万安县去除眼袋多少钱快乐分类

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 万安县去除眼袋多少钱百姓网
Facebook Inc. agreed to buy messaging company WhatsApp for billion in cash and stock, a blockbuster transaction that dwarfs the aly sky-high prices that other startups have been able to recently command.Facebook Inc.已同意以190亿美元现金加股票收购即时通讯应用提供商WhatsApp。这一巨额收购交易引起市场轰动,也令其他初创公司近期卖出的已经极高的价格相形见绌。The 55-employee company, which acts as a kind of replacement for text messaging, has seen its use more than double in the past nine months to 450 million monthly users. That makes its service more popular than Twitter Inc., the widely used microblogging service which has about 240 million users and is currently valued at about billion.WhatsApp有55名雇员,该公司的产品相当于一种手机短信替代品。过去九个月中,该公司每月用户数增长超过一倍,达到4.5亿。这意味着该公司的务比推特(Twitter Inc.)的务更受欢迎。推特是一种被广泛使用的微务,用户数约为2.4亿,该公司目前的市值约300亿美元。The transaction, which includes billion in restricted stock units to be granted to WhatsApp#39;s founders and employees over four years, ranks as the largest-ever purchase of a company backed by venture capital. Besides making its founders billionaires, the deal marks an enormous windfall for Sequoia Capital, the only venture firm that invested in WhatsApp.该交易是迄今为止规模最大的针对风投持企业的收购交易。该交易的内容包括在四年内向WhatsApp创始人和雇员授予30亿美元的受限股票单位。该交易除了将令WhatsApp的创始人成为亿万富翁外,还将给唯一投资该公司的风投公司Sequoia Capital带来巨额收益。The deal price also easily outranks any acquisition of startups in recent years, including Facebook#39;s purchase of photo-sharing app Instagram for more than billion in 2012, and, a year earlier, Microsoft Corp.#39;s .5 billion buy of -calling company Skype.该交易的收购价也远高于最近几年任何初创公司获得的收购价格,比如Facebook在2012年出资超过10亿美元收购照片分享应用商Instagram的交易,以及此前一年微软(Microsoft Corp.)出资85亿美元收购视频电话公司Skype的交易。What isn#39;t clear is how much revenue WhatsApp makes -- the company declined to comment on its sales. It charges 99 cents a year after a one year of free use, and doesn#39;t carry ads. On a conference call, Facebook Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg said he doesn#39;t think ads are the right way to monetize messaging systems.目前还不清楚WhatApp的收入情况,该公司对其销售方面的问题不予置评。该公司对其产品提供一年的免费使用,一年之后收取99美分的年费,其产品不搭载广告。Facebook首席执行长马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)在一次电话会议中表示,他不认为广告是利用即时通讯系统获利的正确方式。Beyond revenue, the deal could help shelter the social network against the shifting tastes of teen users, some of whom have grown cool to it, and bolster its position internationally. WhatsApp is particularly popular outside of the U.S.除了获得相关收入之外,这项交易也有助于Facebook避免青少年用户兴趣变化对该公司业绩的影响,因为有些青少年已经开始厌烦Facebook了。WhatsApp在美国以外特别流行。The transaction comes in the wake of Facebook#39;s failed attempt to purchase another messaging service, Snapchat, for billion last year. Both Snapchat and WhatsApp are popular with younger users, a demographic Facebook has been struggling to attract in recent years, according to surveys. Facebook said in an earnings call in October that some younger teens were using the service less.在达成这项交易前,Facebook去年曾试图以30亿美元收购另一家即时通讯务商Snapchat,但交易未能达成。调查显示,Snapchat和WhatsApp在年轻用户中都非常受欢迎,而这一用户群体正是Facebook近年来在努力争取的。Facebook曾在去年10月的一次财报会上表示,一些青少年对Facebook的使用有所减少。Even by the get-big-fast standards of Silicon Valley, WhatsApp#39;s story is remarkable. The company, founded in 2009 by Ukrainian Jan Koum and American Brian Acton, reached 450 million users faster than any company in history, wrote Jim Goetz, a partner at investor Sequoia Capital.即便是按照硅谷“迅速做大”的标准,WhatsApp的发展速度也令人惊叹。红杉资本(Sequoia Capital)的合伙人戈茨(Jim Goetz)写道,WhatsApp用户数量达到4.5亿的速度要快于历史上的任何公司。该公司是由乌克兰人Jan Koum和美国人阿克顿(Brian Acton)在2009年创立的。Facebook had fewer than 150 million users after its fourth year, one third that of WhatsApp in the same time period. WhatsApp processes 50 billion messages a day, Mr. Goetz wrote, yet has only 32 engineers and does not employ any marketing or public-relations people.Facebook在成立四年后的用户数量还不足1.5亿,仅相当于WhatsApp同期用户数量的三分之一。戈茨称,WhatsApp现在每天处理的讯息量达500亿条,但该公司只有32名工程师,而且没有聘请任何市场营销或公关人员。WhatsApp built its business on the idea of offering instant messaging without the fees that carriers often charge.WhatsApp建立公司业务的理念是,提供一种无需向运营商付费用的即时通讯务。The company goes out of its way to remain private, offering little in the way of information to government agencies trying to track people. Once delivered, messages are deleted from the company#39;s servers. Privacy was particularly important to Mr. Koum, who grew up in a communist country with a secret police.WhatsApp想方设法保护用户的隐私,几乎不向试图追踪用户行动的政府机构提供任何信息。