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来源:度养生    发布时间:2019年12月16日 18:51:25    编辑:admin         

It’s a dark thought, and the sort of thing only a futurist would think of. Which is why I’m not surprised that Bre Pettis, founder and CEO of the 3D printing company Makerbot, brought it up. When I asked him about 3D-printed organs earlier this summer at the Northside Festival, a conference in Brooklyn, he told me that 3D-printed body parts won’t become a reality until autonomous vehicles arrive to market. It makes for a surprising connection between two futuristic technologies.这是一个阴暗的想法,只有未来主义者才会产生这样的联想。因此当3D打印公司Makerbot创始人兼首席执行官布利o佩蒂斯抛出这个问题时,我并不感到意外。今年夏初,在布鲁克林的北边艺术节(Northside Festival)上,我询问他关于3D打印器官的问题,他回答说,直到自动驾驶汽车上市,3D打印人体器官才会成为现实。两项富于未来气息的技术就这样意外地联系在了一起。“The self-driving car is coming, and right now, our best supply of organs comes from car accidents,” he said. “So, if you need an organ you just wait for somebody to have an accident, and then you get their organ and you’re better.” I suggested that was a dark way of looking at it.佩蒂斯说:“自动驾驶汽车就要来了,而目前,人体器官的最佳来源是车祸。也就是说,如果你需要进行器官移植,你必须得等待有人出车祸。获得遇难者的器官后你就会好起来。”我说,这种看法可够阴暗的。His response: “We have this huge problem that we sort of don’t talk about, that people die all the time from car accidents. It’s kind of insane. But the most interesting thing is, if we can reduce accidents and deaths, then we actually have a whole other problem on our hands of, ‘Where do we get organs?’ I don’t think we’ll actually be printing organs until we solve the self-driving car issue. The next problem will be organ replacement.”佩蒂斯回答道:“随时都有人在车祸中丧生,但我们似乎很少谈论这个大问题。多少有些荒唐。不过,最有意思的事情是,如果我们能够减少车祸数量和丧生人数,那么我们真的会遇到另一个棘手的大问题,那就是‘人体器官从哪儿来?’我觉得在解决自动驾驶汽车的问题之前,3D打印人体器官并不会真的实现。接下来的问题将是器官替换。”It’s not impossible to 3D-print an organ, he said, but there are challenges around raw materials. “Right now you take liver goo, and you squeeze liver goo into the shape of a liver and it grows together and hopefully becomes a liver. That’s the idea of 3D printing organs,” he said. The challenge, he said, will be getting the science of the “liver goo” right, before the actual printing part even comes into play.他指出,3D打印人体器官并非不可能,但原材料方面有一些难点。“现在的方法是取来肝细胞,把它们弄成肝脏的形状,再盼着它们生长发育成肝脏。这就是3D打印人体器官的思路。”佩蒂斯说,难点在于正确地“取来肝细胞”,随后才是真的进行3D打印。The self-driving car isn’t as far off as you might think. What once existed only the realm of science fiction is now roving around—albeit in an extremely limited fashion—in Nevada, Florida, California, and Michigan. What was once an easy punch line in parodies of Silicon Valley is now a fixture on Google’s corporate campus.自动驾驶汽车并不像大家想的那么遥远。这种以前只出现在科幻小说里的东西现在已经开始四处游走,只不过活动范围很小,仅限于内华达州、佛罗里达州、加利福尼亚州和密歇根州。以前人们奚落硅谷时,总会开自动驾驶汽车的玩笑,而现在,它已经是谷歌(Google)公司园区里的一款代步工具。Adoption continues. Last month the U.K.’s Department of Transport announced that it would allow self-driving cars onto British streets by next year. A county in Iowa recently announced—at a symposium designed to attract Google and other tech companies to its region, naturally—that it would allow driverless cars on its streets. California’s Department of Motor Vehicles has been pushing to get broader regulations in place to allow self-driving cars on public roads.自动驾驶汽车的应用范围正在扩大。英国交通部上个月宣布称,将在明年之前允许自动驾驶汽车在英国上路。爱荷华州的某个区也在最近的一次研讨会上表示,将允许自动驾驶汽车在本地行驶——举办这次会议自然也是为了吸引谷歌和其他科技公司入驻这一地区。