原标题: 双河整容医院哪家最好好医社区

If youre a true sports fan, youve probably lost sleep wondering if jet lag affects the performance of your favorite teams.如果你是铁杆体育迷,你可能会通宵熬夜,想要知道时差是否会影响你所喜爱的球队的表现。Youre not the only one.许多人和你一样。To answer this important question, scientists analyzed three years of major league baseball games to see if they could find a link between jet lag, and home field advantage.为了回答这个重要的问题,科学家们分析了职业棒球大联盟三年的比赛,看看能否找出时差和主场优势之间的联系。They discovered that baseball teams playing at home won over half the time. However, if the visiting team had just traveled eastward, say, from L.A. to New York, the home team scored more runs.他们发现主场比赛的棒球队赢的次数超过半数。然而,如果客队是刚刚去过东部,比如说从洛杉矶去纽约,主队会多赢几轮。If the visiting team had just traveled west, this didnt affect the point sp.如果客队去过西部,则不会影响比分。These findings support other studies that show that traveling east is harder on your body than traveling west.这些发现持了其他一些研究,即向东旅行对身体的的负担要比向西重。 201312/269278

Science and technology科学技术Artificial meat人造肉Hamburger junction人造汉堡的诞生Muscle grown in factories could soon be appearing in a supermarket near you工厂培养的肉可能很快出现在你周围的超市了A QUARTER of a million euros is rather a lot to pay for a hamburger,25万欧元去买一个汉堡包确实是相当贵,but that will be the cost of the patty which Mark Post proposes to stick in a bun this October.但这只是今年十月Mark Post计划内夹在面包片中一块肉饼的价格。The burger in question—not so much a quarter-pounder as a quarter-million-pounder—will be so expensive because it will be made from meat that has been grown from scratch in a laboratory.那关于这个汉堡—就不仅仅是一个0.25磅重的汉堡了,相当于250000磅汉堡的价格—这么贵是因为它所用的肉是从实验室里培养出来的。Dr Post, who works at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands, belongs to a group of people who hope to disrupt one of mankinds oldest industries—animal husbandry.Post士任职于荷兰霍芬大学,现从属于一个课题组,该课题组致力于中止人类最古老的行业之一—畜牧业。In fact, they wish not so much to disrupt it as to destroy it.实际上,他们不仅仅希望去中止它而是去终结该产业。Raising animals is a resource-intensive process.饲养动物就是一个资源富集的过程。About 30% of the worlds ice-free land is used for it.世界上大约30%的非冰覆陆地都在进行此过程。Yet of the nutrients in the plants these animals eat, only around 15% is turned into meat.而动物吃掉植物后,只能把其中15%的营养变成肉。As the human population grows, and grows richer, demand for meat is increasing.当人口不断增长时,对肉类需求也在增加。Dr Post hopes to satisfy at least part of that demand by making the stuff in factories, in a way that converts about 50% of the nutrients into something people can eat.Post士希望通过把50%的营养转换成可食用肉的方法,使工厂生产的肉至少能满足人们的部分需求。For now, that something is not exactly fillet steak.现在那些东西未必是正宗的菲力牛排了。Dr Posts cultures, grown from stem cells, are sheets 3cm long, 1.5cm wide and half a millimetre deep.士Post的做法是,把干细胞培养于3厘米长,1.5厘米宽,0.5毫米深的基槽内。To make the worlds most expensive hamburger 3,000 of them will be needed.所以需要3000个培养基才能做成这个世界最贵的汉堡包。The stem cells themselves are extracted from cattle muscle and then multiplied a millionfold before they are put in Petri dishes and allowed to turn into muscle cells.那些干细胞从牛肌肉中提取,在放入培养皿和变成肌细胞之前,干细胞还要经过上百万次繁殖。When they have done so, they are encouraged to exercise and build up their strength by being given their own gym equipment.完成这个阶段后,它们还要经过锻炼来增加自己的强度,也就是为它们提供一些健身器材。The fatty cells of adipose tissue, needed for juiciness, are grown separately and then combined with the muscle cells before the whole thing is cooked.