在使用WhatsApp时,讯息一旦发送出去,就会被该公司的务器删除。Koum是在一个有秘密警察的共产主义国家长大的,隐私对他来说尤为重要。#39;Jan#39;s childhood made him appreciate communication that was not bugged or tape,#39; Mr. Goetz wrote. #39;When he arrived in the U.S. as a 16-year-old immigrant living on food stamps, he had the extra incentive of wanting to stay in touch with his family in Russia and the Ukraine.#39;戈茨写道,Koum的童年经历使他向往往那种不被监听和录音的通讯;他16岁移民美国,只能靠食品救济券生活,那时他非常渴望与在俄罗斯和乌克兰的家人保持联系。The transaction came together quickly. Mr. Zuckerberg said he and Mr. Koum first discussed the deal on a Sunday evening less than two weeks ago. WhatsApp, based in Mountain View, Calif., will stay in its headquarters and continue to operate independently of its new parent company, which is based nearby in Menlo Park.这笔收购是在很短时间内达成的。扎克伯格表示,他与Koum首次讨论这笔交易是在不到两周前的一个周日的晚上。WhatsApp位于加州芒廷维尤,而Facebook的总部位于门洛帕克附近。在交易完成后,WhatsApp将继续留在芒廷维尤的总部,并独立于母公司Facebook运营。The demographics of WhatsApp#39;s users were likely a draw for Facebook, said Rebecca Lieb, analyst at Altimeter Group. #39;This is clearly also a play at securing their base of younger users who are married to text messaging,#39; she said.Altimeter Group的一位分析师表示,WhatsApp的用户群可能是吸引Facebook的原因,这笔交易显然也是为了确保该公司的年轻用户基础,因为这部分用户已经离不开即时信息的使用。Equally enticing is the percentage of WhatsApp users who log onto the service at least once a day. That figure sits at 70%, even higher than Facebook#39;s 61%. Such #39;engagement#39; percentages are valuable because the more users interact with a service, the more ads or other products can be sold to them.同样具有吸引力的是至少每天都使用WhatsApp务的用户百分比,该比率为70%,甚至高于Facebook的61%。这样的“活跃度”非常有价值,因为与务互动的用户数量越多,可以销售给他们的广告和其他产品就越多。#39;Facebook#39;s always working to find new reasons for people to come back,#39; said Forrester Research analyst Nate Elliot. #39;Facebook is desperate to keep people coming back every day.#39;Forrester Research分析师埃利奥特(Nate Elliot)称,Facebook总是在寻找让用户再次使用其务的新理由,该公司迫切希望用户能够每天都登录其网站。Instagram, a hit among teens, has also helped Facebook hedge against any loss of younger users. Instagram added a direct messaging service last year, giving Facebook control of yet another mobile messaging product on the market. The service only had about 15 million users at the time of its acquisition.在青少年中大受欢迎的Instagram也帮助Facebook预防了年轻用户的流失。Instagram去年添加了一项直接通讯务,Facebook由此掌控了市场上又一个移动通讯产品。在刚被收购时Instagram仅拥有大约1,500万用户。On a per-user basis, Facebook is paying around apiece for WhatsApp, roughly in line with the amount that other social media companies that have been acquired in recent years.根据用户数量来计算,Facebook对WhatsApp每位用户的估值在40美元左右,基本和近些年被收购的其他社交媒体公司的情况差不多。Other figures disclosed in a Securities and Exchange Commission filing show other metrics that made it particularly attractive to Facebook. WhatsApp users every day upload 600 million photos, for example, and send 100 million messages every day.从一份提交给美国券交易委员会(Securities and Exchange Commission)的文件披露的其他数据中也能看出这笔交易对Facebook来说尤为具有吸引力。举例来说,WhatsApp用户每日上传6亿张照片,每日的视频信息发送量达到1亿条。On the conference call, Messrs. Zuckerberg and Koum said it was important the company operate separately and retain the mentality of a startup, a strategy Mr. Zuckerberg said has worked with Instagram. #39;What we found is it really can work,#39; he said.扎克伯格和Koum在一个电话会议上称,保持WhatsApp运营的独立性及其作为初创公司所具有的精神非常重要,扎克伯格称这一策略在Instagram非常成功。他表示,我们发现这样的策略很有效。Instagram founder Kevin Systrom, he said, has #39;gotten a huge amount of value on being able to use Facebook infrastructure,#39; while remaining separate.扎克伯格称,可以使用Facebook的基础设施让Instagram创始人希斯特罗姆(Kevin Systrom)收获了巨大的价值。Mr. Koum will join Facebook#39;s board of directors. He said the company does not plan to add advertising, sticking instead to a subscription model.Koum将加入Facebook董事会。他表示,WhatsApp仍将维持零广告策略,继续推行订阅模式。WhatsApp, despite its surging popularity in recent years, has been wary of raising capital and entertaining suitors. Mr. Koum told The Wall Street Journal last December that WhatsApp has #39;no plans to sell, IPO, exit,#39; or get new funding.虽然近几年WhatsApp的受欢迎度飙升,但该公司在对待融资以及收购兴趣方面一直很谨慎。Koum去年12月份向《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)表示,WhatsApp没有出售、上市、退出或筹资的计划。 /201402/276701In 2006, self-proclaimed hustler Gary Vaynerchuk decided it was time to try something new. Over the previous 10 years, Vaynerchuk had expanded his father’s liquor store into a successful wine business called Wine Library. However, for the ambitious young man, this was only the beginning. He had always had a nose for trends, and he could sense a real shift in how customers were making buying decisions. He wanted to capitalize on it.2006年,自称是小商贩的加里·沃伊涅尔查克决定,是时候尝试新东西了。