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赣州割双眼皮去哪里南康市妇幼保健人民医院割双眼皮手术多少钱Nokia has unveiled a new high-end smartphone, the Lumia 928, which it will sell exclusively through the second-largest US carrier, Verizon, aiming to expand its share in the premium market after years in which it has fallen behind rivals Samsung and Apple.在多年落后于竞争对手三星和苹果之后,诺基亚推出了一款新的高端智能手机Lumia 928,它将通过美国第二大运营商Verizon独家出售,旨在扩大其在高端市场的份额。 The new Lumia 928, priced at if customers mail in a rebate and sign to a two-year deal with Verizon, is similar to the Lumia 920 model currently sold through ATamp;T, but is lighter and slightly different in appearance.新的Lumia 928,如果消费者加上50美元的邮购折扣,同时与Verizon签署一份为期两年的协议,售价就为99美元,类似于目前通过ATamp;T出售的Lumia 920模型,但质量更轻,外观略有不同。It weighs 162g compared with 185g for the 920, which some critics had said was too heavy. The 4.5in screen also extends to the edge of the phone, giving a sharper impression than the curved edges of the 920. The new models also come in black and white, compared with the colourful options including blue, red and yellow, of the earlier Lumia range.与诺基亚920的185g相比它重162 g,一些批评者说太重了。4.5英寸屏幕也达到手机的极致,相比诺基亚920的弧线边缘给人一种锐利的印象。与早期Lumia系列包括蓝色、红色和黄色的五颜六色的选择相比,新模型也有黑白两色。Most other features, such as a 8.7MP camera and 1.5GHz dual core processor by Qualcomm, are the same as the 920.其他特性比如870万像素的摄像头和高通公司的双核1.5GHz双核处理器,大都与920相差不大。The 928 is the latest in Nokia#39;s Lumia range of smartphones which use Microsoft#39;s Windows Phone 8 software.这款928是最新的诺基亚Lumia系列的智能手机,使用微软的Windows Phone 8软件。Nokia switched to Windows Phone in 2011, aiming to compete with Apple#39;s iPhones and rivals using Google#39;s Android system. Though worldwide sales of Lumia phones have grown in recent quarters, at 5.6m in first quarter they still account for only around 5% of the overall smartphone market, which now makes up more than half of all mobile phone sales.诺基亚在2011年转向了Windows Phone,旨在与苹果的iphone和使用谷歌的Android系统的竞争对手抗衡。尽管Lumia手机的全球销售已经在最近几个季度有所上升,在第一季度560万,但他们仍只占整个智能手机市场约5%,而智能手机占了手机销售的超过一半。Earlier this week chief executive Stephen Elop launched a series of new products running Nokia#39;s ;Asha; software, which gives it some smartphone-like capability, priced in the lower and mid-tier range to protect its position in emerging markets such as India and China. However Nokia itself doesn#39;t class Asha phones as smartphones, and the new models don#39;t have 3G data capability.本周早些时候,首席执行官斯蒂芬#8226;埃洛普推出了运行诺基亚;Asha;系统的一系列新产品,给了其一些类似智能手机的功能,价格较低和中档定位来保护自己在印度和中国等新兴市场的地位。然而诺基亚本身并不将Asha手机归为智能手机,新模型没有3 g数据功能。 /201305/239220瑞金注射丰太阳穴多少钱 The top technology vendor story for 2014 does not involve a shiny new smartphone nor a new public cloud, but crudely rendered PowerPoint slides.2014年科技行业的最大新闻不是关于一款闪亮的新智能手机,也不是一个新的公共云务,而是一堆不加掩饰呈现的PPT幻灯片。Starting in June, a series of stories started documenting a global intelligence operation last seen on Showtime#39;s #39;Homeland.#39; Those PowerPoint slides, provided by National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden, taught businesses that the convenience of the cloud cuts both ways. By tapping into the pipes exiting data centers belonging to Google Inc., Microsoft Corp. and other tech vendors, the NSA found a #39;convenient#39; way to vacuum vast amounts of data. The NSA#39;s reach was also revealed to extend to cellphone data从6月份开始,一系列文章开始记述一场全球情报行动,这类行动通常只有在Showtime频道播出的电视剧《国土安全》(Homeland)中才会看到。