那些脂肪组织的脂肪细胞需要具有多汁性,则要进行单独培养,在整个被烹调之前,还要把它和肌肉组织结合在一起。In theory, one cow could thus supply as many hamburgers as a million slaughtered animals can today.理论上,以这种方式一头牛能提供的汉堡量比得上当今屠宰一百万头牛的产量。Producing meat in Petri dishes is not commercially viable,在培养皿中生产肉不具有商业可行性,but Dr Post hopes to scale things up.但Post士希望把规模成倍扩大。first by growing the cells on small spheres floating in tanks and ultimately by using scaffolds made of biodegradable polymer tubes,首先把细胞培养在大容里面的球形漂浮物上,最后再使用可降解聚合物试管做承,which would both add the third dimension needed for a juicy steak and provide a way of delivering nutrients and oxygen to the steaks interior.这样既能增加多汁牛肉所需的视觉真实感,还能提供传递营养和氧气到牛肉内部的通路。The nutrients themselves could come from conventional crops,那些营养物质可以从普通农作物中获取,but Dr Post also has plans to use algae, which grow faster than vascular plants, to provide the necessary amino acids, sugars and fats.但Post士计划使用藻类,因为它们比那些维管植物长的要快,以此提供所需的氨基酸、糖类和脂肪。The upshot would be a world with fewer stock animals.这样最终结果将是世界再也不必饲养那么多动物,Not only would that liberate land, it would reduce greenhouse-gas emissions.不仅可以解放土地,还可以减少温室气体的排放。Moreover, you do not even have to kill a cow to obtain stem cells from it. A biopsy will do.此外,你也不必再为获得干细胞而杀掉一头牛—活体切片法便可做到。That might mean that vegetarians would be able to enjoy meat, too.这意味着素食主义者也可以享用肉类了。点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/245826Science and technology科学技术Ageing衰老Forever young?青春永驻?A way to counteract part of the process of growing old一个减缓衰老进程的途径BIOLOGISTS have made a lot of progress in understanding ageing.在对人类衰老过程的探索中生物学家们取得了长足的进步。They have not, however, been able to do much about slowing it down.可是如何减缓衰老他们还没有太多的办法。Particular versions of certain genes have been shown to prolong life,与延长寿命相关的特定基因已经找到,but that is no help to those who do not have them.但这还帮不了那些此段基因缺失的人。A piece of work reported in this weeks Nature by Darren Baker of the Mayo Clinic, in Minnesota, though, describes an extraordinary result that points to a way the process might be ameliorated.本周《自然》杂志发表了明尼苏达州梅奥诊所的Dr.Darren Baker的一项实验报告,描述了其所采取的方法使得衰老进程得到改善,结果非常好。Dr Baker has shown—in mice, at least—that ageing body cells not only suffer themselves,至少在实验小白鼠体内是这样,but also have adverse effects on otherwise healthy cells around them.Dr.Barker称体细胞不仅自己逐渐衰老,还将不利的影响传达到周围健康的细胞。More significantly, he has shown that if such ageing cells are selectively destroyed, these adverse effects go away.更神奇的是,如果这些衰老的细胞被人为破坏掉,它们对健康细胞的负面影响也会随之消失。The story starts with an observation, made a few years ago, that senescent cells often produce a molecule called P16INK4A.故事还得从几年前的一项实验开始讲起,他们观察到衰老的细胞通常会产生一种叫P16INK4A的分子。Most body cells have an upper limit on the number of times they can divide—and thus multiply in number.大部分体细胞分裂次数会有一个上限-数量的翻倍,P16INK4A is part of the control mechanism that brings cell division to a halt when this limit is reached.当这个上限接近时,P16INK4A作为控制机制的一部分会使细胞的分裂停止。The Hayflick limit, as the upper bound is known, is believed to be an anticancer mechanism.海弗利克极限,即我们所知的上限现在认为可作为一种抗癌机制,It provides a backstop that prevents a runaway cell line from reproducing indefinitely, and thus becoming a tumour.它可以拦截、阻断细胞链的无限期、失常的增生,正是这种失常的增生形成了肿瘤。The limit varies from species to species—in humans, it is about 60 divisions—and its size is correlated with the lifespan of the animal concerned.