过去10年中,沃伊涅尔查克已经把他父亲的酒铺扩大成了一家名叫“葡萄酒图书馆”(Wine Library)的成功酒企。然而,对于这位雄心勃勃的年轻人来说,这仅仅是个开始。他一直很善于发现潮流所向,能够感觉到客户作出购买决策的方式正在发生切实的转变。他打算利用这种变化赚一笔。Vaynerchuk set up a camera and had a colleague shoot him talking about wine. He was direct, brash, funny, and above all, informative. But what really set him apart was his sheer work ethic. He posted a new episode of his “ blog,” which he dubbed Wine Library TV, five days a week and relentlessly supported the content by tweeting in every spare moment, until three in the morning and beyond.沃伊涅尔查克架设了一个摄像头,让一位同事拍摄他聊葡萄酒的画面。他的直截了当,尖锐犀利,风趣幽默,最重要的是,信息量非常大。但不知疲倦的工作态度才是他真正与众不同的地方。他每周有5天会都发布一段全新的“视频客”(他把它戏称为“葡萄酒图书馆电视”),而且一有空就发微,坚持不懈地为视频内容提供持,一直到凌晨三点,甚至更晚。Vaynerchuk’s methods paid off. Not only did his wine selling business grow to unparalleled heights, he became a bestselling author with books like Crush It!and Jab, Jab, Jab Right Hook. He was featured on the covers of top business magazines and received invitations to speak in front of massive audiences of entrepreneurs and executives. His fans even began calling themselves Vayniacs.沃伊涅尔查克的方法得到了回报。不仅葡萄酒销售生意增长到了空前的高度,他本人也成了一位畅销书作家,代表作包括《粉碎它!》(Crush It!)和《右钩拳》( Jab, Jab, Jab Right Hook)。此外,他频频登上顶级商业杂志的封面,而且还经常受邀在大批企业家和高管面前发表演讲。他的拥趸甚至开始以“沃伊脑残粉”自称。Gary Vaynerchuk’s ascent to online stardom and real world riches typifies a powerful trend in business today. The idea, written about in countless articles and business books, is that the only way to make it in the digital age is to relentlessly promote your “personal brand,” especially though social media.加里o沃伊涅尔查克崛起为网络明星、同时在现实世界赢得万贯身家的经历代表了当今工商界的一个强大趋势。这种理念已经被无数文章和商业书籍探讨过,它就是:在数字时代收获成功的唯一途径是,不遗余力地推广你的“个人品牌”,特别是通过社交媒体。The intensity of this process can be daunting. As such, a cottage industry of inspirational business advice has sprouted online, full of aphorisms that combine self-help and tough love. In fact, Vaynerchuk put it best during an interview on Mashable, where he looked into the camera and stated with his characteristic confidence, “If I’m more successful than you, there’s one reason for it—it’s because I outworked you.” And by work, he means spending a huge number of hours building fans of his Internet persona.这个进程的强度可能令人胆寒。正因为如此,一个致力于提供励志商业建议的作坊式产业已经在网上破土而出,它充满了集自助和严厉之爱于一身的格言警句。事实上,还是沃伊涅尔查说得最清楚不过。他在接受社交媒体客Mashable采访时盯着摄像头,带着他特有的自信,言之凿凿地说:“如果我比你更成功,那只有一个原因——因为我比你工作得更努力。”他所说的工作指的是,花费大量时间为他的网络形象打造粉丝群。It is a recipe for success that is attractive, intuitive, and appealing to our fundamentally American belief if you hustle long and hard enough to get yourself in front of people, you can make all your dreams come true. There’s only one problem—for many of us, it doesn’t work.这是一种极具吸引力、非常直观的成功秘诀,非常符合美国人秉持的一项基本理念:如果你比其他人更加持久、更加努力地拼搏,你所有的梦想都可以变为现实。这里只有一个问题——对于许多人来说,这样做根本行不通。The soaring popularity of “self branding” is just one of the topics addressed in David Zweig’s new bookInvisibles: The Power of Anonymous Work in an Age of Relentless Self-Promotion (Portfolio/Penguin), which is slated for release later this month. Named as a Top Business Book to Read in 2014 by Adam Grant, a Wharton professor and bestselling author in his own right, Zweig challenges the pervasive notion that the people who spend the most time getting others to pay attention to them win. He accomplishes this by conducting in-depth profiles of individuals who are at the zenith of professional success in their fields and who actively shun the spotlight.“自我品牌营销”不断飙升的人气仅仅是大卫o兹威格的新书《隐形:在自我推销时代中匿名工作的力量》(Invisibles: The Power of Anonymous Work in an Age of Relentless Self-Promotion)探讨的主题之一。这部定于本月末发行的著作被沃顿商学院(Wharton)教授、畅销书作家亚当o格兰特誉为2014年最值得期待的商业书籍。兹威格试图挑战一个普遍认同的观点:花费最多时间争夺其他人眼球的那个人终将获胜。为了达到这个目的,他深入剖析了一些正处于各自职业生涯顶峰,同时主动避开聚光灯的成功人士。Some of those Zweig examines in his book include one of the world’s leading perfume developers, the structural engineer of the largest building on earth, and the guitar technician for the multiplatinum rock band Radiohead. All of the highly successful (and well-paid) masters featured in Invisibles work long hours, in some cases as long or even longer than what the self-branding Maharishis prescribe. But instead of spending these hours on promotional hustle, they dedicate time to working on and refining their actual craft.这本著作审视的成功人士包括一位全球顶级香水开发商,全球最大建筑物的结构工程师,以及发行过多张白金唱片的摇滚乐队电台司令(Radiohead)的吉他手。