明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年01月22日 13:53:27
A pair of Vietnamese fraternal twins have been confirmed to have different fathers, a local genetic association has told the B. The twins had their DNA tested after their family noticed they looked different, said local reports.当地一家遗传机构接受B采访时透露,一对越南的异卵双胞胎已被实来自不同的父亲。据当地媒体报道,该双胞胎在其家属觉察长相不同后,接受了DNA测试。The occurrence, known as heteropaternal superfecundation, is rare with few publicly known about. It happens when a woman#39;s eggs are fertilised by two men within a short period of time.发生的这一案例被称为异父超级受精,这是一种鲜为公众所知的罕见案例。这只会发生在女性的一个卵子在短时间内被两名男性的精子受精的情况下。Professor Le Dinh Luong, president of the Hanoi-based Vietnam Genetic Association which did the DNA testing, said the results were ;100% correct; in what he called ;an extremely rare case;.总部位于河内的越南遗传学会负责了本次DNA测试,其董事长Le Dinh Luong教授表示,这个“极为罕见的案例”的测试结果“百分百正确”。;There are only less than 10 known cases of twins with different fathers in the world. There might be other cases but the parents and/or the twins were not aware of it or didn#39;t want to announce it,; he told the B#39;s Nga Pham.他告诉B的记者Nga Pham称:“世界上仅有不到10例这种拥有不同父亲的双胞胎案例。当然也可能存在有其他案例,但其父母或双胞胎并没有意识到或者不想公布。”He declined to give further details citing client confidentiality, but added that local reports stating the twins#39; location, names and timeframe were inaccurate.他拒绝进一步提供关于该用户隐私的细节,但他补充说道,当地报道公布双胞胎的地址、姓名和出生时间表是不正确的。Reported cases are very rare - the last case was in 2015 involving twin girls in New Jersey, only the third such case to ever occur in the US. Turkish media reported a similar case in 2010 involving twin boys.被报道的类似案例极少。上一个类似案例是2015年新泽西州的两个双胞胎女孩,这也仅仅是在美国发生的第三个案例。此外,土耳其媒体也于2010年报道过一对双胞胎男孩的类似案例。 /201603/431214What if the cappuccino you had this morning was not, in fact, a cappuccino? Scary. More worrisome still: What if your flat white was?如果你今天早上喝的那杯卡布奇诺,其实不是卡布奇诺,那可怎么办?太可怕了。而更吓人的是:如果你的小白咖啡(flat white)才是地道卡布奇诺呢?There was a time when cappuccino was easy to identify. It was a shot of espresso with steamed milk and a meringue-like milk foam on top. But now the onetime king of specialty coffee drinks is having a bit of an identity crisis.曾几何时,卡布奇诺是很容易鉴别的。一份浓缩咖啡,加上热牛奶,最上面盖一层蛋白霜似的奶泡。然而,这个曾经的特种咖啡饮品之王,如今正遭遇一场身份危机。Even among experts, there is considerable disagreement concerning what exactly a cappuccino is, with some of those in the know focusing on the size of the drink as its distinguishing characteristic.卡布奇诺到底是什么,即使在专家中间也存在不小的争议,在行的都把重点放在咖啡的大小上,认为这是区分彼此的特征。“In the U.S., cappuccino are small, medium and large, and that actually doesn’t exist,” the food and coffee writer Oliver Strand said. “Cappuccino is basically a four-ounce drink.”“在美国,卡布奇诺有小杯、中杯、大杯,这其实是生造出来的,”美食和咖啡作家奥列佛·斯特兰德(Oliver Strand)说。“卡布奇诺基本上就是一种4盎司的饮品。”Todd Carmichael, a founder of La Colombe, a coffee roasting company with cafes in New York and other cities, is not so hung up on the ounce factor. “We’ve made the cappuccino mobile,” he said. “With 8 to 10 ounces, the flavors do not go away. They’re just less intense.”在纽约等地开有咖啡馆的咖啡烘焙公司La Colombe创始人托德·卡尔米切尔(Todd Carmichael)认为,不应该死盯着份量这一个因素。“我们让卡布奇诺灵活起来了,”他说。“8到10盎司的情况下,它的风味并没有消失。只是没那么浓烈了。”