这种极限随物种不同而不同,人类大致的分裂次数上限是60次,极限的大小与相应动物的预期生命期限有关。Hayflick-limited cells thus accumulate as an animal ages, and many biologists believe they are one of the things which control maximum lifespan. Dr Bakers experiment suggests this is correct.细胞的海弗利克极限累加就是动物的寿命长度,很多的生物学家推测它们控制着生命期限最长值。Dr.Barker的实验明了推测是正确的。Age shall not weary them老而未衰的器官Dr Baker genetically engineered a group of mice that were aly quite unusual.Dr. Baker 通过基因工程处理的一组小白鼠非常特别,They had a condition called progeria, meaning that they aged much more rapidly than normal mice.它们的症状也称早老症,意味着它们比一般的小白鼠衰老的更快。The extra tweak he added to the DNA of these mice was a way of killing cells that produce P16INK4A. He did this by inserting into the animals DNA, near the gene for P16INK4A, a second gene that was,他在这些小白鼠的DNA中加入了可杀死能产生P16INK4A分子的细胞的特别基因,具体做法是在实验小白鼠P16INK4A旁边的基因插入另一段动物基因,because of this proximity, controlled by the same genetic switch.因为在它旁边,第二段基因也受相同的遗传开关控制。This second gene, activated whenever the gene for P16INK4A was active, produced a protein that was harmless in itself,这第二段基因编码产生的蛋白质对自身无害,但在特殊的药物作用下,它就会变的很致命,只要P16INK4A分子有活性它就能被激活。but which could be made deadly by the presence of a particular drug. Giving a mouse this drug, then, would kill cells which had reached their Hayflick limits while leaving other cells untouched. Dr Baker raised his mice, administered the drug, and watched.给实验小白鼠用这种药后,就会杀死那些接近海弗利克极限的细胞,其它细胞则完好无损。 Dr Baker 培养这些小白鼠,给它们用药物后,观察它们。The results were spectacular.结果是出人意料的。Mice given the drug every three days from birth suffered far less age-related body-wasting than those which were not.小白鼠出生后每3天给一次药,药小白鼠比没药小白鼠的与衰老相关的机体耗损要少的多。They lost less fatty tissue. Their muscles remained plump.它们耗损的脂肪组织更少,肌肉丰满,And they did not suffer cataracts of the eye.并且都没患上白内障。They did, though, continue to experience age-related problems in tissues that do not produce P16INK4A as they get old.接下来,他们还对那些老化的但并没有出现P16INK4A分子的器官也进行了衰老相关问题的实验,In particular, their hearts and blood vessels aged normally.特别是它们的心脏和血管,老化的进程很正常,For that reason, since heart failure is the main cause of death in such mice, their lifespans were not extended.小白鼠的主要是死因心脏衰竭,所以它们的预期寿命不会再延长了。The drug, Dr Baker found, produced some benefit even if it was administered to a mouse only later in life.Dr Baker发现,这种药物即使是饲喂给生命快到尽头的的小白鼠也会有一定的疗效,Though it could not clear cataracts that had aly formed, it partly reversed muscle-wasting and fatty-tissue loss.尽管对已经形成的白内障没法再变回清澈,但能使肌肉及脂肪组织的耗损部分得以缓解,Such mice were thus healthier than their untreated confrères.这些小白鼠因此比没有药的更健康。Analysis of tissue from mice killed during the course of the experiment showed that the drug was having its intended effect.对那些在实验中死亡小白鼠的组织进行分析发现,药物达到了预期的效果。Cells producing P16INK4A were killed and cleared away as they appeared.细胞一旦产生了P16INK4A分子就立即被杀死了。Dr Bakers results therefore support the previously untested hypothesis that not only do cells which are at the Hayflick limit stop working well themselves,因此这一结果实了早先未被验的推测,即,达到海弗利克极限的细胞不仅自身的不再正常运作。they also have malign effects on their otherwise healthy neighbours.还会还会把负面的影响带给周围正常的细胞。Regardless of the biochemical details, the most intriguing thing Dr Bakers result provides:先不管其中生化方面的细节,Dr.Baker的实验结论最引人入胜的是:is a new way of thinking about how to slow the process of ageing—and one that works with the grain of nature, rather than against it.