在《隐形》一书中,所有大获成功(而且收入不菲)的大师级人物都在长时间工作,其中一些人的工作时间跟自我营销的精神领袖所指示的时间一样长,甚至还要更长。但他们并没有利用这些时间叫卖,而是全身心地工作,打磨自己的技艺。Zweig’s argument is not that marketing is evil or useless. “I’m not suggesting that some types of professionals don’t need to self-promote,” he writes, “Many of us do.”茨威格并不是要说,营销是邪恶的,也不是要论营销是无用的。“我并不是说某些类型的专业人才不需要自我推销,”他写道。“很多人都需要。”There’s no denying that people like Gary Vaynerchuk have built empires by working into the wee hours of the morning to draw attention to themselves and their brands. In an age where doing an Internet search is the first step in virtually every buying decision, those who don’t maintain an online presence have a tough road ahead of them—no matter how well-crafted their work. The author’s overriding point is simply that a culture that favors around-the-clock hustle at the expense of all else holds back as many businesses as it helps.不可否认,以加里o沃伊涅尔查克为代表的自我推销一族往往工作到凌晨时分,为自己和自己的品牌赢得了关注,最终建立起了自己的商业帝国。在如今这个时代,上网搜索已经成为几乎每一项购买决策的第一步,那些没有在网络上安营扎寨的人往往要面临一段坎坷的前程——无论他们的产品工艺多么精良。兹威格最重要的观点很简单:如果一种文化青睐的是不计代价、24小时全天候的吆喝叫卖,那么它能推动多少企业,就一样也能拖累多少企业。So the question remains: How do you compete if your particular business requires you to be up until three in the morning making wine instead of selling the wine that someone else has made?因此,问题仍然是:如果你经营的那门生意需要你直至凌晨三点还在酿酒,而不是叫卖其他人已经做好的酒,你怎么去竞争?One option is to eschew personal brand building in favor of building a community. Instead of personally writing every blog post, answering every comment, and crafting every tweet, you might instead build a network of people in your industry willing to share in content creation duties. By positioning yourself as the lynchpin of that community, you often gain as much visibility as you would otherwise.一种选择是,不要建设个人品牌,转而建设一个社区。不是亲自撰写每篇客文章,回答每一个,构思每条微,你或许应该在你的产业内打造一个人际网络,让其他人分担内容创作任务。如果你摆正位置,设法成为这个社区的轴心,你往往可以获得同样多的曝光度。Another approach is to arm your employees with the tools, training, and encouragement to each contribute a small amount of content over an extended period of time. While it may feel good to take a solo in the spotlight, letting everyone on your team chip in can multiply the effect while still leaving plenty of time for you to do the work that really matters.另一种方法是,用工具和培训武装你的员工,鼓励每个人在一段较长期间内贡献少量内容。虽然一个人独占聚光灯的感觉或许很好,但让团队中每个人都参与进来,往往能够成倍放大推销效果,这样做还可以给你留出足够多的时间,让你从事真正重要的工作。Whatever promotional strategy you ultimately choose, there’s one thing that’s clear—for many of us, shifting the focus from “me” to “we” is the secret to building, marketing, and selling something truly great.无论你最终选择何种推销战略,有一件事情非常明显——对于我们许多人来说,把重心从“我”转移到“我们”,是构建、营销和销售真正伟大的产品的秘诀所在。Michael Schein is the founder and principal of Michael Schein Communications, a digital marketing firm that has created or facilitated content creation for companies including eBay, LinkedIn, Avectra.本文作者迈克尔·施恩是迈克尔o施恩通信公司创始人兼负责人。这家数字营销公司已经为包括eBay、LinkedIn和Avectra等公司创造了许多营销内容。 /201407/310079

MARS - that#39;s where more than 450 Chinese people want to live.火星- 有450多中国人想住那。They#39;ve applied for one-way tickets to the red planet offered by Mars One, an organization based in the Netherlands hoping to establish a human colony there in 2023.他们已经申请了前往这颗红色星球的单程票,由Mars One提供,一个总部设在荷兰的组织,希望2023年在那建立一个人类定居地。On its website (www.mars-one.com), it says it hasn#39;t yet begun its astronaut selection program, but had so far received in excess of 37,000 applications, including more than 450 from China.在其网站上(www.mars-one.com),它说还没有开始宇航员的选拔程序,但迄今已经收到了超过37000份申请,包括来自中国的450多个。The non-profit organization announced its private spaceflight project in June last year saying that it would send a communications satellite and pathfinder to Mars by 2016 and land four astronauts in 2023 to establish a permanent settlement.这个非营利组织在去年6月公布了私人航天项目,表示到2016年将发送一个通信卫星以及火星探路者到火星,2023年四个宇航员在那登陆以建立一个永久定居地。After that, a new set of four astronauts would arrive every two years.在那之后,每两年四名宇航员组成新的一批将抵达那里。 Mars One is planning a reality TV show where the audience can select the astronauts and watch as they prepare for the epic journey.Mars One正计划一个电视真人秀节目,观众可以选择宇航员并看着他们准备史诗般的旅程。It said it had developed ;a precise, realistic plan based entirely upon existing technologies.;它表示它已经开发出了“一个精确的、现实的完全建立在现有技术基础上的计划”。It said the primary personal attributes of a successful astronaut would be emotional and psychological stability, supported by personal drive and motivation.它说一个成功宇航员的主要个人特质将是情感和心理的稳定,受个人动力和动机所持。