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来源:管大全    发布时间:2019年12月12日 09:08:26    编辑:admin         

PRUE — In the age of Amazon and the internet, the idea of going to a public library to borrow a book may seem ever more quaint and old-fashioned in many parts of the world, but one country, at least, is clinging to it tenaciously: the Czech Republic.布拉格——在这个亚马逊(Amazon)与网络当道的年代,在世界上许多地方的人看来,上公共图书馆借书一举似乎更显得古怪过时。然而至少还有一个国家仍顽强地保持这项习惯,那就是捷克共和国。There are libraries everywhere you look in the country — it has the densest library network in the world, according to a survey conducted for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. There are more libraries than grammar schools. In fact, there is one library for every 1,971 Czech citizens, the survey found — four times as many, relative to population, as the average European country, and 10 times as many as the ed States, which has one for every 19,583 people.放眼望去,捷克到处是图书馆:根据比尔及梅琳达盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)进行的一项调查,该国有全世界密度最高的图书馆网络,数量比文法学校还要多。事实上,这项调查发现,每1971位捷克人就有一间图书馆,依人口比例算来是平均欧洲国家的4倍、美国的10倍(美国每19583人才有一间图书馆)。Why so many Czech libraries? Well, for decades they were mandatory — every community, from a big city down to a tiny village, was required by law to have one.为什么捷克有这么多图书馆?其实在数十年的时间里,图书馆的建造曾是强制规定——以前捷克从大城到小镇的每个社区,依法都必须要有一间图书馆。The law was enacted in 1919, soon after Czechoslovakia emerged as an independent country. The idea was to promote universal literacy and education after the country was free of the German-speaking Austro-Hungarian Empire. And it worked.该项法案是1919年颁布的,当时捷克斯洛伐克独立不久,用意是为了在脱离说德语的奥匈帝国统治后,提高全民的识字率、普及教育。而这种做法的确有效。“Czechs developed a strong ing habit, and even today, those who visit libraries buy more books — 11 a year, on average — than others,” said Vit Richter, director of the Librarianship Institute of the Czech National Library.“捷克人养成了很强的阅读习惯,即便在今天,会上图书馆的人买书也更多,一年下来平均会买11本书。”捷克国家图书馆附设图书馆学中心的主任维特#8231;李希特(Vit Richter)表示。The library law survived the German occupation, the communist era and even the breakup with Slovakia in the early 1990s. What it couldn’t survive, in the end, was budgetary pressure. To save money, the requirement was dropped in 2001, when there were about 6,019 libraries in the country; since then, about 11 percent have merged or closed.这项图书馆法案挺过了“二战”德国占领期、共产主义时期,甚至当捷克在上世纪90年代初期与斯洛伐克分家时仍照行不误。它最终挺不住的是预算压力。这项法案在2001年为减省开而废除了,而当时捷克全国上下有将近6019座图书馆。自此以后,有大约11%的图书馆遭合并或关闭。Rather than just linger on as an eccentricity from a bygone age, though, the surviving Czech libraries are doing what they can to stay vibrant and relevant. They serve as polling places for elections and as local meeting venues. They organize ing clubs and art exhibits and offer computer literacy courses, and they welcome droves of schoolchildren and retirees during the day.然而,现存的捷克图书馆并不甘于作为历史遗留的怪癖传世,它们尽可能地保持活跃及与民众生活的联系。图书馆是选举时的投票所、是当地居民的集会场地,馆方也会组织阅读俱乐部与艺术展览、提供计算机教学课程,并且在日间接待成群来访的学童与退休人士。But mostly, they do what 92 percent of Czechs still want them to go on doing, according to the Gates Foundation survey: They lend books.不过,根据盖兹基金会的调查,这些图书馆的主要工作还是提供92%的捷克人仍希望他们继续下去的务:借书给大家看。 /201607/456449。