这些PPT幻灯片由美国国家安全局(NSA)曝光者斯诺登(Edward Snowden)提供,它们向企业显示了云务的便利性有利也有弊。通过监控谷歌(Google Inc.)和微软(Microsoft Corp.)等科技公司数据中心的数据传输通道,NSA发现了一种“便捷”的途径获得大量数据。有人披露,NSA监控的范围还延伸到了手机数据。In the wake of the revelations-henceforth called the #39;Snowden Effect#39;- tech vendors have worked to identify and apply security fixes, while assuring clients that their data remains safe. Abroad, businesses and politicians have touted local solutions. But this is just the beginning. Mr. Snowden is said to retain many more documents and it is quite likely that the Snowden Effect will remain the top tech industry story of 2014.事情曝光后(以下称“斯诺登效应”),科技公司努力确定并使用安全补丁,同时向客户保他们的数据仍是安全的。在海外,企业和政界人士鼓吹局部解决方案。但这还只是开始而已。据说斯诺登手里还有更多的文件,2014年斯诺登效应将很可能仍旧是科技行业的最大新闻。Meanwhile tech vendors in 2013 had their hands full operating multi-billion-dollar businesses. While many of the younger companies have achieved success, traditional and legacy vendors have struggled. CIO Journal looks back at the most significant news generated by some of the world#39;s leading tech giants in 2013.与此同时,2013年科技公司忙于运营规模数十亿美元的业务,分身乏术。很多创办时间更短的公司取得了成功,而传统老牌公司却陷入困境。CIO Journal栏目回顾了2013年一些全球顶级科技巨头制造的重大新闻。Microsoft: Microsoft announced in August that CEO Steve Ballmer would retire in 12 months. Mr. Ballmer, who took the CEO reins from founder Bill Gates in 2000, is in the midst of transforming Microsoft from a PC-based software maker to a device and services company, with an emphasis on mobile and cloud computing. Mr. Ballmer admitted that evolution was taken too long, setting the stage for his departure. On Dec. 17, John Thompson, Microsoft#39;s board director, said Microsoft would name Mr. Ballmer#39;s replacement - from a pool of 20 people - in 2014.微软(Microsoft):微软8月份宣布,首席执行长鲍尔默(Steve Ballmer)将在12个月后退休。鲍尔默2000年接替微软创始人盖茨(Bill Gates)出任首席执行长,他正在努力将微软从一家基于个人电脑的软件生产商转变为一家设备和务公司,重点是移动和云计算。鲍尔默承认,转型花了太长的时间,这是他离职的原因之一。12月17日,微软董事汤普森(John Thompson)说,2014年微软将从20名人选中任命鲍尔默的继任者。Google: The company#39;s biggest reveal this year was its strategy to place #39;moonshot#39; bets on game-changing technology efforts, such as driverless cars. The company this year released to limited availability its Google Glass wearable computer. Google also unveiled Project Loon, an audacious effort to build a global network of high-altitude balloons that bring Internet access to people in remote areas. The company is also mounting a significant foray into robotics. Google is also targeting enterprise customers with cloud infrastructure software, which it released to general availability in December.谷歌(Google):该公司今年披露的最大一则消息是它计划探索具有划时代意义的科技领域,比如无人驾驶汽车。该公司今年限量推出了谷歌眼镜(Google Glass)可穿戴电脑。谷歌还发布了“Project Loon”,这是一项构建一个全球高空气球网络的大胆计划,使偏远地区的人们也可以上网。该公司还将大举进军机器人学领域。谷歌还面向企业客户推出云基础设施软件,12月份全面推出。Apple Inc.: For Apple, it was another year, another refresh of its iPhone and iPad. In September, Apple#39;s iPhone 5S received plaudits for its fingerprint scanning technology, which promises to make it easier and more secure for users to log in to their device. Announced in October, the iPad Air is a thinner, lighter but souped-up version of its market-leading tablet computer. The company also lured Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts to run its retail and online store businesses. But CEO Tim Cook, along with the company#39;s stock price, took some hits for failing to bring the long-rumored Apple TV product to market. However, he hinted that a wearable computer of some sort could be on the horizon. Anyone up for an iWatch?