Others cling to old-school notions of what makes a cappuccino, with the layering of ingredients as the main thing. “The goal is to serve three distinct layers: caffè, hot milk and frothy (not dense) foam,” the chef and writer Mario Batali wrote in an email. “But to drink it Italian style, it will be stirred so that the three stratum come together as one.”还有人坚守着对卡布奇诺的老派定义,几种成分的分层是重点。“目标是三个不同的层:咖啡、热牛奶和有泡泡(不细密)的奶泡,”厨师、作家马里奥·巴塔里(Mario Batali)在邮件中说。“但是要按意大利人的喝法,必须要搅拌,让三层混合在一起。”With the stirring of the drink, one may see the distinctive red-brown color similar to that of the habits worn by men belonging to the Order of Capuchin Friars Minor, a resemblance believed by some to have given the beverage its name.搅拌后咖啡呈现一种特别的红棕色,跟方济嘉布遣会(Order of Capuchin Friars Minor)修士身上的道颜色接近,有人因此认为饮品的名字就是由此而来。Joe, a cafe with 13 locations in New York and Philadelphia, serves a cappuccino that is not layered, with no bubbly foam on top. “The consistency should be the same from the first sip to the last,” said Jonathan Rubenstein, one of Joe’s founders.Joe在纽约和费城有13家分店,它的卡布奇诺是不分层的,最上面也没有看得见泡泡的奶泡。“从第一口到最后一口,口感应该是一样的,”Joe创始人之一乔纳森·鲁本斯坦(Jonathan Rubenstein)说。The Joe version would seem to violate the cappuccino standards put forth by the Specialty Coffee Association of America (S.C.A.A.) and its Barista Guild, which advocate a one-centimeter layer, minimum, of milky foam.Joe的版本似乎违背了美国特种咖啡协会(Specialty Coffee Association of America,简称SCAA)及其下属咖啡师行会(Barista Guild)推行的卡布奇诺标准,该标准主张最少要有一厘米厚的奶泡。Only one centimeter? Sounds dangerously close to a latte. But who would know better than the S.C.A.A.? “It’s kind of ridiculous,” said David Schomer, the founder of Espresso Vivace in Seattle.才一厘米?感觉一不留神就要成拿铁了。但这可是堂堂SCAA的标准。“有点荒谬,”西雅图Espresso Vivace创始人戴维·舒默(David Schomer)说。Some coffee specialists pointed to “latte art creep” as responsible for the small amount of foam in the modern-day cappuccino, noting that it is easier for baristas to make intricate designs with less froth in a time of Instagram-y food and drink.有咖啡专家认为,都是那些“拿铁艺术婊”导致现代卡布奇诺的奶泡如此之少,他们说,在这个无Instagram不成炊的年代,较少的泡沫有利于咖啡师做出繁复的花式。Given the changes in what constitutes a cappuccino, some people may find themselves with an attachment to an incarnation of the drink that was in style when they came of coffee-drinking age. “Back in 1985, the best cappuccino was the one with five-inch mounds of froth sprinkled with cinnamon,” the restaurateur Daniel Meyer wrote by email. “We gave up on foam in 2006.”鉴于卡布奇诺的定义在变,有些人也许会对自己开始喝咖啡的那个年代时兴的版本特别有感情。“1985年的时候,最好的卡布奇诺是有一座五英寸的奶泡山的,上面撒肉桂,”餐馆业主丹尼尔·梅耶尔(Daniel Meyer)在邮件中写道。“我们在2006年告别了奶泡。”Mr. Carmichael of La Colombe recalled the cappuccino at an influential cafe in Seattle, Torrefazione Italia, long before specialty coffee drinks were common. “Cappuccino was coffee with really thick meringue-type foam,” he said. “You could set an olive on it and it wouldn’t sink.”在影响深远的西雅图咖啡馆Torrefazione Italia,La Colombe的卡尔米切尔回忆起特种咖啡远未普及的年代,卡布奇诺是什么样子。“所谓卡布奇诺就是有非常厚的、蛋白霜式的奶泡,”他说。“在上面放一颗橄榄不会沉下去。”Kenneth Nye, who founded the East Village cafe Ninth Street Espresso in 2001, grew so sick of customers’ insistence on what they believed to be a “real” cappuccino that he removed all the drink names from his s. “All it says is ‘espresso with milk,’ ” Mr. Nye said. “We stopped with the names because it’s all silly.”