Yamoussoukro in Ivory Coast is a city with roads wide enough for jumbo jets to land on, a vast presidential palace and a basilica modelled on St Peter’s in Rome. However, while it was named the nation’s capital in 1983, most commercial and administrative activities still take place in another city, Abidjan.在科特迪瓦(Ivory Coast)的亚穆苏克罗市(Yamoussoukro),道路宽得可以降落大型喷气式客机,还有一个巨大的总统府和以罗马圣彼得大教堂为蓝本的长方形基督教堂。然而,尽管该市在1983年被定为国家首都,但如今大部分商业与行政活动仍发生在另一座城市阿比让(Abidjan)。Yamoussoukro’s failure to become the country’s primary urban centre is an example of how grand plans for new cities do not always live up to expectations.亚穆苏克罗市未能成为科特迪瓦的主要都市中心,是兴建新城市的宏伟计划并非总能达到预期的一个例子。From the ghostly eco-cities of China to Malaysia, where Cyberjaya, built as the country’s version of Silicon Valley, has so far failed to thrive, there is plenty of evidence of how difficult it is to create a city from scratch.从缺乏人气的中国“生态城”,到马来西亚以硅谷为蓝本建设、但至今未能蓬勃发展的赛城(Cyberjaya),大量据明,从一张白纸开始兴建一座城市有多么困难。“A lot of them are not filling in as expected,” says Sarah Moser, director of urban studies at Canada’s McGill university, who, with her students, is compiling a new cities database.“很多新城的人气发展不及预期,”加拿大麦吉尔大学(McGill University)城市研究主任莎拉#8226;莫泽(Sarah Moser)说。她正跟自己的学生一起编制一个新城市数据库。On paper, the points for such greenfield developments are strong. Pressure is growing to house rapidly expanding urban populations, particularly in emerging economies. Policymakers in these countries have seized on building high-tech cities as a way of joining the club of wealthier nations. “Since the 1990s, and increasingly in the past 10 years, this has become a staple financial strategy for countries in the ‘global south’,” says Ms Moser. “It’s seen as a way to leapfrog the economy from the production of raw materials and manufacturing into this new, high-tech era.”在理论上,持这些绿地开发的理由十分充足。为快速增长的城市人口安排住房的压力在加大,尤其是在新兴经济体。这些国家的政策制定者把兴建高科技城市作为加入富国俱乐部的一个发力点。“自1990年代以来,尤其是在过去10年里,这已日益成为‘全球南方’(global south,泛指发展中国家——译者注)国家的一项首选金融战略,”莫泽说。“它被视为实现经济跳跃式发展的一条途径,从原材料生产与加工,迈入新的高科技时代。”As cities produce more than 70 per cent of the world’s human-generated carbon emissions, according to UN-Habitat, attempts are also being made to design “green” or “carbon-neutral” cities such as Masdar in Abu Dhabi.联合国人居署(UN-Habitat)数据显示,城市在人类产生的碳排放的世界总量中占到70%以上,因此一些国家还试图设计“绿色”或“碳中性”城市,比如阿布扎比的马斯达尔城(Masdar City)。Yet for Dirk Hebel, assistant professor of architecture and construction at Singapore’s Future Cities Laboratory, Masdar and similar projects borrow too much from older European models.不过,对于新加坡未来城市实验室(Future Cities Laboratory)建筑设计和建造助理教授德克#8226;赫布尔(Dirk Hebel)而言,马斯达尔城和类似项目向欧洲旧模式借鉴的地方还是太多。He says we should not build large-scale cities in defined locations — so drawing on the principles of older cities that needed defensive walls — but plan smaller settlements, some of which may grow, some of which may merge and some of which may stay small.他说,我们不应在指定地点建设大型城市——从而借鉴那些需要城墙守卫的老城市的原则——而应规划更小的定居点,其中有些或许会扩大,有些或许会跟其他定居点合并,也有些或许会保持较小规模。Mr Hebel argues that, while urban planners must still provide infrastructure such as transport systems, health and education services, developments should be more organic. “It should be a system not a single location.”赫布尔辩称,尽管城市规划者仍必须提供交通系统、医疗和教育务等基础设施,但开发项目应该在更大程度上是有机的。“它应该是一个系统,而不是一个单一地点。”Another challenge for new cities is persuading people to move into them.新城市的另一个挑战是说人们去那里落户。“You can populate those cities in China but you need to put [people] in buses and make sure they don’t leave,” says Michele Acuto, director of University College London’s city leadership initiative. He thinks building new cities is a flawed concept. “You could spend exactly the same amount on improving current structures and systems and fostering innovation in existing places.”“你可以让中国的城市住上人,但你需要用大巴来搬迁移民,并确保他们不会离开,”伦敦大学学院(University College London)城市领导项目主管米歇尔#8226;阿库托(Michele Acuto)说。他认为,兴建新城市是个有缺陷的概念。“你可以把兴建新城市的资金投入改进现有结构和系统,并在现有的地区培育创新。”But Ms Moser points to some promising examples, such as Yachay, north of Ecuador’s capital Quito, planned as a centre for scientific, academic, economic and technological research and innovation. Much of its focus has been on sustainability and planting local species to minimise water use.