人类有了延缓衰老进程的新方法-与其抗衡,不如顺应自然法则。Existing lines of inquiry into prolonging lifespan are based either on removing the Hayflick limit, which would have all sorts of untoward consequences, or suppressing production of the oxidative chemicals that are believed to cause much of the cellular damage which is bracketed together and labelled as senescence.延长预期寿命现有的办法,一是通过消除细胞的海弗利克极限,这可能会出现各种不利的后果。But these chemicals are a by-product of the metabolic activity that powers the body.二是抑制体内氧化物水平。氧化物被认为是引起细胞损伤的元凶,和细胞衰老划等号的一个词,但这些化学物质本身就是给身体提供能量的代谢活动所产生的副产品。If 4 billion years of natural selection have not dealt with them it suggests that suppressing them may have worse consequences than not suppressing them.如果40亿年前的自然选择都没有摒弃这体内的代谢副产品,那就意味着抑制它们可能比不抑制它们所带来的后果更严重。By contrast, actually eliminating senescent cells may be a logical extension of the process of shutting them down, and thus may not have adverse consequences.相反的,真正的消除掉衰老细胞可能是延长机体细胞正常运作的一个符合逻辑的作法,也不会再有不利结果了。It is not an elixir of life, for eventually the body will run out of cells, as more and more of them reach their Hayflick limits.世上没有生命可以长生不老,随着机体内越来越多的细胞到了自己的海弗利克极限,最终,机体也就到了消亡的那一天。But it could be a way of providing a healthier and more robust old age than people currently enjoy.但是未来的我们可能会比现在更健康、更有活力的老去。Genetically engineering people in the way that Dr Baker engineered his mice is obviously out of the question for the foreseeable future.毫无疑问,在可预见的未来某天,Dr. Baker在小白鼠身上采用的基因技术就能应用在人类身上。But if some other means of clearing cells rich in P16INK4A from the body could be found, it might have the desired effect.但如果还能找到其它方法消除体内富含P16INK4A分子的细胞,那可能才是我们期望的效果。The wasting and weakening of the tissues that accompanies senescence would be a thing of the past, and old age could then truly become ripe.伴随着衰老而产生的机体组织耗损、衰弱都将成为过去,年老只意味着真正意义上的成熟! /201306/243111Business商业报道German business德国商业Screwdrivers drawn拉锯战A shareholder stand-off in the Black Forest黑森林里的股东对峙IF YOU have ever struggled to assemble a flat-pack wardrobe, the chances are that its wooden pieces were cut, drilled and finished on machines made by Homag.你若曾奋力想组装起一个平板式包装的衣橱,那么该衣橱的木质组件很可能是由豪迈公司生产的机器切割、打孔、抛光而成的。Founded in 1960 in Schopfloch, in the Black Forest, Homag is one of those little-known world champions that are the backbone of the German economy.1960年,豪迈公司在黑森林深处的Schopfloch小镇成立。一些德国经济的柱企业是业内的世界领跑者,却很少为人所知,豪迈公司便是其中之一。But not all is well in Schopfloch. Gerhard Schuler,然而位于Schopfloch的豪迈公司的情况并非一切如意。one of its founders,now a sprightly 85, is at war with Deutsche Beteiligungs , a private-equity firm that was once his dream partner.公司创始人之一,现年85岁高龄,精神矍铄的舒勒正与他曾经的梦中情人—德意志参股上市公司闹不和。After buying into the company in 1997 DB built up a stake of 60%.私募股权公司DB于1997年入股豪迈公司,而后持有豪迈60%的股份。When Homag was floated on the stockmarket in 2007 it kept 33% and Mr Schuler stayed on as honorary chairman with a small stake.当豪迈公司2007年在券市场上市时,DB保留了33%的股份,舒勒先生则手持小额股份,以名誉总裁的身份留任。But business dipped in 2008 and the shares plunged.然而,2008年豪迈公司生意惨淡,股票跳水。Mr Schuler and his supporters, worried about the direction the company was taking, started buying.They built a blocking minority of 25.01%舒勒先生与众持者对公司的走向倍感堪忧,继而纷纷入股,他们买下25.0%的股权,成立了有否决权的少数股权。