工作The London Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe described the standard of British annual fitness test that officers must complete as ;too low;.伦敦警察局局长伯纳德·霍根-豪爵士近日称,英国警察每年必须参加的体能测试标准;太低;。Fat and unfit police must improve their physical condition or ;we haven#39;t got a job for them,; he said.他表示,肥胖和体能不达标的警察必须提高身体素质,否则,;我们这儿可没有他们的饭碗;。Mandatory annual fitness tests came into force in England and Wales in 2014.该强制性体能年检2014年开始在英格兰和威尔士实行。The Police Federation said hundreds of officers had failed the tests but no-one had been dismissed yet.警察联合会表示,已有成百上千的警察测试不及格,但至今尚无人被开除。 /201506/378767With a state-owned power plant in nearby Shanxi Province temporarily shut down to reduce air pollution, one of its engineers, Liu Cixin, is using the free time to work on his hobby: reigning as China’s best-selling science-fiction author.北京——工程师刘慈欣在山西附近的一座发电站工作(为减少空气污染,该站已经暂时关闭),他用业余时间经营自己的爱好,当上了中国最畅销的科幻小说作家。Along with working on a new novel and advising on screenplay adaptations of his earlier fiction, Mr. Liu, 51, has been promoting the English translation of “The Three-Body Problem,” the first book in his best-selling apocalyptic space opera trilogy. Translated by Ken Liu, an award-winning science-fiction writer in his own right who is based in the ed States (the men are not related), it is one of the few Chinese science-fiction novels to be translated into English. It will be released in the ed States on Tuesday by Tor Books.51岁的刘慈欣目前在创作一部新小说,也在给自己之前小说的电影改编剧本提建议。此外他还在宣传自己的小说《三体》的英译本,这是他的畅销天启太空歌剧三部曲中的第一部。该书由刘宇昆翻译,他同样是一位获奖科幻小说作家,现居美国(两人没有亲属关系)。目前被译为英文的中文科幻小说非常少见,本书将于周二由托尔图书出版社(Tor Books)在美国发行。The success of the “Three-Body” series, as it is called in China, has gained a following beyond the small but flourishing science-fiction world here. Since the third book was published in 2010, each entry in the series has sold about 500,000 copies in the original Chinese, making Mr. Liu the best-selling Chinese science-fiction author in decades.《三体》系列的成功令它的影响力超越了小而繁荣的科幻界。自第三部于2010年出版后,该系列每一部的中文版都卖出了约50万册,令刘慈欣成为几十年来最畅销的中国科幻小说作家。In addition to the usual high school and college-age fans of science fiction, China’s aerospace and Internet industries have embraced the books. Many interpret the battle of civilizations depicted in the series as an allegory for the ruthless competition in the nation’s Internet industry.除了科幻小说界常见的中学生与大学生拥趸,中国的航空航天和互联网业界人士也热爱这套书。很多人把书中不同文明之间的战争为中国互联网业内的无情竞争。The series has also breathed new life into a genre that, here as elsewhere, the literary establishment often marginalizes.这部系列也为科幻小说这一类型赋予了新活力,和在世界其他地方一样,在中国,科幻小说的文学价值经常被边缘化。For decades, science fiction was subject to the whims of Communist Party rule. The genre went from being a vehicle for popularizing science for socialist purposes to drawing criticism in 1983 from party newspapers for “sping pseudoscience and promoting decadent capitalist elements.” When the prestigious People’s Literature literary magazine published four of Mr. Liu’s short stories in 2012, it was a sign that the genre was back in official good graces.在中国,几十年来,科幻小说受到共产党反复无常的配。这一类型曾经被当做社会主义科普的工具,也在1983年遭到党报批评,称其为“传播伪科学,宣扬腐朽的资本主义”。2012年,声望很高的文学杂志《人民文学》刊登了四篇刘慈欣的小说,这标志着这一类型重新获得当局垂青。