;Once on Mars, there is no means to return to Earth. Mars is home,; its website says. ;A grounded, deep sense of purpose will help each astronaut maintain his or her psychological stability and focus as they work together toward a shared and better future.;“一旦上了火星,意味着不再返回地球。火星就是家,”该组织的网站说。“一个稳定深远的目的将帮助每个宇航员保持其心理的稳定,使他们专注于朝着一个共享和更好的未来而一起工作。”It lists five key requirements for applicants - resiliency, adaptability, curiosity, ability to trust, and creativity/resourcefulness.它对申请者列出了五个关键要求——弹性、适应性、好奇心、信任、创造力/足智多谋。Successful candidates will receive a minimum of eight years of training before they leave Earth behind.成功的候选人在他们离开地球之前将接受至少八年的训练。Ma Qiang, a 39-year-old Sichuan Province native, told Beijing Youth Daily he hoped to be selected to make his life ;worth living.;马强,一个39岁的四川人告诉《北京青年报》他希望被选中以使他的生命“值得活下去。”Ma said he survived the 2008 earthquake in the southwest province but had been deeply affected by what he had seen.马强说他经历了2008年在中国西南省份的地震,一直深受他所看到的东西的影响。After that, Ma wanted to do something to make his life worth living, he told the newspaper, and a journey to Mars could be the answer.在那之后,马强想做些事情来让他的生命有价值,他告诉记者,火星之旅可能会是。Wang Wenming, 30, from Kunming in southwest Yunnan Province, said his dream was to explore a new world.王文明,30岁,来自云南昆明,说他的梦想是去探索一个新世界。 /201302/223915When Edward Steichen took his iconic photograph of the Flatiron Building in New York in 1904, the structure itself was only two years old, one of the tallest in the city and the very epitome of modernity. So it seemed the perfect challenge for the identical-twin artists Ryan and Trevor Oakes earlier this summer, a sidelight to the retrospective of their work I curated at the Museum of Mathematics, just up the road at 11 East 26th Street, open daily through Sept. 14. The brothers, who have been engaged in a deep colloquy on the nature of bifocal vision since toddlerhood, have recently developed one of the most intriguing breakthroughs in the depiction of physical reality since the Renaissance: They have come up with a method for tracing camera-obscura-exact renderings of the world before them onto a concave grid with no other optical equipment (no lenses, no pinholes) except their own unaided eyes. Lawrence Weschler爱德华·斯泰肯(Edward Steichen)1904年拍摄他的标志性作品——纽约熨斗大厦时,那座大厦刚建成两年,是纽约最高的建筑之一,也是现代性的象征之作。所以今年夏初,它成了双胞胎艺术家赖安和特雷弗·奥克斯(Ryan and Trevor Oakes)的绝佳挑战,也是给我在熨斗大厦北边不远处东26街11号数学物馆(Museum of Mathematics)给他们策划的作品回顾展造势,该展览每日开放,直至9月14日。两兄弟小时就曾对双焦视觉的本质进行过深刻讨论,最近他们设计出了自文艺复兴以来在描绘物理现实方面最有趣的突破:他们想出一种方法,能以针孔相机般的精准把他们面前的世界绘制到一个凹形网格上,不借助任何光学设备(不用镜头,也不用针孔),仅凭他们自己的眼睛。First recorded mention of principles behind pinhole camera obscura: Mozi, Chinese philosopher (470-390 B.C.)首个提到针孔相机原理的人:中国哲学家墨子(公元前470年至公元前390年)First description and analysis of such a camera obscura: Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazan), Arab mathematician (965-1040 A.D.)首个描述和分析这样的针孔相机的人:阿拉伯数学家伊本·海赛姆(Ibn al-Haytham,965年至1040年)European perfection and promulgation of camera obscura, with lenses: Giambattista della Porta’s “Magia Naturalis” (1558-1589)欧洲人对带镜头的针孔相机的完善和普及:詹巴蒂斯塔·黛拉·波尔塔(Giambattista della Porta)的《自然魔术》(Magia Naturalis, 1558-1589) /201409/331765

If you have ever been caught in the rain without an umbrella you should appreciate this innovative lamppost - because it doubles as a shelter.如果你曾有过下雨天忘带伞的经历,那么你一定会喜欢这款革新式的路灯:它既能照明,又能挡雨。The Lampbrella has been designed for those of us who get caught short by the elements.这款“伞灯”是专为那些被大雨淋得猝不及防而手中又没有装备的人士设计的。Naturally, the clever device would be particularly helpful in Britain#39;s unpredictable forecasts.事实上,这款设计放在以毫无征兆的降雨而闻名的英国应该尤其合适。When the canopy#39;s sensors detect rainfall the umbrella is deployed and if it is left unused for two minutes it will close again.当灯罩上的传感器感受到雨点时,伞盖便会自动展开。而当没人使用时,2分钟之后它会自动回收。The Lampbrella#39;s canopy, with a diameter of 7ft 2in and installed 6ft 5in from the ground, could comfortably shelter 10 to 12 people.“伞灯”的伞盖直径为7英尺2英寸(约合2.18米),高度为离地6英尺5英寸(约合1.96米),能轻易容纳下10-12个人。Belyaev, 27, from St Petersburg, Russia, said: #39;Once I was driving on a street in St Petersburg and saw the street lamps illuminating people trying to hide from the rain.来自俄罗斯圣彼得堡的27岁年轻人Bleyaev说道:“有次我在圣彼得堡的道路上开车时,看到街灯照射下的人们正遍地寻找可以避雨的地方,”#39;I thought it would be appropriate to have a canopy built into a streetlamp. When it starts raining, the sensors sen d a signal to the electric drive, which opens the umbrella at a safe low speed.’“于是我就想:如果能把伞罩做进路灯里就好了。当天上开始下雨的时候,传感器向电驱动发送信号,从而能缓缓地展开雨伞。”#39;The umbrella then closes when a 360-degree motion sensor doesn#39;t ‘see#39; any people under the canopy for 2 minutes.