但是,麦吉尔大学的莫泽指出了一些前景光明的例子,比如厄瓜多尔首都基多(Quito)以北的Yachay,这里被规划为一个科学、学术、经济以及技术研究和创新中心。其着重点是可持续发展,包括种植当地物种,以尽量减少用水量。But Ms Moser believes another factor may aid Yachay’s success. Unlike many new cities, it is integrating its existing residents rather than moving them on. Agricultural workers, who may lose jobs once the city expands on to farmland, are being given work in composting plants or raising saplings for the city’s street trees. Others can take courses to give them the skills to open businesses.但莫泽认为,另一个因素或许有助于Yachay的成功。跟许多新城市不同的是,Yachay只是在整合现有居民,而不是强迫他们搬迁。因为城市扩张占用农田而可能失业的农业劳动者,正得到在堆肥厂工作或者为城市的行道树培育幼苗的机会。其他人可以参加培训课程,学到创办企业的技能。How many of the almost 150 brand new cities in her database does Ms Moser think will succeed? “It’s really too soon to tell,” she says.莫泽认为,她的数据库中近150个崭新的城市里,有多少个将取得成功?“现在太早了,还无法判断,”她说。“One of the keys for what makes a successful city is that it needs patient capital,” says Suzanne Gill, a partner at law firm Wedlake Bell, who runs debates aimed at stimulating discussion about long-term sustainable investments. “Some of these [new] cities are like young men in hurry,” she says. “And some will crash and burn.”“让一个城市获得成功的关键之一,是它需要‘耐心的资本’,”卫理贝尔律师事务所(Wedlake Bell)合伙人苏珊娜#8226;吉尔(Suzanne Gill)说。她组织了多场旨在激励人们讨论长期可持续投资项目的辩论会。“这些新城市中有一些就像是匆忙的年轻男子,”她说。“其中一些将遭遇彻底失败。” /201606/448279。

China has vowed to reunite families and return dropouts to school after publishing its first comprehensive study on left-behind children.在发布了关于留守儿童的第一次全面调查后,中国政府决定让家庭团聚,并使辍学儿童重返校园。Following a door-to-door survey that began in March, the Ministry of Civil Affairs said that 9.02 million children age 16 or under have been left in the countryside by migrant worker parents.在今年3月份开始入户调查之后,民政部表示,外出打工的父母在农村留下了902万名16岁及以下的儿童。The research found that more than 90 percent of them are growing up without either parent and are in the care of grandparents, friends or relatives. An additional 360,000 have no guardian.研究发现,其中90%以上儿童的父母没有参与他们的成长,只是在祖父母、朋友或亲戚的照顾下长大。另外36万儿童则没有监护人。Huang Shuxian, the new minister of civil affairs, who chaired a multi-department meeting last Wednesday, offered three solutions to ease the problem: encouraging parents to return to the family home; giving previously unregistered children hukou, the household registration that gives them access to healthcare, education and social welfare; and getting the 16,000 children who have dropped out of school back into the classroom next semester.上周三,新任民政部部长黄树贤主持了一个多部门的会议,提出了三个方案来解决这个问题:鼓励父母回家;给以前未登记的儿童上户口,让他们获得医疗保健、教育和社会福利;并在下一学期让16000名辍学儿童返回教室。Yang Jiucheng, 42, has been running a service for left-behind children in Shaanxi province#39;s Pingli county. Most parents in that region go to big cities to find work.42岁的杨九成一直在陕西省平利县为留守儿童提供务。该地区的大多数家长都去大城市找工作。Paid by parents, Yang offers food and housing to children and makes sure they stay in school during the daytime.由家长出资,杨九成为孩子们提供食宿,并确保他们白天留在学校。;These parents can earn several thousand yuan a month in cities, but when they come home, their income drops to 1,000 yuan (0) or so. How can they feed their children this way?; Yang said.杨九成说道:“这些家长每个月可以在城市赚几千元,但是回家后,他们的收入就下降到1000元(150美元)左右,他们怎么能养活自己的孩子呢?”;We need something more concrete, to give them space to do business or get better jobs back home.;“我们需要更具体的东西,给他们空间来做生意或回家找到更好的工作。”In February, the State Council issued a national guideline to governments at all levels on how to better help left-behind children and said that by 2020, the number of left-behind children must be significantly reduced.今年2月份,国务院向各级政府发布了一项关于如何更好地帮助留守儿童的国家指南,并指出到2020年,留守儿童的数量必须大幅减少。 /201611/479963。