At its core, science fiction capitalizes on uncertainty about the future to push the boundaries of the er’s imagination. In fast-changing China, stories that lay out what coming years may hold in store have therefore found deeper resonance among ers.本质上,科幻小说利用未来的不确定性,推动读者想象的边界。因此,在快速变革的中国,关于未来可能发生的事情便能在读者当中找到更深的共鸣。“China is on the path of rapid modernization and progress, kind of like the U.S. during the golden age of science fiction in the ’30s to the ’60s,” Mr. Liu said. “The future in the people’s eyes is full of attractions, temptations and hope. But at the same time, it is also full of threats and challenges. That makes for very fertile soil.”“中国正处在高速现代化与发展的过程中,有点像20世纪30年代到60年代的美国,那也是科幻小说发展的黄金时期,”刘慈欣说。“人们眼中的未来充满魅力、诱惑与希望。同时也充满威胁和挑战。这为科幻小说提供了肥沃的土壤。”Chinese science fiction serves another purpose in the eyes of Xia Jia, a science-fiction writer and professor at Xian Jiaotong University. “Chinese science fiction, in a way, has borne the weight of the ‘Chinese dream’ since the genre first appeared in China in the late Qing dynasty,” she said, referring to the turn of the 20th century.在科幻小说作家与西安交通大学讲师夏笳看来,中国科幻小说还有另一个目的。“科幻小说是从晚清开始在中国出现,自那以后,中国科幻小说便在某种程度上承载着‘中国梦’,”她指的是19世纪与20世纪之交的那段时期。“The dream is about wanting to overtake the Western countries and become a very powerful modern China while still preserving these old elements,” she added. “This is what we who write science fiction in China have to grapple with.”“这个梦是关于追上西方国家,成为强大的现代中国,同时又保存古老的元素,”她补充,“这是我们中国的科幻小说作者必须应对的问题。”The “Three-Body” tomes chronicle a march of the human race into the universe set against the recent past, the tumultuous years of the Cultural Revolution. It is a classic science-fiction story in the style of the British master Arthur C. Clarke, whose work Mr. Liu says he grew up ing. “Everything that I write is a clumsy imitation of Arthur C. Clarke,” he said.《三体》三部曲按年代顺序记载了人类进军宇宙的征程,故事从不久的过去开始,即“文化大革命”动荡的岁月。这是经典的科幻小说故事,有着英国科幻小说大师阿瑟·C·克拉克(Arthur C. Clarke)的风格,刘慈欣说,自己从小就看克拉克的小说。“我写作的一切都是对阿瑟·C·克拉克的笨拙模仿,”他说。The first book in the series explores the world of the Trisolarans, an alien civilization on the brink of destruction. When a secret military project in China attempts to make contact with aliens, the Trisolarans capture the signals and decide to invade Earth. Back in China, people split into two camps: those who welcome the aliens and those who want to fight them.该系列的第一本探索了三体人的世界,这个外星文明正处于崩溃边缘。中国的一个秘密军事行动试图和外星人取得联系,三体人收到信号,决定入侵地球。在中国,人们分裂成两大阵营,一派欢迎外星人,另一派希望同他们开战。The series is likely to be a change of pace for science-fiction fans in the ed States, where many leading contemporary writers in the genre are rejecting classic alien-invasion plots in favor of those that take on real-world issues like climate change or shifting gender roles.这个系列有可能改变美国科幻小说迷的口味,目前美国的很多顶尖科幻小说作家摒弃传统的外星人入侵情节,更青睐反映现实世界的题材,诸如气候变化和性别转变之类。“I don’t think the demand for this kind of classical golden age science fiction has necessarily gone away,” Liz Gorinsky, an editor at Tor Books, said of the decision to introduce the series to American ers. “The ‘Three-Body’ series sort of scratches the same itch that harkens back to the kinds of books people when they were kids.”