#39;“而当这个360度的全方位传感器发现伞下没有路人避雨时,便会在2分钟之后缓缓关闭。”Designer Mikhail Belyaev said he may opt for an alternative button operated system as it is currently in its concept stage.设计师Mikhail Belyaev他可能会选择一个备用按钮驱动的方案。因为这项设计还处于概念状态。The freelance Russian designer has aly had interest in his product from a number of companies, and he hopes to begin production work on the Lampbrella in the next few months.很多公司已经对这位来自俄罗斯的自由设计师的想法表示了兴趣。他希望能在接下来的几个月开始将概念设计推向生产。Belyaev added: #39;I#39;d like to see Lampbella installed all over the world - but it is necessary to solve all aspects of its safety first.他说道:“我希望伞灯能遍及全世界-当然,前提是确保它的各方面安全。”#39;I think it would be useful almost in every country, but especially in rainy England perhaps - I#39;d love to see it in London.“我想它对任何一个国家来说都会很有用,尤其是在多雨的英国——真希望伦敦也能装上它们。”#39;From the comments I have received, people really like it, I didn#39;t expect good such reaction.#39;“从收到的来看,人们很欢迎这个设计。说实话我自己都没料到它会这么受欢迎!” /201207/190923When she was researching climate change in China’s Qinghai province several years ago, Catlin Powers was invited into the home of a local family of Tibetan nomads.几年前卡特林#8226;鲍尔斯(Catlin Powers)在中国青海省研究气候变化时,有一次受邀到当地一家藏族牧民家作客。The tent was filled with noxious yellow smoke that stung her eyes and left her gasping for breath. “I had air monitors with me so I took some measurements and found that the air inside the tent was 10 times more polluted than the air in Beijing.”帐篷里弥漫着刺鼻的黄色毒烟,刺痛了她的眼睛,让她喘不过气来。“我带着空气监测器,于是做了些测试,结果发现帐篷内的空气污染程度是北京的10倍。”The smoke was produced by the family’s cooking stove, a simple construction fuelled by yak dung and wood. Dr Powers, who lectures on sustainable technology at Harvard, learned that the sooty particles and greenhouse gases caused appalling health problems among the nomads.黄烟是牧民家的炉灶产生的,这种炉灶构造简单,以牛粪和木头为燃料。鲍尔斯士在哈佛大学(Harvard)教授可持续技术,她了解到煤烟颗粒和温室气体已严重危害到牧民的健康。Moreover, the stoves had a disproportionate impact on the women and girls who spend long hours inside the tents, inhaling the choking fumes.而且这种炉灶对妇女和女孩的影响尤其大,她们在帐篷内待得时间更长,吸入了更多呛人烟气。That encounter inspired Dr Powers and another American, Scot Frank, to create a solar cooker called the SolSource that is now expanding beyond its target audience in rural China into an unexpected new market: the US.受此次遭遇启发, 鲍尔斯士与另一个美国人斯科特#8226;弗兰克(Scot Frank)设计出了一种名为SolSource的太阳灶。SolSource的目标受众本为中国农牧地区的居民,但现在它已超越这一目标,进入了一个意想不到的新市场——美国。The SolSource went on sale there in May with a 9 price tag and is being snapped up by fans of green technology, survivalists and even mainstream grilling enthusiasts.SolSource于今年5月上市,售价399美元,受到绿色技术迷、野外生存达人甚至主流烧烤爱好者的追捧。The unlikely export success is a boon for One Earth Designs, the Hong Kong company that Dr Powers set up in 2009 with Mr Frank, who studied engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.SolSource在出口方面意外获得成功,对香港公司One Earth Designs是福音。2009年,鲍尔斯士和曾在麻省理工学院(MIT)攻读工程学的弗兰克共同创建了这间公司。The design of the zero-emission SolSource was finalised after dozens of prototypes were trialled in collaboration with nomad communities in China. It resembles a satellite dish and works by bouncing light off reflective panels on to the base of black cookware, creating heat.SolSource采用零排放设计,在中国牧民社区的合作下,他们试验了几十种模型,最终确定了设计。它的造型像个碟形卫星天线,通过将太阳光反射到黑色炊具基座的反射板上来产生热量。“Our aim was to engineer a cooker that was powerful, portable, durable and safe to use,” says Dr Powers. “We knew we’d got it right when we went to collect the test models. The families didn’t want to give them up and their neighbours all wanted one too.”鲍尔斯士说:“我们的目标是设计一款功能强大、携带方便、结实耐用、使用安全的灶具。我们去回收测试模型时就知道自己成功了。那些牧民家庭都不愿交出模型,连他们的邻居也都想要一台。”In late 2012 One Earth Designs received a substantial cash injection from two green technology-focused investors, Doen and Calvert, which enabled it to set up a production line. Since then 2,000 families in Qinghai have bought a SolSource and they report that the stove has transformed their lives.2012年底,两位关注绿色科技的投资者杜恩(Doen)和卡尔弗特(Calvert)向One Earth Designs注入了一大笔资金,令该公司得以设立一条生产线。此后青海省有2000个家庭购买了SolSource,他们反馈说这款炉具改变了他们的生活。“We only intended to sell in China,” says Dr Powers, “but we started receiving requests from all over the world.” Low-volume shipping costs were prohibitive so One Earth Designs raised funds via a Kickstarter campaign, filled three containers and sent them to different distribution hubs.鲍尔斯士说:“我们原本只打算在中国销售,但渐渐收到来自世界各地的购买请求。”由于小批量运输成本过高,One Earth Designs便通过Kickstarter众筹活动筹集了资金,装了3个集装箱,将货物送往了不同的配送中心。