肯尼思·奈(Kenneth Nye)2001年在纽约东村开了第九街意式咖啡馆(Ninth Street Espresso),他不堪忍受那些深信自己知道什么是“正宗”卡布奇诺的顾客,去掉了菜单上所有饮品的名称。“全都是‘意式浓缩加牛奶’,”奈说。“我们不再用名称是因为,所有名字都很傻。”The new enthusiasm for the flat white, a drink made of espresso and milk that seems to have originated in Australia or New Zealand, is particularly nettlesome to Mr. Nye. “You put 10 people in a room who claim to be an authority on the flat white, you’re going to get at least five different opinions on what it should be,” he said. “People are trying to make the whole process intimidating to the consumer.”新近走红的小白咖啡让奈格外恼火,这种用意式浓缩咖啡和牛奶制成的饮品,似乎是澳大利亚或新西兰传来的。“你去找10个自称的小白咖啡权威来,问他们什么是小白咖啡,至少能得到五种说法,”他说。“这是要让顾客对整个制作过程心生敬畏。”Not everyone who cares about such matters has adopted Mr. Nye’s heck-with-it attitude toward coffee taxonomy. The Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian, for one, calls for “25 ml espresso and 100 ml steam-foamed milk.” Coffee lovers in Italy believe so strongly in the idea of an authentic cappuccino that in 2007, the head of the nation’s commission on agriculture, Marco Lion, proposed government certification for cafes that make the drink the right way. (The government was dissolved before any action could be taken.)并非所有关心这类问题的人都像奈这样,对咖啡分类学不屑一顾。比如国立意大利浓缩咖啡研究所(Instituto Nazionale Espresso Italian)就呼吁使用“25毫升浓缩咖啡和100毫升蒸汽搅打奶泡”。意大利咖啡爱好者对地道卡布奇诺的理念是十分坚持的,以至于该国农业委员会主席马可·里翁(Marco Lion)在2007年提出,政府应向使用正确制作方法的咖啡馆颁发书。(那届政府还没来得及采取任何举措就解散了。)But the notion of an Italian ideal is dismissed by others. “Even in Italy, it varies,” Mr. Nye said. “The one commonality was that it was small and considered a morning drink.”但有人对所谓意大利完美标准也不以为然。“即使在意大利也是多样的,”奈说。“唯一的共通之处是份量较小,被认为是一种早晨的饮品。”The drink’s origins are likely Austrian, said Andy Smith, a culinary historian at the New School. It went mainstream with the rise of Starbucks, which Howard Schultz bought and began expanding (along with the sizing of cappuccino) in the late 1980s. “They should be given some credit,” Mr. Smith said.新学院(New School)烹饪史学家安迪·史密斯(Andy Smith)说,卡布奇诺可能起源于奥地利。是随着星巴克的崛起而普及起来的,霍华德· 舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)在1980年代末收购了这个品牌,而后越做越大(随之变大的还有卡布奇诺的份量)。“应该是有他们一份功劳的,”史密斯说。Perhaps the best cappuccino is made without the fancy barista work or other trappings. “For perfection,” Mr. Batali said, “see the Italian roadside version of fast food, the Autogrill.”也许最好的卡布奇诺不需要花哨的咖啡师技法或其他装饰。“什么叫完美追求,”巴塔里说。“去看看意大利路边摊版快餐Autogrill。” /201510/402724

From Princess Diana#39;s meringue to Kate Middleton#39;s elegant lace number, everyone has their ideal wedding dress.从戴安娜王妃的蛋糕裙到凯特王妃的优雅蕾丝裙,每个人心目中都有自己的理想新娘礼。So it is no surprise that a charting 100 years of bridal fashion has sparked admiration and disgust in equal measure.所以,难怪一个记录新娘礼时尚百年变迁的视频既迎来了众多赞赏,也引发了不少吐槽。The clip filmed by Mode.com, shows model Lolly Howie trying on an array of gowns dating from 1915 to 2015, to demonstrate just how fashion comes full circle.该短片由社交视频网站Mode.com摄制。在短片中,模特洛莉·豪伊(Lolly Howie)试穿了从1915年到2015年间的多款新娘礼,充分明了时尚的周而复始。