“我不认为对这类黄金时代经典科幻小说的需求已经消失,”托尔出版社的编辑莉兹·格林斯基(Liz Gorinsky)在谈起为何将该系列引入美国时说。“《三体》系列正是人们小时候读过的那种书。”Some experts link the popularity of the “Three-Body” series to a growing confidence among Chinese about their country’s growing role on the world stage.有些专家把《三体》系列的流行同中国人对国家在世界舞台上扮演的角色感到日益自信联系起来。“There have always been science-fiction stories that contemplated China as a leader in the world,” said Wu Yan, a science-fiction scholar and professor at Beijing Normal University. “People may have liked them, but, in their hearts, they didn’t truly believe them, or they thought it was really far off in the future. Now, with the ‘Three-Body’ series, people think, ‘Wow, it really could be possible that China might be given a say in the fate of humankind.’ ”“总有一些科幻小说把中国描绘为世界的领袖,”科幻小说作家、北京师范大学教授吴岩说。“人们或许喜欢它们,但在内心深处,他们并不相信,或者觉得这是遥远未来的事。现在,看了《三体》,人们觉得,‘啊,中国真有可能在关于人类命运的问题上发言了。’”In the book, scientists attempt to solve the traditional three-body problem in physics, in which the otherwise stable gravitational interaction between two objects in space becomes random and unpredictable when a third object is introduced.在这本书里,科学家试图揭开物理学中传统的三体问题:在宇宙空间中,如果引入第三个物体,两个物体之间稳定的引力作用会变为随机而不可预测。Mr. Liu’s revered status in the genre was evident this month at a book signing at the fifth annual Chinese Nebula Awards, one of the largest gatherings of science-fiction writers and fans in China. More than 2,000 people attended the events, held in an empty museum space on the western outskirts of Beijing.一年一度的华语星云奖是中国科幻作家和读者最大的盛会之一,这个月的第五届星云奖充分显示了刘慈欣在科幻界的崇高地位。2000多人出席了活动,北京西郊一家空荡荡的物馆顿时水泄不通。Mr. Liu stepped out of the elevator and made his way through the throngs to the table. Gasps and excited whispers were audible among the hundreds of fans who had lined up around the building. Two hours later, more than 100 fans, mostly college-age, were still waiting for a chance to meet him. One, Wu Liang, 27, trembled with excitement after her encounter with Mr. Liu.刘慈欣走出电梯,穿过人流,来到桌前。室内有几百个粉丝,兴奋的吸气声和耳语清晰可闻。两小时后,一百多个粉丝(其中大部分是大学生的年纪),仍在等着与他见面的机会。27岁的吴莲(音译)见到刘慈欣后,不禁激动得发抖。“You just bury your head in the ‘Three-Body’ books, and all of a sudden you feel so energized,” said Ms. Wu, who works at an Internet company in Beijing and attended the event in full Jedi attire. “It’s really a milestone in Chinese science fiction.”“你埋头读着《三体》,突然就觉得那么兴奋,”吴说,她在北京一家互联网公司工作,穿着绝地武士装来参加这次活动。“它的确是中国科幻小说的里程碑。” /201411/342578武汉华夏医院可以做包皮手术吗

武汉华夏医院不孕不育武汉医院做包皮手术大概要多少钱Diamond ring to track spouse用来追踪另一半的钻石戒指British jeweler, Steve Bennett, has built the first engagement ring that also doubles as a tracking device.英国珠宝商史蒂夫·贝内特首创一款订婚戒指追踪器。The ring may look like any other diamond ring, but has the discreet addition of a bluetooth chip.这种戒指看起来跟其他的钻石戒指没什么两样,但是里边添加了不起眼的蓝牙芯片。It means jealous spouses will now be able to keep tabs on their significant other.所以,爱吃醋的人现在可以监视另一半的行踪。Smaller than a thumbnail, the sophisticated GPS tracking technology is slotted behind the jewel of the ring, which has currently been designed in two different prototypes.精密的GPS追踪器比拇指指甲还要小,被安装在戒指的珠宝饰物后面,目前有两种设计样品。