Although China and the US are the only sizeable markets for the company so far, the Solsource has been bought by customers in 29 other countries. One Earth Designs has adopted a flexible distribution and pricing strategy. “In each country we work with strong partners who know the local marketplace to determine the optimal price,” says Dr Powers.虽然该公司至今只有中国和美国两个上规模的市场,但已有另外29个国家的消费者购买过Solsource的产品。One Earth Designs采取了灵活的配送和定价策略。鲍尔斯士说:“我们在每个国家都有强大的合作伙伴,他们了解当地市场,能根据实际情况决定最优价格。”In Haiti, for instance, two non-governmental organisations are selling them for 0 – a substantial discount to the price at which they retail in US boutiques – and offer customer financing and free solar cooking classes.比如在海地,两个非政府组织以每台200美元的价格出售Solsource,大大低于美国专卖店零售价,它们还向顾客提供融资,并且免费教授太阳能灶烹饪技术。Having become cash flow positive earlier this year, One Earth Designs’ next goal is to crack Australia. With frequent fire bans restricting the nation’s favourite social pastime, it hopes that this Christmas will see many Australians switching to a solar barbie.One Earth Designs在今年早些时候已有正现金流,它的下个目标是打进澳大利亚市场。烧烤聚会是澳大利亚人最喜爱的休闲社交活动,但这种活动时常因禁火令而无法举办,One Earth Designs希望到今年圣诞节时,能见到许多澳大利亚人改为举办太阳能烧烤聚会。 /201410/335406

Five years ago, Facebook turned down Brian Acton for a job.五年前,Facebook曾经拒绝了软件工程师布莱恩o阿克顿的求职。The Orlando, Fla.-raised software engineer had worked at Yahoo YHOO 0.60% for over a decade when he decided to take time off. For two years he did, exploring places as far-flung as Antarctica before returning to Silicon Valley to work again. After companies like Facebook FB -0.24% and Twitter TWTR 3.01% rejected him, he started building WhatsApp, a mobile messaging service that eventually exploded, amassing 500 million users worldwide. Then last February, Facebook stunned the world when it announced it was scooping up WhatsApp for a jaw-dropping billion – the most it had ever paid for a startup. By one estimate, Acton will be worth at least billion when the deal closes, which is expected later this year.国佛罗里达州奥兰多市,在雅虎(Yahoo)工作了十多年后,阿克顿决定歇一歇。他在两年的时间里四处游历,甚至远赴南极,后来才回到硅谷重新开始工作。先后遭到Facebook和Twitter等公司拒绝后,阿克顿开始开发移动短信务WhatsApp,结果一炮而红,在全球吸引了5亿用户。今年二月,Facebook宣布豪掷190亿美元收购WhatsApp,震动了外界。这也是Facebook收购新创企业最大手笔的一次。交易预计在今年晚些时候达成,据估计,届时阿克顿的身家至少将达到30亿美元。That Facebook once rejected Acton, 42 is an irony not lost on him. But far from being bitter he says he looks forward to working with Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg and crew. “We might disagree on some topics, but they understand what communication is like, and they understand the issues around privacy and security,” Acton explained Wednesday at StartX, a non-profit organization for Stanford University entrepreneurs.阿克顿明白,如今看来,他曾求职Facebook被拒颇有些讽刺意味。不过,他完全没有因此而忿忿不平。相反,他表示自己很期待与Facebook首席执行官马克o扎克伯格及其团队共事。上周三,在为斯坦福大学(Stanford University)创业者务的非营利机构StartX上,阿克顿说:“我们或许在某些问题上看法不同,但他们明白通讯是怎么回事,他们也了解与隐私和安全相关的问题。”Reaching a billion deal was a roundabout journey for Acton and Koum. For one, Acton was aly 38 when he helped build WhatsApp. Before that, he spent three years at Apple AAPL 0.39% and over 11 years at Yahoo, where he met WhatsApp CEO and cofounder Jan Koum and eventually became the company’s vice president of engineering. (Acton also weathered a divorce and had children.) It’s a different — and far longer — trajectory compared to many of today’s entrepreneurs, who jump into a startup right after college or drop out, Acton points out.阿克顿和另一位创始人库姆经历了不少曲折,才把WhatsApp发展到了作价190亿美元的规模。其一,帮助创办WhatsApp时,阿克顿已经38岁了。在此之前,他在苹果(Apple)干了三年,在雅虎干了11年多。阿克顿在雅虎结识了WhatsApp首席执行官兼联合创始人简o库姆,并最终成为WhatsApp公司负责工程设计的副总裁。(阿克顿曾经历离婚,并育有子女。)阿克顿指出,他与今天的许多创业者不同,后者大多大学毕业后就直接开始创业,甚至辍学创业。Still, Acton and Koum’s late-blooming strategy worked. With WhatsApp, they developed a dead-simple mobile app that works a lot like traditional text, or SMS messaging, allowing users to send and receive calls, , and pictures in addition to messages. (“I used to call SMS black and white,” Acton said. “We’re color.”) Because it was free, the app developed a huge following, particularly in Europe and parts of Asia, where traditional texting can be pricey. That’s despite a mobile messaging space crowded with competitors like Line, Viber and MessageMe. “It just effing works,” said Acton, explaining in semi-profane terms WhatApp’s appeal. “We don’t have a lot of gimmickry. We don’t collect messages or do anything with them. We respect our users.”不过,阿克顿和库姆大器晚成的战略行之有效。他们开发的WhatsApp是一款超级简单的移动应用,原理很像传统的手机短信,在文本信息外,用户还能发送和接收呼叫、视频和图片。