The 1915 one, with its long veil, high sheer neck and short sleeves, is not too dissimilar from the modern lacy number.1915年的那款礼设计有长面纱、透明高领和短袖,跟现代蕾丝礼差不多。In between the hem lines get shorter, and then dramatically longer, and the veils appear and disappear, until it culminates in the truly hideous train and puff ball sleeves of the 1985 offering.一百年间,礼下摆先是变短,然后又越来越长,而面纱也在去留之间反复,直到1985年,丑到爆的拖地裙裾和泡泡袖礼终结了这种无常变化。On the way, there is the elegant dropped waist of the 1925 dress that could have been worn by a flapper, while the 1975 number breathes hippy chick.这个过程中,优雅的低腰礼曾在1925年风靡一时,连那个年代的登女郎(flapper,注:20世纪20年代着装举止异常的年轻女郎)或许也无法抗拒,而1975年的那款礼则颇有嬉皮女郎范儿。The has been watched more than 3,780,000 times on YouTube with people arguing about which decade is best.该视频在YouTube上的点击量已超378万次,很多网友在争论哪个年代的婚纱礼最为漂亮。But the message of the is one that everyone can agree on - Love is never out of fashion.但是,这个视频真正传达的是每个人都会有同感的信息——爱永不过时。But which would you wear to your special day?话说回来,你走上红毯那一天会穿哪款婚纱呢? /201510/402127

Although resting content with retaining sovereign in the south, rulers of the Eastern Jin did plan to recover the Central Plains in the north.东晋虽然偏安于江南,但历代帝王在位的时候都希望收复北方的国土。Led by the four ranking families of Wang, Xie, Huan and Yu in succession, these southern nobles carried out several expenditures towards the north.其中以王、谢、桓、庾四大家族为主的北伐,在东晋时曾进行过多次。In 311 Zu Ti, a southern gentry-official, once led an expeditionary force to the north and regained the Yellow River valley for a short time. However, Zu Ti died from too much upsetting for being not trusted by the court and left the cause of recovering the north unfinished.公元311年,大将祖逖出兵收复河北,但后因受到朝廷的排斥忧郁而死,最终未能完成统一大业。Afterwards ,most of the gentry-officials in power advocated northern expeditions so as to gain their family prestige. Among them, three northern expeditions led by Huan Wen are the best known.在此之后,当权的士族多标榜北伐以增加门户威望,其中以桓温的三次北伐最为著名。His armies took Luoyang, entered Guanzhong and reached Hebei. But he did not consolidate these victories.他曾经收复洛阳,进入关中,进兵河北,但都未能够巩固北伐成果。In 386, the Former Qin forces marched southward and threatened the Eastern Jin impressively.公元386年,前秦南下,东晋面临空前威胁。In January 382, The King of Former Qin called together his ministers to discuss the expenditure plan to reunify the imperial China.382年(太元七年)一月,前秦苻坚召集群臣商议南伐,准备统一中国。In discussion, Fu Jian insisted the march despite most of his ministers opposed the risking operation.当时,绝大多数人认为不可轻举妄动,但苻坚却坚持己见。In July of the following year, Fu Jian ordered a decisive campaign and started to draft recruits the nationwide.次年七月,苻坚下诏大举伐晋,在全国征兵。In August, Fu Jian set out from Chang an with his infantry force of 600 000 and cavalry force of 270000, in such an impressive strength that it was depicted as uthe initial banners and beats can nearly link to that of the end, and the troops in marching occupy thousands of roads ” All the troops headed for the south.八月,苻坚从长安启程,秦军步兵60万,骑兵27万,“旗鼓相望, 前后千里”,从各地一齐向南进发。In sheer swell, Fu Jian even boasted his men to carry with him the stuffs such as the titles and ranks for the will-be captured Emperor and ministers of the Eastern Jin.这时苻坚非常骄傲,出发前连东晋皇帝、宰相俘虏后的官号、公馆都准备好了。Scared by this threatening pose, the Eastern Jin fell into the state of turmoil.