The latest development in the wearable technology trend, one design boasts a sizable square-cut diamond with an eight-prong silver setting, while the other is composed of a violet marquise-cut diamond with an unusual square setting.顺应了可穿戴技术的最新发展潮流,一种设计采用大块方形切割钻石,配有八角形的银底座,而另外一种设计采用不规则方形底座托着紫罗兰色卵形钻石。But what both prototypes have in common is that they will report the location of the ring at all times.但是这两种样品有一个共同点,都能随时暴露戒指的所在地。 /201506/381127When fate hasn#39;t dealt you the best hand in life, it#39;s easier to complain than to work change it. But throughout history, there have been people who just grab the whole deck for themselves, rising from those humble beginnings to seize more power than anyone could have ever thought possible. As we#39;re about to tell you, sometimes even the lowliest peasants can rise to the highest stations.当命运之神不曾眷顾你的时候,是选择抱怨还是努力改变现状?前者似乎更容易一些。然而纵观历史,不乏拼尽全力与命运抗争之辈,他们出身卑微,却最终达到一般人无法企及的权力巅峰。正如我们将在本文中为你讲述的,即使是地位最低下的农民,也可以登上权力金字塔的顶端。10.Catherine I – Russia10.叶卡捷琳娜一世——俄罗斯Catherine was born in 1684 to a peasant family, and orphaned just three years later when both parents died from the plague. She was raised by a pastor in Latvia until she was 17, when the Russians invaded and took her captive. Catherine proved to be one of the more valuable acquisitions of the conquest, and thanks to her good looks was passed around as a favor in the court, eventually being given to Peter the Great in 1705.1684年,叶卡捷琳娜出生于一个农民家庭,三岁时父母死于瘟疫,成为孤儿。随后,拉脱维亚(Latvia)的一位牧师收养了她,直到17岁那年俄军入侵,她被俘虏。日后的故事表明这位传奇女子是非常有价值的战利品,因为相貌出众,她在宫廷里被当作礼物几经转手,最终于1705年送到彼得大帝(Peter the Great)的身边。Somewhat unexpectedly, Peter and Catherine fell in love, and she even managed to save his empire in from the Turks in 1711, offering her jewels as a bribe and allowing the Russians to retreat rather than face annihilation. Their relationship was marred towards the end by Catherine#39;s alleged affair with William Mons, but Peter had him executed and they were able to reconcile just before Peter#39;s death. Catherine was his successor and, despite not really having any political ambition, became the first female emperor of Russia.令人意想不到的是,彼得和叶卡捷琳娜竟然坠入爱河。1711年,彼得陷入土耳其军队的重围(译注:1711年俄土战争,彼得一世亲征普鲁特河),叶卡捷琳娜用珠宝贿赂敌军,帮他突围保住皇位,并令俄军撤退,使其免遭歼灭。叶卡捷琳娜和威廉·蒙斯(William Mons)有婚外情的传闻,险些导致她和彼得关系破裂,但是最后彼得处死威廉,并在自己死前与叶卡捷琳娜重修旧好。叶卡捷琳娜一世成为彼得一世的继任者,虽然她并没有什么政治抱负,但却成为俄罗斯历史上第一位女皇。9.Justin I – Byzantium9.查士丁一世——拜占庭Justin was born in 453 AD and began life as a simple swineherd, enduring poverty and barbarian raids at an early age. At 20 years old he set off on a journey to Constantinople to seek his fortune. He joined the corps of 300, and quickly rose to a position of command. With military power came political power, and he was given the title of Count.查士丁出生于公元453年,早年以养猪为生,生活困顿,常遭野蛮劫掠。20岁那年,他离家前往君士坦丁堡谋生。随后加入一300人的军队,很快就晋升为指挥官。查士丁依靠其军事能力得到政治权力,并被授予伯爵封号。Emperor Anastasius was childless, and when it came to naming his successor he chose to put his faith in God, saying that whoever came into his room next would become emperor. Rather than a member of his own family, however, it was Justin who entered his chambers and became the new emperor when Anastasius died. It was a position he never really wanted, and he made that clear to the Pope by writing to inform him he had been made emperor against his will. An unwilling, unprepared, and uneducated emperor, he ruled for nine years and proved that some men are born great, and others fall into power ass backwards.