苹果(Apple Inc.):对苹果来说,2013年是新的一年,是iPhone和iPad更新换代的又一年。9月份,苹果的iPhone 5S凭借其指纹识别技术获得了好评。指纹识别技术可以使用户更轻松、更安全地登陆设备。10月份,苹果发布了iPad Air,这是其领先市场的平板电脑的最新款,更薄、更轻,但功能更强大。该公司还请来柏利(Burberry)首席执行长阿伦茨(Angela Ahrendts)负责其零售和网络商店业务。但由于苹果没有推出外界猜测已久的苹果电视(Apple TV),首席执行长库克(Tim Cook)受到质疑,该公司的股价也受到了一定的打击。不过,库克暗示,可能有望推出一款可穿戴电脑。有人想要一个iWatch吗?Hewlett-Packard Co.: Hewlett-Packard Co. faced significant challenges in 2013, the second full year in CEO Meg Whitman#39;s multi-year turnaround plan. The company said it would focus on making more competitive servers, storage and networking gear, as well as analytics software. Although H-P is accelerating research and development to boost sales, smaller commodity hardware and cloud software rivals are pressuring the company. Disappointing sales in H-P#39;s enterprise group prompted Ms. Whitman in August to replace division head David Donatelli. In November, H-P posted weaker fourth-quarter sales, the ninth consecutive top-line decline. Ms. Whitman said 2014 would be a #39;pivotal year#39; for H-P.惠普(Hewlett-Packard Co.):2013年惠普遭遇了相当大的挑战,这是首席执行长惠特曼(Meg Whitman)推出多年业务扭转计划后的第二个整年。该公司说,它将专注于生产更有竞争力的务器、存储设备和联网设备,以及分析软件。尽管惠普正在加快研发以便推动销售,但规模较小的商业硬件和云软件竞争对手正向该公司施加压力。惠普企业集团令人失望的销售促使惠特曼今年8月份撤换了部门主管多纳泰利(David Donatelli)。11月份,惠普说第四季度销售收入下滑,这是连续第九个月营收下滑。惠特曼说,2014年对惠普来说将是至关重要的一年。IBM Corp.: Like H-P, IBM Corp. is shaking up leadership as it struggles in some of its core businesses. Following disappointing third-quarter results in October, CEO Virginia Rometty reassigned James Bramante, the IBM senior vice president who ran growth markets. IBM has missed Wall Street#39;s revenue targets in six of the last seven quarters. IBM also disappointed some customers, some in grand fashion. In August, the premier of the state of Queensland in Australia, Campbell Newman, said he had banned IBM from entering into new contracts with the state until it improved its governance and contracting practices. The company has also been at loggerheads with state officials in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Texas over technology implementations.国际商业机器公司(IBM Corp.):与惠普一样,在一些核心业务上举步维艰的IBM也正在重组领导层。今年10月发布了令人失望的第三季度业绩之后,IBM首席执行长罗梅蒂(Virginia Rometty)将负责成长市场的高级副总裁布拉曼特(James Bramante)调职。IBM在过去七个季度中有六个季度都未达到华尔街预计的营收目标。IBM还让一些客户感到失望,有时候是大失所望。今年8月,澳大利亚昆士兰州州长纽曼(Campbell Newman)说,他已经禁止IBM与该州签订新合约,直到IBM改善治理和承包业务为止。IBM还与美国宾夕法尼亚、印第安那和德克萨斯州的官员在技术实施的问题上发生争执。Dell Inc.: Following a contentious buyout battle with Carl Icahn and other investors, Dell Inc. went private in November to work on its strategic reinvention as a cloud software and services company. The company is helping customers pick and integrate public cloud software from vendors such as Microsoft and Google. To cultivate innovation, the company is investing 0 million over the next several years in startups. Dell said it hopes this effort will generate capital gains for the company, while providing a window into emerging technologies in cloud, security, storage, mobility and analytics.戴尔(Dell Inc.):经过了与伊坎(Carl Icahn)和其他投资者颇具争议的私有化之争后,戴尔于今年11月完成了私有化目标,力图实现向一家云软件和务公司的战略性转变。戴尔正帮主客户挑选并整合来自微软(Microsoft)和谷歌(Google)等供应商的公共云软件。为了促进创新,戴尔将在未来几年向初创公司投资3亿美元。戴尔说,希望这样的举措能够为公司带来资本收益,并打开一扇通往云、安全、存储、移动和分析等方面的新兴科技的窗口。