That did not stop DB kicking Mr Schulers three appointees off Homags supervisory board two years ago and replacing them with people who were more internationally minded.DB却对此置之不理,反而在两年前将舒勒任命的三名委员踢出豪迈的监事会,用两位更具国际化眼光的成员替代之。Since then, the two sides have been at screwdrivers drawn.自那时起,两方便进入拉锯相持阶段。At a stormy shareholders meeting last month things came to a head.在上个月硝烟四起的股东大会上,两方争斗达到了高潮。Mr Schuler and his allies accused DB of being a locust interested only inshort-term profit, and of selling out to a foreign buyer.舒勒及其盟友指责DB只关注眼前利益,向外国买家兜售的做法如蝗虫般贪婪。 地方员工希望长期担任豪迈公司技术总监的高斯先生恢复原职。Local staff want Achim Gauss, Homags long-standing technical director, who resigned abruptly for personal reasons on May 23rd, to be reinstated.今年5月23日,高斯先生突然以个人原因为由,辞去总监一职。高斯先生的离职同样引起了豪迈公司大客户,IKEA, a Swedish furniture chain and Homags biggest customer, also expressed concern at Mr Gausss departure.瑞典家具连锁公司宜家的堪忧。DB, one of Germanys oldest private-equity firms, is not obviously locust-like.DB是德国资历最老的私募股权企业之一,显然与蝗虫无半点相像之处。Its executives insist it is there for the long term. However, Homag is DBs biggest investment and its shares have not performed well.DB的主管们坚称,公司在为豪迈的长远利益着想。Half of DBs stake is owned by two of its investment funds, one of which is scheduled to wind up this year.不管怎样,豪迈是DB最大的一笔投资,而豪迈的股票的表现并不良好。DB所持的股份中,一半由其旗下两只投资基金操控,So a partial exit would be logical.而其中一只计划于今年停止运作。There is no reason for a forced sale,says a DB source:因而DB部分退出的做法合情合理。that would weaken DBs influence. Meanwhile, Mr Schulers crowd are looking for a white knight.DB的线人称,公司没道理强制抛股,这样做会削弱DB的影响力。与此同时,舒勒先生的团队正另寻救星。More happily, Homags business is on the rebound.更庆幸的是,豪迈的生意正开始反弹。Last years turnover of 800m was near the pre-crisis peak, and the closing of three German subsidiaries should cut costs.去年豪迈的营业额为8亿英镑,接近危机前的最高额,德国境内三家子公司的关闭应该能降低成本。Gordon Schonell of Bankhaus Lampe, a private bank, says that the managers are doing the right things.私人Bankhaus Lampe的舒奈尔说,管理层现今所做的是对的。But for Mr Schuler the shift from family firm to shareholder capitalism has gone too far.但是对于舒勒先生,从家族企业向股东资本主义转变的有点离谱了。 /201307/247187

Science and technology科学技术Psychology心理Tall, dark and stable Wobbly furniture leads to a desire for emotional stability摇摇晃晃的家具让人在情绪上追求稳定CLEARLY, a person’s decisions are determined by circumstances.显然,任何人在做决策的时候都受决策时的周遭环境所影响。Just how closely they are determined, however, has only recently become apparent.但具体来说会造成多大的影响直到最近才有了一个较为清晰的解释。Experiments conducted over the past few years have revealed that giving someone an icy drink at a party leads him to believe he is getting the cold shoulder from fellow guests, that handing over a warm drink gives people a sense of warmth from others,在过去几年进行的一系列实验中,有一个实验发现在聚会中,给客人提供冷饮会让他有不受旁边人待见的感觉倾向,相反,提供温水等有温度的饮料会让他们感觉到周围人的温暖。and—most astonishingly—that putting potential voters in chairs which lean slightly to the left causes them to become more agreeable towards policies associated with the left of the political spectrum.最让人惊奇的是,在另外一个关于潜在选民的实验中,让一个没有立场的潜在选民,坐在椅子上并微微向左边靠,他会更加认同与左派相似的政治立场。The latest of these studies also looks at the effect of furniture.这一系列实验最近将他们的目标转向了家具,研究家具对人的影响。It suggests that something as trivial as the stability of chairs and tables has an effect on perceptions and desires.他们假设许多不被人注意到的细节例如桌椅的稳定性会影响到人们对于其他事物的看法和愿望。The study was conducted by David Kille, Amanda Forest and Joanne Wood at the University of Waterloo, in Canada, and will be published soon in Psychological Science.