阿纳斯塔修斯一世(Emperor Anastasius)没有子嗣,他把挑选继任者这件事情交给上帝决断,声明下一个进入自己的房间的人将会成为继任皇帝。然而,阿纳斯塔修斯去世之时,进入他寝宫的并非其亲属,而是查士丁。但查士丁根本不想成为皇帝,还给教皇写信,告诉他自己是被迫登上皇位的。就这样,这位没受过教育的皇帝在毫无准备、毫不情愿的情况下执政9年。他的存在向世人明:有的人生来尊贵,而有的人却阴差阳错获得权利。8.Diocletian – Rome8.戴克里先——罗马Diocletian was the son of a former slave, and was born around 245 AD. He embarked on a career in the army, and through a combination of military skill, ambition, and having the good fortune to be favored by the emperor Carus, Diocletian was able to rise to the rank of commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. When Carus was killed by a bolt of lightning, his sons Numerian and Carinus assumed control of the East and West empires respectively, but it wasn#39;t long before Numerian died.戴克里先是一个奴隶的儿子,生于公元245年。他的传奇人生从军队开始,由于他出色的军事能力、远大的抱负,以及受到罗马帝国皇帝卡鲁斯(Carus)的青睐,戴克里先很快就当上了帝国保卫骑兵营的指挥官。在卡鲁斯死于雷击之后,他的儿子努梅里安(Numerian)和卡里努斯(Carinus)分别统治了东罗马和西罗马,但是没过多久努梅里安就去世了。Diocletian won support by killing Aper, the man suspected of having a hand in Numerian#39;s death, in front of all the troops, and was rewarded with the title of Emperor of the East. Carinus was none too pleased with his brother being succeeded by a bodyguard, and moved to meet Diocletian in battle. Unfortunately for Carinus, his unpopularity led to his own men killing him, and put Diocletian to assume control of the entire Roman empire.当着所有军队,戴克里先杀掉了被怀疑与努梅里安之死有关的艾派(Aper),因此而获得持,并被拥戴成为东罗马帝国的皇帝。卡里努斯不满自己哥哥的皇位被一个侍卫继承,于是与戴克里先兵戎相见。不幸的是,卡里努斯因为不得人心,被自己的人所刺杀,从而使得戴克里先统治了整个罗马帝国。审稿:张茜 Freya然 校对:CMX /201507/386026武汉男性专科6. Chinese Cartoon 6. 中国动画 Early History早期发展In around 180 A.D. the first zoetrope was invented by Duing Huan, an artisan in the Eastern Han. While the modern cartoon industry began in France in 1888 invented by Emile Reynaud, Chinese animation started in the 1920s, and were inspired by French, German, Russian and mostly American productions. One of the first records of foreign animation did not land in Shanghai until 1918. This piece of animation from the US was titled as ;Out of the Inkwell;.大约公元180年,丁缓(汉朝工艺家)发明了第一个西洋镜(活动幻影)。现代动画产业始于1888年的法国,埃米尔 .雷诺创作了第一件作品。在法国、德国、俄罗斯和美国的动画作品的鼓舞下,中国的动画始于20世纪20年代。直到1918年,上海出现了第一部动画作品一一来自美国的《从墨水瓶里跳出来》。 Exploration Periods (1920-1945 )探索阶段In 1922 Wan Laiming produced the first animation in a cartoon advertisement for the Shuzhendong Chinese Typewriter. Shanghai Tobacco Company also produced a cartoon called New Year. These are the earliest known cartoon shorts.1922年万籁鸣,万氏兄弟制作了中国的第一组卡通广告《舒振东华文打字机》。上海烟草公司也制作了卡通片《新年》。这就是所知最早的卡通短片。