Oracle Corp.: Oracle CEO Larry Ellison infamously skipped his final keynote at the business software maker#39;s customer conference in September to watch his yacht take the America#39;s Cup. The move overshadowed major announcements the company made at Oracle OpenWorld, including a deal to run Oracle software on Microsoft#39;s Windows Azure cloud service. In an acknowledgment that more software is moving to the cloud, Oracle in June partnered with rival Salesforce.com Inc. to integrate business applications in the cloud. Oracle in December acquired Responsys Inc., a maker of cloud marketing software, for .5 billion.甲骨文(Oracle Corp.):甲骨文首席执行长埃利森(Larry Ellison)今年9月份为了观看他的游艇参加美洲杯帆船赛(America’s Cup)而取消了在公司客户大会上的终场发言,这个颇受非议的举动给甲骨文在Oracle OpenWorld大会上宣布的重大消息蒙上了阴影,其中包括在微软Windows Azure云务平台上运行甲骨文软件的协议。在认识到越来越多的软件正在转向云务之后,甲骨文于今年6月份与竞争对手Salesforce.com Inc.合作,整合了云务商业应用。甲骨文今年12月份以15亿美元收购了云营销软件生产商Responsys Inc.。SAP : On the whole, it was a relatively quiet year for SAP, the enterprise software maker that is the frequent target of Mr. Ellison#39;s ire. The company made available its HANA in-memory database to run predictive analytics against data housed in SAP#39;s business software. The company also rolled out a cloud version of HANA for businesses. Also significant: SAP said Jim Hagemann Snabe, co-CEO with Bill McDermott, will swap his current role for a position on SAP#39;s supervisory board in May 2014. But SAP also closed out 2013 with some bad news. Avon Products Inc. said it is cancelling a 5 million SAP software system after sales workers in Canada left because it proved too onerous to their routines.SAP :总的来说,今年对SAP 是平淡的一年,这家企业软件生产商经常成为埃利森愤怒的目标。SAP 让其HANA内存数据库可以对SAP商业软件内包含的数据进行预测性分析。该公司还面向企业推出了HANA的云务版本。同样值得注意的是:SAP宣布与孟鼎铭(Bill McDermott)共同担任首席执行长的施杰翰(Jim Hagemann Snabe)将在2014年5月从当前职位调任SAP监督委员会的一个职位。但SAP今年也有一些坏消息。雅芳(Avon Products Inc.)宣布将取消一个1.25亿美元的SAP软件系统,因为雅芳驻加拿大的许多销售人员觉得这个系统对他们的日常工作来说过于繁琐,因而辞去了工作。Salesforce.com Inc.: Cloud software maker Salesforce.com spent the last seven years buying companies in marketing engagement, social media, and human resources. In June, it paid .5 billion for ExactTarget, its biggest acquisition to date. In November, the company revealed how those purchases fit into its Salesforce1 strategy. Its mission is enabling sales workers to collaborate with coworkers to sell products and services, at any time, from any device, through Salesforce.com#39;s cloud platform. In addition to the Oracle deal, Salesforce.com also partnered with H-P to run software on the systems provider#39;s infrastructure.Salesforce.com Inc.:这家云软件生产商过去七年一直在收购市场营销、社交媒体和人力资源方面的公司。今年6月,该公司斥资25亿美元收购了ExactTarget,这是该公司迄今最大的收购行动。11月,该公司披露了这些收购行动与其Salesforce1战略相融合的情况。其任务是让销售人员能够通过Salesforce.com的云平台与同事协作,在任何时间、通过任何设备销售产品和务。除了与甲骨文的交易,Salesforce.com还与惠普合作,在后者的基础架构上运行软件。BlackBerry Ltd.: Perhaps no company has endured a more difficult time in 2013 than BlackBerry Ltd., whose business has stumbled as the iPhone and Android phones have soared. After failing to sell many phones based on its revamped BlackBerry 10 operating system, the company in November abandoned a .7 billion plan to go private, choosing to continue as a public company with new leadership. BlackBerry replaced CEO Thorsten Heins, who failed to right the ship after he was promoted from within to turn the company around almost two years ago, with former Sybase Inc. CEO John Chen. On Dec. 20, BlackBerry reported a .4 billion third-quarter loss quarter, after which Mr. Chen said 2014 would be an #39;investment#39; year for the company.黑莓(BlackBerry Ltd.):或许2013年没有哪个公司的境况比黑莓更糟,黑莓的业务随着iPhone和安卓手机的迅速崛起而步履蹒跚。由于采用改进版黑莓10操作系统的手机销量不佳,该公司今年11月放弃了规模47亿美元的私有化方案,选择在新领导层管理下保持上市公司身份。黑莓撤掉了首席执行长海因斯(Thorsten Heins),他在近两年前从公司内部晋升这一职位,但未能让公司调整好方向。取代海因斯的是前Sybase Inc.首席执行长John Chen。12月20日,黑莓宣布第三季度亏损44亿美元,之后Chen说,2014年将是黑莓的“投资年”。 /201312/270845赣州割双眼皮哪家医院最好