这份研究是由David Kille,Amanda Forest以及滑铁卢大学的Joanne Wood一同完成的,即将在《心理科学》杂志上发表。Mr Kille and his collaborators asked half of their volunteers to sit in a slightly wobbly chair next to a slightly wobbly table while engaged in the task assigned.在实验中,他们选取了47个处于单身的大学本科生,将他们分为两组,一半学生在实验中坐在一张会摇晃的桌子旁一张会摇的椅子上,The others were asked to sit in chairs next to tables that looked physically identical, but were not wobbly.另外一半则是坐在外表相似却非常稳的椅子上。Once in their chairs, participants were asked to judge the stability of the relationships of four celebrity couples:研究人员给两组学生展示四组夫妇的照片:Barack and Michelle Obama, David and Victoria Beckham, Jay-Z and Beyoncé, and Johnny Depp and Vanessa Paradis.奥巴马和米歇尔,维多利亚和贝克汉姆,Jay-Z和碧昂斯,强尼戴普和vanessa paradis,They did this by rating how likely they thought it was, on a scale of one to seven, that a couple would break up in the next five years.然后让学生们给四对夫妇的情感稳定性打分—从一分到七分,他们未来五年离婚/分手的几率,A score of one meant extremely unlikely to dissolve.一分代表几乎不可能分开,A score of seven meant extremely likely to dissolve.七分代表十分可能分手。After they had done this, they were asked to rate their preferences for various traits in a potential romantic partner.接下来,调查者让两组学生分别对一系列理想配偶的特征进行打分—量表上给出一系列特征,Traits on offer included some which a pilot study indicated people associate with a sense of psychological stability, some that are associated with psychological instability and some with no real relevance to instability or stability.依旧是一分到七分,一分代表一点也不喜欢这样子的七分代表大爱。量表上设置的特征,有些与追求稳定相关联,有些与追求不稳定相关联,有一些是随机挑选的特质,三类特征交错放置。Participants rated the various traits on another one-to-seven scale, with one indicating not at all desirable and seven meaning extremely desirable.其中关于追求稳定的一些特质包括是否值得信赖,是否可靠。而追求不稳定的特质包括是否自发性强,或是具有探险精神。The results reveal that just as cold drinks lead to perceptions of social conditions being cold, tinkering with feelings of physical stability leads to perceptions of social instability.调查结果就像之前那个聚会不要请人喝冷饮的调查一样,在身体感受到不稳定状态的时候会使得心理上更加倾向于感受到社交中的不稳定因子。Participants who sat in wobbly chairs at wobbly tables gave the celebrity couples an average stability score of 3.2 while those whose furniture did not wobble gave them 2.5.摇椅上的人给那四对夫妇打得分数是3.2,比另外一组高出0.7,越高分数代表越可能分开。What was particularly intriguing, though, was that those sitting at wonky furniture not only saw instability in the relationships of others but also said that they valued stability in their own relationships more highly.最有趣的还不是这里,最有趣的是这些坐在摇晃家具上的人不仅更倾向于看见他人关系中不稳定的因素,也倾向于更加重视追求自己与他人关系中的稳定因子。They gave stability-promoting traits in potential romantic partners an average desirability score of 5.0, whereas those whose tables and chairs were stable gave these same traits a score of 4.5.他们在后一个实验中对理想配偶的稳定特质重视程度的打分平均是5.0,比另外一组高出0.5,The difference is not huge, but it is statistically significant.虽然数字上的差异不是很大,但是就数据分析来说,已经很能说明问题了。Even a small amount of environmental wobbliness seems to promote a desire for an emotional rock to cling to.即使只是环境中存在一点点的不稳定因素似乎都会让人们产生赶快抓住一根感情稻草的冲动。 /201402/277473Yael, when you experience something new, do you knowwhat happens to your brain?你知道当你碰到新的东西的时候,你的大脑会发生什么吗?Some of the neurons in your brain build new connections.大脑中的神经元会建立起新的连接。My brain is rewired, as scientists often put it.就像科学家们经常做的,这个时候的大脑在重新装入信息。