东晋闻苻坚率大军南下,惶恐不安。Nevertheless, Chancellor Xie An devised strategies in great composure by or-dered his one brother Xie Shi to assume the position of chief general to marshal in headquarters and his nephew, Xie Xuan as the vanguard in the battle field. The 80 000 opposing army and 5 000 navies were meeting their enemy in the south.宰相谢安沉着冷静,派弟谢石为大都督,侄子谢玄为前锋,率八万北府兵、水军五千迎战。In October, the vanguard Fu Rong took over Shouchun and entered Luojian (west of Dingyuan, Anhui) and closed off Huai River to block Jin army and the latter had to station in the place 25 miles away from Luojian.十月,前秦先锋苻融攻占寿春,进驻洛涧(安徽定远西),封锁淮水,阻挡晋军前进。晋军被阻,在距洛涧25里的地方驻扎。Informed the facts that the Jin army had merely insufficient supplies , Fu Jian hurried to Shouchun with 8 000 strong crack horsemen and sent the surrendered general of Jin, Zhu Xu to intimidate Xie Shi to give in.当苻竖得知晋军先锋缺乏粮草的情况后,便亲率精骑八千,兼程赶往寿春,并派俘虏的晋将朱序到晋营威胁谢石投降。Devoted to Jin, Zhu Xu told Xie Shi all the confidentials and actual strength of the Former Qin, furthermore, he suggested deboosting the morale of Qin before the main force approaching.朱序不忘故国,见到谢石告诉了秦军的虚实,并劝谢石乘前秦大军未到,挫其锐气,争取全胜。Following Zhu Xu’s advice, a subordinate general Liu Laozhi, led 5000 crack forces to attack the Qin vanguard unit at Luojian at night. The Qin unit suffered 15 000 casualties.谢石采纳朱序的建议,派名将刘牢之率精兵五千渡河夜袭洛涧,歼灭前秦军一万五千。Meanwhile the main force of Xie Shi proceeded along the Huai River, reached at the east bank of Feishui (now Feihe south of Shouxian county, Aihui), facing Qin army.谢石等又率大军沿淮水前进,到淝水(安徽寿县淝河南)东岸与秦军隔河对峙。Seeing from the wall of Shouchun City, Fu Jian and Fu Rong observed that Jin army was well-organized, mistaking the trees on the Bagong Mountain as the armed soldiers, Fu Jian was by all means lost the hold.苻坚听说晋军攻到,便与苻融登上寿春城观看形势,见晋军部伍严整,又望见八公山(安徽寿春北)上的草木,以为皆是晋兵,不免有些惊恐。When asked to move back a little for a decisive battle so that Jin troops could cross the river, Fu Jian agreed, hoping to strike his blow home while the Jin troops were half-way across.谢玄派人要求苻融 把阵地后移,以便晋军渡河决战,苻坚企图在晋军半渡时发动突然袭击,便挥军后撤。Unexpectedly, when the order of withdrawal was given, the Qin troop panicked and ran in confuse with Zhu Xu sping the news that Fu Jian was beaten up.Jumping at the opportunity, the Jin soldiers launched a full-scale offensive attack, and scattered their enemy.不料队伍因此大乱,朱序又在阵后连呼苻坚败了,晋军乘胜追击,驱散敌军。Fu Jian fled, by the time reached Luoyang, his army was down to only a little more than 100000 men.苻坚逃走,到洛阳,检点余众,不过十余万人。The battle of Feishui was Former Qin ’s attempt to reunify the imperial China.淝水之战是前秦企图统一全国的一次战争。Due to the preparation and situation then, the endeavor was premature. Xie Shi and Xie Xuan leading the Beifu troops utterly defeated the Former Qin forces and won a decisive victory at the Battle of Feishui.当时,综合各个方面的情况看,时机和条件显然还不成熟,谢石、谢玄领导的北府军击败了前秦,取得了决定性的胜利。The southern China was shunned from the chaos and wreck so its development continued. But this relief from external threat was followed by a series of internal disturbances.淝水之战后,南方由于战争的胜利,避免了一场大的混乱和破坏,经济文化得以继续发展,同时确定了南北长期对峙的局面。First, Sun En and Lu Xun launched rebellions. Then Huan Xuan won the civil war and usurped the throne.此后,南方由于外乱威胁解除而爆发内战,孙恩、卢循起兵。桓玄在内战中获胜,一度篡晋。Later, General Liu Yu of the Beifu troops suppressed the peasant uprisings and gained prestige through a number of northern expeditions. At last, he established his own state to replace the Eastern Jin.北府兵将领刘裕起兵镇压了农民军,并通过北伐树立威望,最终取代东晋。 /201512/415743