赣州哪里开眼角好南康做疤痕修复多少钱 On a day dominated by the initial public offering of the Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba’s and the first sales of Apple’s new iPhone 6, Tesla Motors added to the tech-centric buzz by wirelessly upgrading its Model S electric car with a number of new features. Among them? A location-based air suspension that remembers potholes and steep driveways and automatically adjusts to avoid them.在中国电商阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba)首次公开募股和苹果(Apple)iPhone 6开售吸引了所有关注的当天,特斯拉汽车公司(Tesla Motors)对其旗舰车型Model S的无线软件进行了升级,添加了许多新特色,这一举动给关注科技的大众再添了一笔谈资。其中最有特色的功能是一款可以根据位置进行变化的空气悬架,它可以记住坑洼和陡峭的车道,并自动调整高度避开它们。The feature, which is only available in Model S cars equipped with air suspension, remembers where the driver previously selected high ride heights and automatically raises the car in those spots.这一功能只有装配空气悬架的Model S车型可以使用,它能够记忆驾驶员之前选择的悬架高度,并自动在这些位置提高汽车底盘。Other features, which were added to Model S sedans through a wireless software upgrade, include traffic-based navigation that will take into account data shared by other Tesla vehicles on the road, a calendar that syncs with a driver’s smartphone, remote start, power management, and ability to “name” your car. Once the car registers the car’s nickname, it will appear in the Tesla mobile app and in the About Your Tesla section on the 17-inch touch-screen display.Model S通过无线软件升级实现的其他功能还包括:基于交通情况的导航系统(该导航会根据其他特斯拉汽车共享的路况数据作出决定),与司机的智能手机同步的日历,遥控启动,电源管理,以及给汽车“命名”。车主注册昵称后,该昵称将会出现在特斯拉的移动应用,以及车内17英寸触摸屏上的“关于你的特斯拉”菜单中。The ability to wirelessly upgrade a vehicle’s software isn’t unique, according to Kelley Blue Book analyst Karl Brauer, who noted Tesla’s location-based air suspension was an interesting feature he hadn’t seen before.美国权威汽车价值评估网站Kelley Blue Book的分析师卡尔o布劳尔表示,升级汽车无线软件并非独特的技术,但特斯拉根据位置自动调整的空气悬架是一个他从未见过的有趣特色。“Any car with built-in Wi-fi technically has the ability to update its software,” said Brauer. “For instance, GM cars equipped with OnStar have been able to remote start cars or make wireless upgrades for some time.”布劳尔说:“任何拥有内置无线网络的汽车,从技术上讲都能够升级其软件。比如,装有安吉星(OnStar)的通用汽车(GM)都具有远程启动功能,该软件有些时候也会进行无线升级。”Still the Tesla’s practice of wirelessly upgrading the car’s software to not only fix bugs, but also roll out new features that improve performance and customize the driving experience, illustrates a shift within the auto industry.但是,特斯拉汽车软件的无线升级不仅是为了修复漏洞,还会借此推出新的特色以增强汽车性能、为客户量身营造驾驶体验,这体现了汽车业内的一种转变。“The importance of software upgrades and maintaining a communication link between the car and the automaker will increase and become more pivotal moving forward,” said John Gartner, research director with Navigant Research.Navigant Research公司研究总监约翰o高德纳表示:“保持软件升级,维持汽车和汽车制造商之间通讯链的重要性会日益增加,并将成为推动汽车业继续发展的关键因素。”All vehicles are moving in that direction, but electric vehicle manufacturers are particularly aggressive on that front, added Gartner.高德纳补充道,所有的汽车都将朝这个趋势发展,但电动汽车制造商在这点上尤其干劲十足。Electric vehicles, which rely on software and computing power, use wireless upgrades to introduce new features and stay ahead of the competition.电动汽车依靠软件和计算能力驱动,它们可以通过无线升级推出新的特色功能,在竞争中保持领先。