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So, a problem in explaining how children learn language,所以在解释孩子们如何学习语言时候,有一个问题a problem in teaching language to adults so that they dont make grammatical errors,同样也是教成人学外语语法时的一个问题and a problem in programming computers to use language is which verbs go in which constructions.以及给电脑编使用语言的程序时--在哪个构式里该用哪个动词?For example, the dative construction in English.比如,英语中的与格构式--You can say, ;Give a muffin to a mouse,; the prepositional dative.可以说“Give a muffin to a mouse”,前置词与格,Or, ;Give a mouse a muffin,; the double-object dative.或者“Give a mouse a muffin”,双宾语与格,;Promise anything to her,; ;Promise her anything,; and so on.“Promise anything to her”,“Promise her anything”,等等。Hundreds of verbs can go both ways.上百的动词可以两用。So a tempting generalization for a child, for an adult, for a computer对于孩子,很容易去做的一个归纳--对于大人和电脑来说也一样--is that any verb that can appear in the construction,就是任何可以在下面这个构式中出现的动词;subject-verb-thing-to-a-recipient; can also be expressed as ;subject-verb-recipient-thing.;“主语-动词-物体-to-a-接受者”也可以表达成“主语-动词-接受者-东西”。A handy thing to have, because language is infinite,这是很顺手的事,因为语言是无穷的and you cant just parrot back the sentences that youve heard.对于你学过的句子不能只是鹦鹉学舌。Youve got to extract generalizations so you can produce and understand new sentences.你必须得做出归纳,这样你才能制造、理解新句子。This would be an example of how to do that.这就是这样做的一个例子Unfortunately, there appear to be idiosyncratic exceptions.不幸的是,这方面有例外。You can say, ;Biff drove the car to Chicago,; but not, ;Biff drove Chicago the car.;你可以说,“Biff drove the car to Chicago”,但不是“Biff drove Chicago the car”。You can say, ;Sal gave Jason a headache,; but its a bit odd to say, ;Sal gave a headache to Jason.;你可以说:“Sal gave Jason a headache”,但“Sal gave a headache to Jason”就很别扭了。The solution is that these constructions, despite initial appearance, are not synonymous,原因是这些构式,尽管一开始相似,但并不是同义句。that when you crank up the microscope on human cognition, you see that theres a subtle difference in meaning between them.当你搬出显微镜对准在人类认知上,你会看到很多微妙的差别存在于它们的意思里。So, ;give the X to the Y,; that construction corresponds to the thought所以“Give the X to the Y”--这个构式对应的想法是:;cause X to go to Y.; Whereas ;give the Y the X; corresponds to the thought ;cause Y to have X.;“Cause X to go to Y”,而“Give the Y the X”对应的想法是“cause Y to have X”。201702/491051

网络社交英语口语 65:我们根本没缘分SCENE⑤ A 七月三十日晚上七点 户外演奏会上 Rose: Thank you for bringing me. This is great!柔丝: 谢谢你带我来,太棒了! Sue: Rose, do you see? Herb and Don are over there.苏: 柔丝,你看到没,赫伯跟唐在那里。 Rose: Uh huh. I can't believe it! You're trying to 1) set up Herb and me.柔丝: 喔,我真不敢相信!你想撮合我跟赫伯。 Sue: Let's sit with them. 苏: 我们去跟他们坐在一起。 Rose: Ms. Matchmaker, Herb and I just aren't 2) written in the stars.柔丝: 媒人婆,赫伯和我根本没缘分。 Sue: Who knows? 3) Come on! 苏: 谁说的?来嘛!语言详解 A: You're looking pretty tonight? 你今晚有时间吃晚饭吗? B: No, I have to set up a display for the computer exhibition. 没有,我得替电脑展做好陈列。 【set up 撮合】 set up 除在这里表示撮合的意思之外,还有其他不同的用法,例如:We set up a subsidiary in 1997. 我们在1997年设立了一个分公司。 表示设定:Go back to the eBay site and use the code to set up your user ID and password. 回到eBay 的网站,输入这密码,再设定你的使用者名称和密码。 【Who knows? 天晓得!】 这个句子常用来表达“世事难料”的想法。表示设立: A: Mom, what does the future hold for me? 妈,我的未来到底会如何?B: Who knows? Only the future can tell. 谁晓得!时候到了自会知道。 1) set up 刻意安排设计2) written in the stars 命中注定的3) Come on! 别这样嘛 /200708/16848

56. I prefer... 我更愿意······ 用法透视 这个句型的意思是"认为......更可取,宁愿......"。 持范例 1. I prefer coffee to tea. 比起喝茶,我更喜欢喝咖啡 2. I prefer to rather than watch TV. 我更愿意读书而不是看电视。 3. I'd prefer that she act the young lady. 我倒认为她演那个年轻女子更好。 会话记忆 A: At last! The weekend comes again! 终于又到周末了! B: Yes. What will you do these two days? 是啊。这两天你干嘛? A: After five days' hard work, I'm surely going to have some fun. 辛苦工作了五天,我当然要去找些乐子。 B: But I'd prefer to stay at home and have a good rest. 但我倒更愿意呆在家里好好休息一下 /200705/13335

And for me its a balance between the technique and a concept that pushes the boundaries of anatomy as a way to know thyself,我觉得重点是要平衡技巧和突破解剖学自我认知的理念,which is why the work of Michael Reedy struck me.这也是迈克尔·里迪的作品打动我的地方。His serious figure drawings are often layered in elements of humor.他画的严肃的人像透着一丝幽默。For instance, take a look at her face. Notice those red marks.比如这幅,看看画中女孩的脸。注意这些红色印记。Michael manifests the consuming insecurity of a skin condition迈克尔将这种对皮肤状态的强烈不安感as these maniacal cartoon monsters annoying and out of control in the background.用疯狂卡通怪物表现出来,在背景中不受控制,惹人心烦。On the mirrored figure, he renders the full anatomy and covers it in glitter, making it look like candy.而一旁的镜面人像是一整幅解剖图,闪闪发光,看起来像糖果。By doing this, Michael downplays the common perception of anatomy, so closely tied to just disease and death.这样一来,迈克尔淡化了人们对解剖学的普遍理解,它原本和疾病死亡紧密相关。Now, this next concept might not make much sense, but human anatomy is no longer limited to humans.下一个理念可能不太好懂,不过人体解剖学不仅仅局限于人体。When you were a child, did you ever wish that your toys could come to life?在孩童时期,你希望过玩具有生命吗?Well, Jason Freeny makes those dreams come true with his magical toy dissections.杰森·福瑞利通过解剖玩具,让这成为现实。One might think that this would bring a morbid edge to ones innocent childhood characters,有人可能觉得对于孩子天真的童年来说,这种做法有点变态,but Jason says of his dissections, ;One thing Ive never seen in a childs reaction to my work is fear.;但杰森说:“没有哪个孩子被我的解剖玩具吓到过。”Its always wonder, amazement and wanting to explore.孩子的反应都是好奇、惊讶,想研究一下。201704/504513


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