(阿克顿说:“我常说短信是黑白的,而我们的务则是色的。”)因为不收费,WhatsApp吸引了大量的追捧者,尤其是在传统短信务收费较高的欧洲和亚洲,尽管移动通讯领域充斥着Line、Viber以及MessageMe等一种竞争对手。谈到WhatsApp 大受欢迎,阿克顿说道:“它就是火了。我们没有什么花招,我们也不收集信息或干那些有的没的。我们尊重我们的用户。”Talks with Zuckerberg about a potential WhatsApp acquisition began heating up in early February, when Zuck – as he is known to tech insiders – presented Acton and Koum with a hard number. “We said, ‘Oh, shit,’ We’ve got to pay attention to this,” Acton said, who recalled a mind-numbing 96-hours straight in conference rooms with a “flotilla” of lawyers as they hammered out a deal.早在今年二月初,同扎克伯格关于可能收购WhatsApp的谈判就开始升温。扎克伯格向阿克顿和库姆开出了一个确切的数字——高科技界人士都知道,这是他的一贯做法。阿克顿回忆道:“我们说:‘靠’,我们得好好琢磨琢磨这事。”于是他们同“一大帮”律师一起,在会议室整整煎熬了96个小时,直到他们制定出交易方案。For now, the thing Acton looks forward to most isn’t working with the employer who once rejected him – or even getting to 600 million WhatsApp users – it’s closing the deal with Facebook. Admitted Acton: “When it closes, it’ll be with a sense of relief.眼下,阿克顿最期待的,不是与曾拒绝自己的雇主共事,甚至也不是使WhatsApp的用户数增长到6亿,而是与Facebook达成交易。阿克顿坦言:“等到交易达成,我肯定会感到如释重负。” /201406/304907Stephen Hawking, who spent his career decoding the universe and even experienced weightlessness, is urging the continuation of space exploration — for humanity’s sake.The 71-year-old Hawking said he did not think humans would survive another 1,000 years “without escaping beyond our fragile planet.”The British cosmologist made the remarks Tuesday before an audience of doctors, nurses and employees at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, where he toured a stem cell laboratory that’s focused on trying to slow the progression of Lou Gehrig’s disease.Hawking was diagnosed with the neurological disorder 50 years ago while a student at Cambridge University. He recalled how he became depressed and initially didn’t see a point in finishing his doctorate. But he continued to delve into his studies.“If you understand how the universe operates, you control it in a way,” he said.Renowned for his work on black holes and the origins of the cosmos, Hawking is famous for bringing esoteric physics concepts to the masses through his best-selling books, including “A Brief History of Time,” which sold more than 10 million copies worldwide. Hawking titled his hourlong lecture to Cedars-Sinai employees “A Brief History of Mine.”Hawking has survived longer than most people with Lou Gehrig’s disease, also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ALS attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control the muscles. People gradually have more and more trouble breathing and moving as muscles weaken and waste away. There’s no cure and no way to reverse the disease’s progression. Few people with ALS live longer than a decade.Hawking receives around-the-clock care, can only communicate by twitching his cheek, and relies on a computer mounted to his wheelchair to convey his thoughts in a distinctive robotic monotone.Despite his diagnosis, Hawking has remained active. In 2007, he floated like an astronaut on an aircraft that creates weightlessness by making parabolic dives.Hawking rattled off nuggets of advice: Look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Be curious.“However difficult life may seem, there is always something you can do and succeed at,” he said.Dr. Robert Baloh, director of Cedars-Sinai’s ALS program who invited Hawking, said he had no explanation for the physicist’s longevity.Baloh said he has treated patients who lived for 10 years or more.“But 50 years is unusual, to say the least,” he said.In 2009, President Barack Obama awarded Hawking the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his work.史蒂芬·霍金这位究其一生破译宇宙奥秘、甚至体验过失重状态的英国科学家,正敦促人类为了自身利益继续进行太空探索。今年71岁的霍金4月9日表示,人类若“不逃离我们脆弱的星球”将难以再活1000年。霍金本周二在西达斯西奈医学中心作出上述表示,在场的有医护人员和其他职员。他参观了这家医疗中心一个专门致力于延缓“渐冻人”病的干细胞实验室。50年前,霍金还在剑桥大学读书时被诊断出患上“渐冻人”病。他回忆起自己变得抑郁的过程,最初甚至想放弃士学位,但他最终继续投身研究。“如果你明白了宇宙的运转方式,在某种程度上你就能控制它。”他说。黑洞及宇宙起源理论让霍金享誉全球,他更以能将晦涩难懂的物理概念写成大众畅销书而闻名,其中《时间简史》的全球发行量达到了1000万册。在这家医疗中心,霍金当众发表了长达一小时的演讲,名为《我的简史》。霍金比其他同病患者活得更长,“渐动人”疾病也称为肌萎缩侧索硬化症,这种疾病会攻击人体中控制肌肉运动的大脑和脊髓的神经细胞。患者将因肌肉逐渐松弛衰弱变得呼吸困难,行动缓慢。目前尚无治愈良方。很少有人患病后能活过十年。霍金需要日夜照看,只能通过抽动脸颊来进行交流,依靠装在轮椅上的电脑发出特别的机器人声表达思想。虽然身患重病,但霍金依旧活跃。2007年,他乘坐飞机在空中像宇航员一样体验了失重之感。霍金说出金玉良言:仰望星空,保持好奇心。“不管生活看起来多么困难,总有可做并且成功之事。”该中心“渐冻人”疾病项目主管罗伯特-巴隆医生称其长寿无法解释。也正是巴隆医生邀请霍金前来。巴隆表示他的患者中曾有活过10年或10年以上的。“但至少可以说,活过50年的患者非常少见。”2009年,奥巴马总统授予霍金总统自由勋章以表彰其工作。

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