In some cases, it’s been used to facilitate—and speed up—a recall.有时候,这也会用于帮助和加速召回工作。In January, after voluntarily recalling 29,222 Model S vehicles, Tesla used a wireless software update to enable the car’s on-board charging system to detect any unexpected fluctuations in the input power or higher resistance connections to the vehicle.今年1月,在主动召回29,222辆Model S汽车后,特斯拉升级了无线软件,让汽车的车载充电系统能够检测输入电源中任何非正常的电压波动或电阻升高。The software upgrade aimed to address concerns that the adapter, cord or wall outlet could overheat while charging. But unlike other official voluntary recalls, Tesla owners didn’t have to bring their cars to a dealership for a fix.软件升级的目的是解决用户对电源适配器、电线和墙面电源在充电时过热的担忧。不过与其他官方的主动召回不同,特斯拉的车主不需要把汽车送到代理商那里维修。 /201410/331991赣州人民医院激光去红血丝多少钱

赣州整形美容医院毛发移植怎么样When he was a student in linguistics and English at the University of California, Berkeley, David Peterson worked on a secret language for two months. It was called “Megdevi”. This was an amalgam of both his own name and Megan, his girlfriend at the time. Once satisfied with his new words and grammar rules, he presented it to her. It was his grand romantic gesture: a private language they could use to communicate only with each other.戴维#8226;彼得森(David Peterson)在美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)学习语言学和英文时,花两个月时间发明了一种秘密语言,给它取名为“梅戴语”(Megdevi)——这是大卫和他当时的女友梅甘(Megan)名字的结合体。待新词和语法规则令他满意后,他将成果展示给女友。这是他送出的一份非常浪漫的爱情大礼:一种只在他俩之间使用的私密语言。“We didn’t use it”, the 33-year-old admits today, 15 years later. While Megan appreciated the effort, she did not want to learn the language. “It was far too much work.” Now married to someone else, he is more agitated about the technical shortcomings of Megdevi, describing it as “an abomination”. He laments: “It tried to be a bunch of different things at once and ended up being nothing.”不过15年后,33岁的彼得森承认:“我们没用过它。”梅甘虽然赞赏了他的努力,但并不想学习这门语言。“太费力了。”如今,已娶别人为妻的彼得森对“梅戴语”的技术缺陷更为心烦,称之“令人讨厌”。他叹道:“它想一次实现许多个目标,结果落得一无是处。”Back then he was under the illusion he was the first person to create a language just for himself. “I thought I’d cornered the market and there would be demand for invented languages.” Later, when he searched the internet, he saw there were legions of people just like him, picking holes in grammar rules and admiring the poetry of their new lexicons in chat rooms around the world.当时,他还以为自己是头一个为自己创造一门语言的人。“我以为自己会垄断市场,人们对新语言的发明会有需求。”后来,他在网上搜索后发现,世界上有许多像他这样的人,他们在聊天室里给语法规则挑毛病,欣赏用自己新发明的词汇写成的诗歌。The invention of new languages has a rich history. Some have a political purpose such as Esperanto, created in the 19th century to foster peace, or the feminist Láadan, created in 1982. Another, Toki Pona, uses positive words to engender positive thinking.新语言的发明史丰富多。一些语言带有政治目的,例如,发明于19世纪的世界语(Esperanto)是为了促进和平,发明于1982年的拉丹语(Láadan)带有女权主义色。还有一种道本语(Toki Pona),这种语言使用积极词汇,以鼓励积极思维。Today Mr Peterson is a professional “conlanger” – the name that those who construct languages give to themselves. What transformed his hobby into a trade was the growing desire by television and film producers to infuse science fiction and fantasy dramas with authenticity, including completely fabricated and naturalistic languages. Fans scrutinise the languages, sharing inconsistencies on Twitter and discussion forums.如今,彼得森是职业的“语言设计师”(conlanger)——那些自造语言的人以此相称。他的爱好缘何变成职业?这是因为科幻和奇幻类影视剧制片商越来越追求在剧中营造一种真实感,包括创造完全虚构的自然主义语言。影迷剧迷们对这些语言的研究细致入微,还在Twitter和论坛上分享剧中语言的破绽。