Our brains arealways changing, in response to new experiences or as a resultof learning new information.由于我们接触到了新的东西或是获得了新的信息,我们的大脑一直都在不停的变化。Thats how were able to learn and remember new experiences andinformation.我们就是以这样的方式来学习和记忆新的东西,新的信息。You got it! But you know what happens to your brain when you experience new things afteryou done psychol similar drugs, such as amphetamine or cocaine?就是这样的。但是你知道在用了安非他命或可卡因这一类药物这样的情况下,接触到新事物时你的大脑又会发生什么吗?The same thing? Right?Or no?没什么不同的,吧?对吗?The answer is, no!当然是“No”。Evidence indicates that prior use of some drugs impairs the brains ability to forge new connections between neurons in response to new experiences.有科学依据称,在接触新事物之前用某些药物会破坏大脑神经元之间建立连接的能力。Scientists took abunch of rats and gave some of them either amphetamine or cocaine for twenty days, while givingthe others a saline solution for twenty days.科学家们用大量的老鼠来做了试验。他们将老鼠分成两组,给第一组老鼠喂食20天的安非他命或是可卡因,给第二组老鼠喂食20天的盐水。When the twenty days were up, half of the rats were moved from ordinary laboratory cages tofancy new cages equipped with all kinds of bridges, ramps, tunnels, and other toys.20天过后,他们将一半的老鼠从普通的实验笼子转移到“超豪华”的新笼子里,里面有桥梁,有坡道,有隧道,还有其他的玩具。After three andhalf months the scientists examined all of the rats brains.三个半月后,科学家们对老鼠的大脑进行了仔细的研究。They discovered that the saline solution rats that were moved to the new cages had a greater number of neuronal connections than all the other rats, including the drugged rats in the newcages.他们发现,搬入新“家”的喂食盐水的老鼠比其他的老鼠建立了更多的神经元连接。These findings may aid in explaining some of the behavioral and cognitive impairments viewed in people who are addicted to drugs.这些研究发现可能有助于解释为什么那些吸毒成瘾的人会有一定的行为和认知障碍。 201406/308173

Business商业报道Losing its coast has not stopped Ethiopia developing its shipping失去海岸綫并未使埃塞俄比亚停止其海运的发展ETHIOPIA became landlocked in 1992,1992年,厄立特里亚国新成立,when its Red Sea coast was lost to the new state of Eritrea.从埃塞俄比亚手中取得红海海岸,使埃塞俄比亚变成了内陆国家。It lost access to its former ports soon afterwards.随后埃塞俄比亚失去了进入那些曾经属于它的港口的权力。Since the outbreak of a vicious two-year war between the two countries in 1998,后两国又爆发了一场持续两年的恶战,the Red Sea ports of Massawa and Assab have been off-limits to Ethiopian freight.马萨瓦和阿萨布在红海岸的港口均已禁止埃塞俄比亚进行货运。Instead, Ethiopia has to rely on Djibouti for imports and exports. That comes at a heavy price:相反的,埃塞俄比亚开始依赖吉布提国进行进出口的贸易。it costs more to truck a container from Djibouti to Addis Ababa, Ethiopias capital, than to ship the same container from China to Djibouti.然而这一举措带来了高昂的价格:同一个货物,从吉布提运输一个集装箱到亚的斯亚贝巴的成本,远比其从中国运到吉布提要高。But losing the coastline has not scuppered Ethiopias merchant fleet.失去海岸线并未使埃塞俄比亚的商船队遭到重创。The state-owned Ethiopian Shipping Lines has eight ships afloat and nine under construction in China.埃塞俄比亚本身拥有的运输线有8条货船处于运输状态,同时还有9条尚在中国建造中。That is modest compared with the armadas of the biggest shipping firms.这一规模堪比世界上最大的海运线—西班牙无敌舰队。But having any sort of ocean-going capability is good for national pride.只要拥有任何程度上远航能力都可以提升民族自豪感。At ESLs Addis headquarters, complete with portholes and model ships, the outgoing boss, Ambachew Abraha, remembers proudly his days as an engineer aboard the freighter Queen of Sheba.在ESL艾缔思的总部,装饰有舷窗和模型船,ESL的总裁埃姆拜初 阿布拉哈自豪地回忆其在示巴女王货轮上作为一名工程师的日子。She was a real beauty, he says. With her I sailed to Rotterdam, Hull, Middlesborough.她是真正的美,他回忆道,我随她出航到鹿特丹港市,赫尔,米德尔斯堡。