  Soggy bottoms are preferred in the North – but southerners tend to favour a quick dunk.北方人通常把饼干底部都泡得软软的,而南方人则只是蜻蜓点水般稍微泡一下。Yes, England is divided when it comes to eating biscuits, according to a poll showing 65% of those north of Stoke are big dippers.没错,在吃饼干的正确方式这个问题上,英国内部意见不一,一份民调显示,斯托克城以北地区,65%的人都喜欢把饼干泡久一点。They happily wait for the biscuit to go soft before tucking in – risking it ending up in the mug.他们满怀欣喜地等着饼干慢慢泡软之后才吃——虽然有可能一不小心就让饼干在杯子里化掉了。But in the more tentative South, more than 50% of tea and coffee breakers minimise moisture with a brief plunge and delicate first bite.不过在更加谨慎的南方住民里,超过50%的人都只是把饼干稍稍蘸一下茶或者咖啡,再小小地咬下第一口。Custard creams are king in Yorkshire, says the Waitrose Food and Drink report, while chocolate digestives rule in Lancs, Oxford and Cambridge.《维特罗斯(Waitrose)食品和饮料报告》显示,蛋奶冻夹心饼干在约克郡(Yorkshire)的人气无人能敌,而在兰开夏郡(Lancs)、牛津郡和剑桥郡,巧克力消化饼干才是王道。Curiously Oxford prefers dark and Cambridge, milk.令人奇怪的是牛津郡的人喜欢就着只加少量牛奶(或奶油)的咖啡吃饼干,剑桥郡的人更喜欢就着牛奶吃。Ginger nuts are tops in the North East.东北地区人民的最爱是姜汁饼干。Traditional Rich Tea is a favourite in the south west and Wales while Midlands folk enjoy Malted Milk.传统的下午茶饼干是西南地区和威尔士地区人们的心头好,中部地区人民则青睐麦乳精饼干。Cookies are the number one choice in the East of England but bizarrely the Sussex coast breaks with tradition preferring KitKat bars to biccies.曲奇是东英格兰地区人们的首选,但 令人诧异的是,苏塞克斯郡沿岸地区的人们打破传统,他们更喜欢奇巧(KitKat)巧克力棒,而不是饼干。Unsurprisingly, shortb is the top choice in Scotland.黄油酥饼毫无意外地是苏格兰人民的最爱。Waitrose said: ;The nation#39;s dunking habits produced surprising results. Choice of biscuit could definitely be linked to your postcode.;维特罗斯表示:“这个国家泡饼干的习惯导致了惊人的结果。你选择的饼干绝对可以和你居住的地区联系起来。”Londoners go for posh ;breakfast biscuits;.伦敦居民喜欢更有腔调的“早餐饼干”。But if children did the shopping, we#39;d all be eating Jammie Dodgers, according to data from 343 Waitrose stores.不过343家维特罗斯连锁店的数据显示:如果让孩子们购物的话,我们吃到的估计都是果酱夹心饼干。 /201510/405013

  Yuan Dynasty元朝The Rise of Mongols蒙古的崛起The Mongols were formerly a tribe roaming the upper reaches of the Argun River.蒙古族原先是游荡在阿尔贡河上游的一游牧民族。Later they moved to live in the Valleys of the Onon and Kerulen rivers.之后,他们移居至鄂嫩河和克鲁伦河。With the passage of time, they rose to become a powerful tribe.随着时间的流逝,蒙古族逐渐成为一个强大的部落。During the period from the late 12th to the early 13th century, Temujin consolidated all the Mongol tribes and placed under his leadership a centralized Khanate which brought the Mongols to a new stage of development.从12世纪晚期到13世纪早期,铁木真联合了所有蒙古部落并把它们收至自己领导的中央集权制的汗国麾下,这使得蒙古发展到了一个新阶段。In 1206, he had a clan conference held on the bank of the Onon River, at which he was proclaimed the Great Khan, with the reign title of Genghis Khan.1206年,他在鄂嫩河畔召开了家族会议并宣布自己为“大汗”,统治头衔为“成吉思汗”。He was later known as Emperor Taizu of the Yuan Dynasty.铁木真之后被称为元太祖。Genghis Khan organized his army and all the adults of his Mongol tribe according to a decimal system.