Mr Peterson’s big break was Game of Thrones, the lavish HBO drama, which next month starts its fourth season.彼得森的重大突破是《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)。这部HBO的豪华大剧下月将开播第4季。In 2008, after completing a masters in linguistics and teaching English at a community college, Mr Peterson found himself unemployed. He entered a competition set by the Game of Thrones producers for members of the Language Creation Society, a group he had co-founded, to promote, discuss and deconstruct invented languages.2008年,在修完语言学硕士学位、并在一所社区学院教授了一段时间的英语之后,彼得森失业了。他参加了《权力的游戏》制片商面向“语言创造协会”(Language Creation Society)会员设立的一场竞赛。彼得森是协会的联合创始人之一,协会宗旨是推广、讨论和解构人造语言。The group was invited to devise a language – Dothraki – for the show. He won both rounds – the first, judged by his peers, the second by the television executives. It changed his working life.协会受邀为电视剧设计一门语言——多斯拉克语(Dothraki)。他在两轮比赛中均告胜出——第一轮是会员评审,第二轮是电视制片方评审。这改变了他的职业道路。Unlike previous languages he had worked on, Dothraki had some basics aly in place. George RR Martin, author of the five volumes of A Song of Ice and Fire, the fantasy saga on which the TV series is based, had created some words aly. By analysing these, he fleshed it out to create a “naturalistic” language, reflecting the feudal pseudo-Mongolian society’s preoccupations. There are, for example, seven different words in Dothraki for striking with a sword. These include: “hlizi#64257;kh”, a wild but powerful strike; and “kolverikh”, a straight sword thrust.与他之前设计的语言不同,多斯拉克语已经具备了一些基本成分。电视剧根据魔幻传奇小说《冰与火之歌》(A Song of Ice and Fire)五部曲改编,小说作者乔治#8226;马丁(George RR Martin)已经创造了一些单词。彼得森对单词进行了分析,为它们添枝加叶,创造出了一门“自然主义”语言,并反映出那个虚构的蒙古封建社会更关注哪些方面。例如,在多斯拉克语中,有7个单词可以形容使剑的动作,比如,“hlizifikh”指偏离目标但相当有力的一击,“kolverikh”形容笔直的一刺。While Mr Martin has insisted he did not pay attention to linguistic rules, Mr Peterson believes the author has a “natural language affinity”. Typically, he says, fantasy writers “do a terrible job”. Their languages are inconsistent and merely bastardised English.虽然马丁坚称自己并未刻意关注语言学规则,但彼得森认为他很有“创造语言的天赋”。彼得森表示,魔幻作家创造的语言通常“是一团糟”,不仅漏洞百出,而且往往只不过是换了个样子的英语。By the start of the first season, Mr Peterson had created 1,700 words and now has added another 2,000. He has set a goal of 10,000, though he has become derailed by working on other science fiction and fantasy projects.到第一季开始播出时,彼得森已经发明了1700个单词,如今又新创了2000个单词。他将目标设在1万个,但眼下其他科幻和魔幻方面的项目开始分散他的精力。He records every line that he writes in Dothraki so that actors can learn how to pronounce the words. Actors do a pretty good job, he says, although when he sees the final product he often cringes (mistakes are made, he says, by editors and directors who do not have an ear for his language and might choose a clip best left on the cutting floor).他将自己写下的每一句多斯拉克语台词都录了下来,以便演员学习发音。他说,演员们学得不错,但剪辑好的最终成品常常让他感到非常无奈(他说,错误都出在剪辑师和导演那里,他们听不懂多斯拉克语,往往把本应该剪掉的片段留下。)Originally Mr Peterson’s goal had been to become an English teacher in high school. While an undergraduate at Berkeley, Mr Peterson, who is half-Mexican and speaks Spanish, studied different languages for fun: basic Arabic, a term of Russian. At his mother’s suggestion he learnt linguistics, which sparked his interest in language creation.彼得森最初的目标是当一名高中英文教师。在伯克利念本科时,有一半墨西哥血统、会说西班牙语的彼得森出于兴趣学习过不同语言。他学过一点阿拉伯文,还学了一学期的俄文。在母亲的建议下,他开始学习语言学,这激发了他对创造语言的兴趣。