Mr Abraha was recently replaced as part of a shake-up of the company, which has seen a portfolio of state-owned transit and warehousing facilities added to it.阿布拉哈以国有运输和仓储设备等组合投资取代了部分公司的重大结构。The aim is to offset the high freight costs Ethiopian businesses pay by streamlining the entire transport process.目的是消除埃塞俄比亚商业中整个流水线运输过程付所付的高昂的运输成本。A new railway is planned from Djibouti to Addis,一条新的铁路运线将在吉布提到艾缔思,and dry ports inside Ethiopia will allow goods to pass more quickly out of Djibouti, cutting the price of storage and customs.以及埃塞俄比亚境内的各陆港之间建立,以便货物更快运离吉布提,从而减少减少仓储和海关费用。Last year ESL made a profit of m.上一年度ESL创造了4000万美金的利润。The new umbrella company looks likely to do even better.这个新的伞型运线公司看起来似乎做得更好。But a lot depends on Ethiopia getting more access to blue water.但是更多地依靠于埃塞俄比亚取得了更多通往海洋的道路。Its trade officials plan to do more business via the port of Berbera in Somaliland,ESL的贸易官员计划通过在索马里兰的柏培拉港口进行更多的贸易,a mostly unrecognised breakaway from Somalia, and with Port Sudan in Sudan.一条来源索马里的未知道路,以及苏丹的苏丹港。They are also cheered by a Kenyan plan to build a super-port at Lamu, a Swahili fishing-town near Kenyas border with Somalia.他们计划在拉姆建造超级港口,一个斯瓦西里渔镇,在肯尼亚靠索马里方向的边境附近,因此得到了肯尼亚人的热烈持。A new road and railway would connect Lamu with Ethiopia and head on to South Sudan and possibly Uganda.一条崭新的马路和铁路将连接拉姆和埃塞俄比亚,直通南苏丹,甚至乌干达。It might also reduce the risk of Ethiopian vessels being captured by Somali pirates.这也许将减少埃塞俄比亚遭到索马里海盗打劫的风险。They have so far escaped that fate, perhaps because the pirates fear that the Ethiopians would launch a swift and bloody reprisal.他们一直以来都不曾遭到这样的厄运,大概海盗们担心埃塞俄比亚会发起一场迅速血腥的报复。But for all shippers, the threat of Somali piracy has nonetheless pushed up insurance costs and forced vessels to make expensive detours.但是对于所有的运货商来说,索马里海盗的威胁依旧增加了保险成本,并且船只被迫地进行昂贵的绕道航行。ESL handles 45% of Ethiopias shipping.ESL占有了埃塞俄比亚45%的海运。Most of this is on the companys own vessels,大部分来自于公司自有的船只,but some space is bought from other shipping lines.仅一部分是从其他航线购买的。China is financing ESLs new vessels, which will have improved cranes and holds for handling more complex cargoes,中国提供了ESL的新货轮建造经费,这些货轮拥有先进的起重设备,并且可用于处理更加复杂的货物,such as the colossal turbines needed to build Ethiopias new hydroelectric dams.比如建造埃塞俄比亚新的水电站所需要的巨型涡轮。Many of ESLs ships leave Africa emptier than when they arrived, but that is changing.许多ESL的船只离开非洲时比他们刚到达时要空许多,但是这在改变。The shipping company hopes to increase its exports of coffee, grain, minerals, leather and textiles.航运公司希望增加其咖啡,粮食,矿产,皮革及防治的出口。Ethiopias maritime ambitions are not limited to ESL.埃塞俄比亚的海事雄心并不只局限于ESL公司。A school for sailors has been set up at a university in the lakeside town of Bahir Dar.在巴希尔达镇的湖边,一所大学设立了培养水手的学院。It has ambitions to train 5,000 ships engineers and other officers for the worlds fleets within the next decade—providing low-cost competition for Sri Lankan and Filipino sailors.它立志于在未来十年为全世界的船只培养5000艘船只的工程师及其他方面的海事官员—与斯里兰卡和菲律宾的水手形成低成本的竞争。The government reckons these sailors could send home 0m a year in salaries.改过政府预计这些水手将每年从薪水中抽2500万美金寄回家。They would also return, as Mr Abraha has, with valuable skills and a hankering for the briny unusual in a landlocked country.他们将来也会回归,正如阿布拉哈一样,带着宝贵的技术,以及异于陆路国家的对于大海的追求。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244482

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