加州机动车辆则一直在设法扩大监管范围,以便自动驾驶汽车成为普通交通工具。The potential benefits are hard to ignore. Each year 30,000 people die in traffic collisions in the U.S. Considering that 90% of U.S. auto collisions are blamed on human error—some 40% are the result of factors such as alcohol or fatigue—we have a lot to gain by outsourcing the task of driving to computers.这样做的潜在好处很难让人熟视无睹。在美国,每年有3万人死于交通事故。考虑到其中90%的车祸是由人为失误造成,而且大约40%的事故缘于酒后驾车或疲劳驾驶,把操控汽车的任务交给计算机会让我们受益匪浅。If 10% of vehicles were self-driving, it could reduce the number of accidents by 211,000 and in turn save 1,100 lives,according to a 2013 study by the Eno Center for Transportation in Washington, D.C. If 90% of vehicles were autonomous, an estimated 4.2 million accidents would be prevented and 21,700 lives would be saved.华盛顿非营利智囊机构伊诺交通中心(Eno Center for Transportation)在2013年进行的研究表明,如果美国10%的车辆可以自动驾驶,交通事故就会减少21.1万起,1100条生命就能得到挽救。如果自动驾驶汽车的比例达到90%,就可以避免420万起车祸,2.17万人将因此获救。Technological advances often come with unintended consequences, though, which is why these predictions support Pettis’ case that organ donations would be adversely impacted by safer driving. Motor vehicle accidents are the largest contributor to organ donations after natural-cause deaths. Since 1994, 16% of all organ donations came from motor vehicle accidents, according to the U.S. Department of Health amp; Human Services.不过,技术进步经常带来意想不到的影响。正是出于这个原因,这些预测数据印了佩蒂斯的观点,即驾车变得更安全,将对器官捐献产生不利影响。除了自然死亡,交通事故是器官捐献的最大来源。美国卫生及公共务部(Department of Health amp; Human Services)的数据显示,1994年以来,机动车事故在器官捐献中所占的比重为16%。The inventory pressure from increasing adoption of self-driving cars will add to an aly shrinking pool of organ donors. Traffic deaths have been in decline since 1969, when they peaked at 55,043. The drop occurred for a number of reasons: drunk driving deaths have fallen, seat belt use has increased, air bags are more effective, and we drive less.器官捐献者的数量已经呈下降趋势。自动驾驶汽车得到更广泛的应用后,器官供应的压力会变得更大。美国交通事故死亡人数在1969年达到55043人的最高点,随后不断下降。原因有很多,比如酒驾致死人数减少,更多的人佩戴安全带,安全气囊变得更有效以及驾车人次减少。All of this has led to a widening gap between the number of patients on the organ wait list and the number of people who actually receive transplants. More than 123,000 people in the U.S. are currently in need of an organ, and 18 people die each day waiting, according to the Department of Health amp; Human Services. Though the wait list has grown each year for the past two decades, the number of transplants per year has held steady in the last decade, at around 28,000. While that number is still dwarfed by other fatal but preventable situations—the Centers for Disease Control estimate that443,000 people die each year from smoking, for example—it’s enough to make anyone wary of the direction in which the trend is going, and hopeful that 3D printing technology can help turn it around.等待器官移植的病人一直比真正接受移植的病人多,以上种种因素让这个差距不断拉大。美国卫生及公共务部的数据表明,目前美国需要进行器官移植的人数超过12.3万,而且每天都会有18个人在等待中逝去。20年来,等待器官移植的人数逐年增多;而在过去10年中,每年进行的器官移植手术一直稳定在2.8万例。虽然和其他致命但可预防的疾病相比,这个数字相形见绌——举例来说,美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control)估计,每年有44.3万人死于抽烟——但它足以让所有人对今后的趋势感到警惕。但愿3D打印技术能帮助我们扭转这种趋势。 /201408/323623。