Once he started he realised there was no chance he would ever stop. “It’s addictive,” he says. He has always had tunnel vision when it comes to his personal passions. When he was very young it was drawing, then writing, until he became focused on languages.他发现自己的研究一发不可收拾。他表示:“这会让人上瘾。”他对自己的兴趣一向非常投入。小时候他迷过绘画,然后是写作,最后,他的兴趣集中到了语言学上。The work satisfies the mathematical side of his brain, he says, by trying to “solve the problem of communication”. But it is also artistic. “Filling out a lexicon means filling out the back story. It is not purely mechanical.”他表示,尝试“解决沟通的问题”,满足了他头脑中的数学一面。但这一工作也具有艺术性。“填写一个词语,意味着填写一段历史。这不是纯粹机械的工作。”The transformational moment for conlangers was Klingon. Marc Okrand, a linguist, was hired to create a language for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Klingons had largely spoken English in the original Star Trek television series), which was released in 1984.语言设计师的转折点是克林贡语(Klingon)。语言学家马克#8226;奥克兰德(Marc Okrand)受聘为1984年上映的《星际迷航3:石破天惊》(Star Trek III: The Search for Spock)创造一门新语言(在《星际迷航》原版电视剧中,克林贡人主要说英语)。Later came James Cameron’s science fiction extravaganza, Avatar. For that the director hired Paul Frommer, a linguistics expert from the University of Southern California, to create the Na’vi language spoken by a 10-foot-tall alien tribe.之后是詹姆斯#8226;卡梅隆(James Cameron)的科幻巨制《阿凡达》(Avatar)。卡梅隆聘请了美国南加州大学(University of Southern California)的语言学专家保罗#8226;弗罗默(Paul Frommer),为片中10英尺高的外星人——纳威人(Na#39;vi)——创造一门纳威语。Professor Frommer’s modus operandi includes determining the sound of the language (deciding which sounds are included and pronunciation rules); the morphology (word-building rules); and the syntax (rules for combining words into phrases and sentences). It was also important to plan how the Na’vi culture would be reflected in the language.弗罗默教授的工作方法包括,确定该语言的发音(决定取用哪些音素,以及确定发音规则)、词形(构词法)以及句法(如何将词语组合为短语和句子)。在语言设计中将该语言对纳威文化的反映考虑进入,这也是很重要的一点。Good language creators, Prof Frommer says, have a deep understanding of linguistic principles; knowledge of a wide variety of languages; sensitivity to the interplay between language, culture and environment; imagination and a clear idea of purpose – how and why will the language be used. Without a goal, Mr Peterson says, a language is “a jumble, with choices made seemingly at random”.弗罗默表示,优秀的语言设计师熟谙语言学规则,通晓多门语言,注意语言、文化、环境的相互作用,想象力丰富,并且目标清晰,即对这门语言的使用方式以及目的心中有数。彼得森表示,没有目的性的语言将“乱七八糟,好像随意拼凑起来的一样”。Science fiction and fantasy films inspire fierce devotion. Some fans have tattoos using the writing system Mr Peterson created for the sci-fi TV series Defiance. “That blows my mind,” he says.科幻和魔幻电影引发了狂热的追随。有的影迷在纹身时使用了彼得森为科幻电视剧《抗争》(Defiance)创造的语言文字。“这让我很激动,”彼得森说。Video games should be a rich source of work yet developers care more about the artwork and gaming than linguistic consistency, he says. However, he makes an exception for one game in development, which he declines to name.彼得森表示,本应是语言设计师大显身手的舞台,但开发商更关注艺术效果和游戏体验,而不是语言的严密性。他表示有一款正在开发的游戏是个例外,不过他不愿透露游戏名称。Professional linguists can be rather sniffy about conlangers, although Prof Frommer insists conlangs “can serve as laboratories to test ideas about language”. Mr Peterson, who believes linguistic construction should be taught at school, sees television’s use of conlangs as educational. “People are coming to linguistics because they are interested in my work.”专业的语言学家可能会瞧不起语言设计师,但弗罗默教授坚持认为人造语言“可以作为测试语言理念的实验室”。彼得森认为学校应该教授构建语言的学问,在他看来,电视节目对人造语言的使用起到了教育作用。“人们因为对我的工作感兴趣,开始接触语言学。” /201403/280691 赣州玻尿酸隆鼻几多钱赣州医院隆鼻

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