In 1926, four Wan brothers, Wan Laiming, Wan Guchan, Wan Chaochen and Wan Dihuan worked under the Great Wall Film Company in China, not the Great Wall Movie Enterprises Ltd. Wan Laiming and Wan Guchan were then recognized as China#39;s animation pioneers when they produced the first animation short Uproar in the Studio running 10 to 12 minutes long in black and white. The brothers believed that Chinese animation should be instructive, logical and thought-provoking besides being entertaining to its audience. They wanted to emphasize the development of an animation style that was uniquely Chinese. It was a common trend at the time to combine live action film footages with 2D animation. By 1932 one of the Wan brothers, Wan Dihuan, would voluntarily leave the Great Wall Film company for his own photography studio. Some of the first wave of influential American animations that reached Shanghai was Popeye,and a show known as Betty Boop.1926年,万氏四兄弟,即万籁鸣、万古瞻、万超尘和万涤寰,在中国长城电影公司旗下工作,并非长城电影有限公司。万籁鸣、万古瞻兄弟制作了第一部长达10-12分钟的黑自动画短片《大闹画室》,因此当时他们被称为中国动画事业的先驱。兄弟俩认为,中国动画除了能够观众以外,还应当具有启发性、逻辑性和发人深省。他们要重点创造中国独有的动画风格。把活动的电影胶片和二维动画电影片段结合起来是当时的发展趋势。1932年,万氏兄弟之一,万涤寰离开长城电影公司开设了自己的摄影工作室。一些有影响的美国首批动画在上海播映,有《大力水手》和《勃比》。By 1935 the Wan brothers would launch the first animation with sound titled The Camel#39;s Dance. By 1941 China#39;s first animated feature film of notable length, ;Princess Iron Fan;, was released under very difficult conditions during Sino-Japanese War and World War II;. While there was overlapping progress made in the Asian regions with Japanese enemies at the time, they were not geographically or artistically influential to Chinese cartoon directly. During the Japanese invasion period, the brothers produced more than 20 animated propaganda shorts focusing on various patriotic topics from resistance against Japanese troops, opium and imperialism.1935年,万氏兄弟创作的《骆驼献舞》宣告有声动画片的诞生,并对中国美术片的发展产生重大影响。 1941年,他们创作出中国第一部超长动画一一《铁扇公主~,在非常困难的抗日战争和第二次世界大战的条件下上映。尽管当时亚洲地区进行着抗日战争,但是中国动画事业无论在地理上还是在艺术性上都没有受到影响,取得了不断的进步。在此期间,万氏兄弟们还是创作出了超过 20部的动画宣传短片,围绕爱国主义主题、涉及反抗日本侵略、抵制鸦片和反抗帝国主义各个方面。Steady Development (1946-1949)稳定发展阶段On October 1, 1946 a northeast motion picture studio was established in the Nenjiang Province, later incorporated into the Heilongjiang Province. In 1947 production such as Emperor#39;s Dream used puppets in an exaggerated way to expose corruption of politics. The idea of using political contents in puppet films was becoming acceptable. Documentary type cartoons like Go after an Easy Prey (1948) is an example. In 1948 the Northeast studio would change name to Shanghai picture studio group.1946年10月1日,在当时的嫩江省(后并人今黑龙江省),成立了东北电影制片厂。1947年创作出了动画片《皇帝梦》。动画片用木偶以夸张的手法讽刺了当时政治的腐败。在木偶片中引人政治内容被认可。纪录片形式的漫画,像《瓮中捉鳖》(1948)就是一个例子。 1948年,东北电影制片厂美术片组并人上海电影制片厂。Founding of Shanghai Arts and Film Studio (1950~1965)上海美术电影制片厂的成立In February 1950 the northeast group would combine with other divisions to become the predecessor of Shanghai Animation Film Studio. The Wan brothers, Central Academy of Fine Arts, the Art Institute of Suzhou and many other big name artists would all be concentrated in this studio for the first time. In Shanghai Thank You, Kitty was created. By 1956 the Wan brothers had created the first colored animation of notable length titled Why is the Crow Black-Coated, which became the first Chinese animation recognized internationally.1950年2月,东北组联合其他的一些部门,成立了专业生产美术片的上海美术电影制片厂的前身(简称美影)。万氏儿弟、中央美术学院、苏州艺术学院等许多大艺术家都首次云集在了这里。《谢谢你,小花猫》诞生了。 1956年,万氏兄弟摄制了色动画片,名为《乌鸦为什么是黑的》,标志着中国动画片被世界所接受。