Garden Islands花园群岛AZORES // Pico is the second-largest island in the Azores, with a unique topography defined by terraced hillside vineyards. These distinctive stone-walled lots are a Unesco World Heritage Site, rich with volcanic soil and densely planted with white Verdelho wine grapes. Fall marks the start of festival season here--capped in October by the annual food festival, where free-flowing Verdelho is served with local cheeses and charcuterie.亚速尔群岛(AZORES) //皮科(Pico)是亚速尔群岛第二大岛屿,它拥有独特地形,以梯田状的葡萄园区为主。这些特色鲜明的石垒 是联合国教科文组织世界遗产(Unesco World Heritage Site) ,它们富含火山土,上面密集地种植着酿造华帝露(Verdelho)干白酒所需的葡萄。秋季标志着此地佳节的开始——10月份将举办一年一度的美食节,到时会提供自由畅饮的华帝露酒以及当地的奶酪和猪肉熟食。ITALY // The Lake Region is best-known as the stomping ground of cinematic royalty. But Lake Como and Maggiore#39;s real stars are the island gardens developed over centuries by the region#39;s actual aristocracy. On Isola Bella, the Borromeo family has created a garden compound so fanciful it appears like a floating wedding cake. The nearby Villa Balbianello, set on a 12-hectare isthmus, pairs protected woods with meticulously tended gardens and elegant architecture.意大利 // 湖区(Lake Region)作为影片中皇室的落脚点而闻名于世。但科莫湖(Lake Como)和马焦雷湖(Maggiore)真正的明星是几个世纪以来由这一地区真正的贵族打理形成的岛屿花园。在美丽岛(Isola Bella)上,罗梅奥(Borromeo)家族已建立了一座梦幻的花园群区,它看起来就像一块漂浮的婚礼蛋糕。附近的巴比安内罗别墅(Villa Balbianello)坐落在12英亩(约合4.9公顷)的地峡上,它还坐拥起保护作用的树林、精心打理的花园与雅致的建筑。SPAIN // It#39;s easy to dismiss the Canary Islands as a package-tourism no man#39;s land. But that would mean missing out on the archipelago#39;s lush tropical landscapes and increasingly upscale waterfront resorts. Enjoy both at the Abama Golf and Resort ( abamahotelresort.com ), set on a cliff above a private slice of sandy shoreline. The 18-hole golf course is enlivened with over 25, 000 palm trees and hundreds of semitropical plants.西班牙 // 人们容易将加那利群岛(Canary Islands)视为组团旅游项目中的一处无人区而不予考虑。但这意味着将错过这些群岛上繁茂的热带植被景观以及不断增长的高档海滨度假村。在阿巴马高尔夫度假酒店(Abama Golf and Resort, 网址:abamahotelresort.com)享受前述两种景观吧。该酒店坐落在沙滩海岸线私人片区的一处悬崖之上。25,000多颗棕榈树和成千上百种亚热带植物给这片18洞的高尔夫球场增添了生机。Summer Sun夏日阳光TURKEY // The Aegean Riviera continues to rev up its boho bona fides as artists and designers join moguls and media makers along its crystalline coastline. The area#39;s latest gathering spot is the hamlet of Alacati, near Izmir. This season#39;s best beds are found at La Capria, a 20-room hotel with Moroccan-meets-Mediterranean furnishings and its own 25-meter gulet for island hopping in the late-summer sun. lacapriasuitehotel.com土耳其 // 随着众多艺术家与设计师加入到滑雪行列、媒体制造商来到其水晶般清澈透明的海岸线,爱琴海里维埃拉(Riviera)的波西米亚风潮继续升温。该区最大的聚集地是伊兹密尔(Izmir)附近的小镇阿拉恰特(Alacati)。你能在拉卡普里亚(La Capria)酒店里找到这个季节中的最佳床铺。该酒店拥有20个房间,内配有融合了洛哥与地中海风情的家具,它还拥有自己25米高的帆船,这是为夏末阳光中的环岛游配备的。(网址:lacapriasuitehotel.com)PORTUGAL // For centuries, the beach town of Cascais has lured both surfers and nobility to its sun-kissed shores, barely 45 minutes from Lisbon. Drenched in the stark Atlantic sun, the coastline is dotted with historic forts. Make like a soldier and head to the new 126-room Pousada de Cascais hotel, a converted 16th-century citadel that marries new-build rooms with a historic core--including a handful of guest rooms within the original barracks quarters. pousadas.pt葡萄牙 // 几个世纪以来,海滨小镇卡斯凯什(Cascais)不断吸引着冲浪者与名流显贵来到其阳光热吻下的海岸,该地离里斯本只需45分钟车程。沐浴在大西洋耀眼的阳光中,这片海岸线遍布着诸多历史悠久的古堡。你要像战士一样前往这座拥有126个崭新房间的卡斯凯什古堡酒店(Pousada de Cascais)——这座16世纪的城堡经过翻修后将新建的房间与历史核心因素融为一体——包括建在原先兵营宿舍内的少数几间客房。(网址:pousadas.pt)CYPRUS // The azure seas fronting the resort-town of Paphos are a world away from the island#39;s cookie-cutter package hotels. Here, where Aphrodite is fabled to have journeyed and Roman governors later ruled, archaeology is as abundant as the bronze sandy beaches. With summer weather lasting well into fall, book a room at the Modernist Almyra Hotel, where whitewashed villa suites include private rooftop decks. almyra.com塞浦路斯 // 度假小镇帕福斯(Paphos)前方的碧海是远离该岛上千篇一律酒店的另一个世界。传说爱和美的女神阿芙罗狄(Aphrodite)曾到过这里。后来,该地由罗马官员统治,所以这里的古迹多得就像古铜色的沙滩一样。由于夏季的天气会很好地延续到秋季,你就在现代主义雅尔蜜拉酒店(Modernist Almyra Hotel)预定一间房吧,这里刷得雪白的别墅套房配有私人屋顶甲板。(网址:almyra.com) /201310/260655。

Pilates vs. Yoga健康问答:普拉提还是瑜伽?Question:问:Is Pilates better than yoga for strengthening exercises?在力量练习方面,普拉提是否比瑜伽更好?Asked by Rodin#39;s Muse——Rodin#39;s MuseAnswer:答:The answer depends to a large degree on what it is you#39;re trying to strengthen.在很大程度上取决于你想要增进哪方面的力量。In general, Pilates exercises, originally developed by the fitness trainer Joseph Pilates, target the core muscles around the spine. If your aim is to strengthen your midsection, then Pilates is a fine choice. In a small but well-designed study last year, nine sedentary women who completed 36 weeks of supervised Pilates training bulked up their abdominal muscles by as much as 20 percent, while also lessening any existing muscular imbalances there.总的来说,由健身教练约瑟夫·普拉提(Joseph Pilates)开发的普拉提训练,针对的是脊柱周围的核心肌群。如果你的目标是强化身体中段,那么普拉提是个很好的选项。去年一个规模较小但设计优良的研究发现,九位习惯静坐不动的女性在完成了36周经专人指导的普拉提训练后,腹部肌肉增加了多达20%,该部位原有的肌力不平衡问题也有所缓解。;Pilates can be recommended as an effective method to reinforce the muscles of the abdominal wall and to compensate pre-existing asymmetric developments,; the authors said.“在强化腹部肌肉群,减缓既有的肌肉不对称恶化上,普拉提可以推荐作为一种有效的训练手段,”研究作者表示。But whether such training fortifies the rest of the body is questionable. A review last year of Pilates-related science found little credible evidence that the exercises added muscle or incinerated body fat apart from in the midsection.但这种练习是否可强化身体的其他部位,尚不得而知。去年,一篇有篇普拉提研究的综述认为,现在尚无可靠据明,普拉提练习可以增加身体中段以外其他部位的肌肉或燃烧脂肪。Yoga, however, especially hatha yoga, with its flowing poses, may strengthen larger sections of the body.不过,瑜伽,尤其是哈达瑜伽,因其姿势是流动的,也许能增强全身更广泛的部位。;Depending on the specific style, yoga is a quite intensive exercise intervention,; said Holger Cramer, a research fellow in integrative medicine at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany, who is studying the physical impact of yoga. A telling 2011 study published in the Asian Journal of Sports Medicine found that after six months of almost-daily sun salutations (a multipart yoga pose) and no other resistance training, young men and women could bench-press significantly more weight and complete far more push-ups and pull-ups than at the start of the study.“视乎特定流派,瑜伽可以是一种颇为激烈的训练干预手段,”德国杜伊斯堡-埃森大学(University of Duisburg-Essen)结合医学研究员霍尔格·克莱默(Holger Cramer)介绍说。他目前研究的是瑜伽对身体的作用。2011年,一篇发表于《亚洲运动医学》(Asian Journal of Sports Medicine)的研究引人注目地发现,一群年轻男女进行拜日式体位练习(这是一种要练习身体各部位的瑜伽体位),而且没有进行其他任何阻力训练,在半年几乎每天勤练不辍的训练后,相比研究之初,他们卧推的重量显著增加,完成的俯卧撑和引体向上数也有明显上升。The upshot? Pilates may be preferable if your primary goal is a solid core, but if you#39;re hoping to strengthen your upper body and goose your push-up tally, you#39;ll probably accomplish more with sun salutations and other yoga moves.结论是?如果你的主要目标是练出有力的核心肌群,普拉提也许是个好选项;可如果你希望强化上半身,做更多的俯卧撑,也许通过练习拜日式和其他瑜伽姿势,能达成这个目标。Do you have a health question? Submit your question to Ask Well.有健康问题?向Ask Well提问。 /201409/326649。