In April 1957 the central government began sponsoring the studio, making it the nation#39;s first and official animation factory. From the technology standpoint,China#39;s animation was still relatively on pace with the rest of the world. In 1958 the Wan brothers created a new animation film technique based on the folk art cut-paper animation, which was demonstrated in Pigsy Eats Watermelon. At the same time another technique called origami animation was also developed by Yu Zheguang in 1960, in the film A Clever Duckling. Also in 1960 the first set of animation film exhibitions were held in 6 major cities including Shanghai and Beijing, followed by exhibitions in Hong Kong in 1962αnd Macau in 1963.1957年4月开始,中央政府开始创办国内第一家官方美术制片厂。从技术角度看,我国的动画发展速度于世界各地相对持平。1958年万氏兄弟在民间剪纸艺术的基础上,运用动画原理和电影手段,试制成功首部剪纸片《猪八戒吃西瓜》。与此同时,在儿童折纸和手工劳作基础上加以改造、演化,虞哲光于1960年首创了折纸片《聪明的小鸭子》。1960年第一回动画影展分别于上海、北京等 6个大城市举办。1962年在香港,1963年在也随后开展。The Wan brothers would receive the most recognition for their film Havoc in Heaven,since it was well known among ordinary citizens. The development spanned 4 years from 1961 to 1964. It ran for nearly 2 hours pushing the technology to the limit with some of the most vivid colors ever put to the screen.万氏兄弟获得最大认可的影片是众人皆知的历经四年完成的鸿篇巨制《大闹天宫》。全片持续两个小时,把电影技术和精美色的运用推向了极致。Reform Period (1978~1989)改革阶段The Chinese animation industry would begin to reproduce animations in a new direction. Shanghai Animation Film Studio had launched 219 animation films in the 1980s. In 1979 Nezha was one of the first notable animations shown during the rebirth period. Other films include Snow Kid (1980), Lao Mountain Taoist (1981), The Deer#39;s Bell (1982) and Legend of Sealed Book (1983). Among the works Three Monks (1980) was one of the few animations that managed to earn awards with clear national style and modern sense.中国动画产业在新的方向进行创新。20世纪80年代,上海电影制片厂推出 219部动画电影。 1979年制作的《哪吨闹海》是新时期第一部宽银幕杰出的代表作。此外,杰出的动画片还有《雪孩子》(1980)、《唠山道士》(1981 )、《鹿铃》 (1982)、《天书奇谭》(1983)其中《三个和尚》(1980)是饮誉中外的创新之作,既有鲜明的民族风格,又有现代意识。Contemporary Development当代新发展Chinese animations now have major festival to back them up. The First China International Cartoon Festival held in Hangzhou is so far the largest of its kind in China. One of the most important components of this festival was the Original Cartoon and Animation Exposition, which attracted more than 100 cartoon producers from the Chinese mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as Japan, South Korea, America, Britain and Germany. Although the exhibits were mainly audio and products, people still detected health prospects for the Chinese cartoon industry. In recent years, China has established many enterprises engaged in cartoon production. In Hangzhou alone, there are more than 50 such enterprises, most of which deal with film and TV products, as well as online gaming development. One of them, Zhongnan Cartoon Company, receives good response from both domestic and overseas markets.现在中国动画业有了自己的节日。首届中国国际动画节在杭州举行,这是迄今为止中国规模最大的动画庆典。展览会上最重要的组成部分,是原创动画和动画览会。吸引了 100多名来自中国大陆、香港和台湾,以及日本、韩国、美国、英国和德国的卡通制作人。虽然展品主要是音像制品,人们还是对中国动画产业的前景很乐观。近年来,中国已建立了不少企业从事漫画生产。仅在杭州就有50多个动画制作商,其中大部分负责影视产品以及网络游戏的发展。中南卡通公司是其中之一,收到了国内外市场良好的反响。 /201505/373187武汉华夏男子医院泌尿外科

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