成吉思汗通过十进制来组织军队和他的蒙古部落的所有成年男子。He personally selected an elite force of 10000 which served as a basic striking unit.他亲自挑选了10000人马的精锐部队作为基本的作战队伍。He transformed customary laws into written laws so as to specify the special privileges of the nobility and to tighten the control of the herdsmen slaves.他将习惯法转变为成文法,以此来明确贵族的特权并加大对于牧民奴隶的控制。The enforcement of military discipline and the completion of written laws added to the strength of the Mongol Khanate based on slavery.军纪的实施以及成文法的完善加强了以奴隶制为基础的蒙古国的实力。For a long period, Genghis Khan and his successors Ogdai Khan and Mangu Khan conquered and seized territories both in the south and in the western regions.很长一段时间内,成吉思汗和他的继承人窝阔台可汗以及蒙哥可汗都征并掌控了南方和西方地区的领土。In the south their attacks were directed against the Xia, the Jin, and the Song ;in the western regions, their conquest extended as far as Central Europe.他们向南对夏国、金国和宋国进行攻击;向西征的地区远至中欧。 /201512/412223。


  The origins of our Christmas traditions are the most fascinating of any holiday. All our favorite activities can be traced back to specific points in history, and knowing how these things came about just makes celebrating Christmas that much more wonderful.圣诞节传统的起源是所有节日中最吸引人的。我们喜欢的任何活动都可以追溯到历史上特定的由来处,并且知道这些活动是如何产生的,这也是为了庆祝更美妙的圣诞节。In 2010, Santa Claus is celebrating his 1,730th birthday! The original Nicholas was born in 280 A.D. in the small country of Lycia, which is now part of modern-day Turkey.2010年,圣诞老人庆祝了他的一千七百三十岁生日!其原型尼古拉斯在公元前280年出生于利西亚小国,这个国家现已并入土耳其。Nicholas became first a priest and then a bishop in the early Christian church. The very first paintings of him show Nicholas wearing the ceremonial robes of a Christian bishop – red trimmed with white. When we see ;Santa#39;s suit; today, we#39;re seeing those same colors.在早期的基督教会中尼古拉斯由一名牧师晋升为主教。尼古拉斯的第一幅画像是他穿着基督教主教的仪式长袍——红色镶有白色的衣。在如今的圣诞老人装扮中,我们也能看到与其相同的颜色。Nicholas became famous for gift-giving, usually to the poor. In the early fourth century a legend began to sp about Nicholas coming at night to the home of three poor girls who did not have dowries and therefore could not marry their fiancés. While the girls slept, Nicholas left gold coins in their stockings, which were drying by the fire. That#39;s how our tradition of Santa filling stockings got its start.尼古拉斯因经常给穷人送礼而广受赞誉。早在四世纪,相传尼古拉斯在晚上来到三个穷苦的女孩房前,由于没有嫁妆,她们无法和自己的未婚夫结婚。当女孩们在睡觉时,尼古拉斯把金币放进正在烘烤的袜子里。这正是圣诞老人把礼物放进袜子传统的由来。Santa is known my many names all over the world. He became ;Santa Claus; in America because many of the first English colonists to arrive to not celebrate Christmas; as Puritans they felt the holiday was disrespectful to Jesus. But their children saw the children of Dutch settlers receiving gifts from someone called #39;St. Nicholas.; They thought the gift-giver#39;s name was ;Sinter Klass; and anglicized it further to ;Santa Claus.;圣诞老人在世界各地有很多不同的名字。在美国,他是“圣克劳斯”(Santa Claus),因为第一批到来的英国殖民者大多不庆祝圣诞节;身为清教徒,他们觉得过节是对耶稣的不敬。但是他们的孩子看到荷兰殖民者的孩子收到来自一个名叫“圣尼古拉斯”(St. Nicholas)的礼物。他们认为送礼人的名字是“圣特克劳斯”(Sinter Klass),再将名字英译就是“圣克劳斯”。Many people think Santa#39;s reindeer were introduced to the holiday in Clement Moore#39;s wonderful poem ;A Visit from St. Nicholas,; which most of us now call ;#39;Twas the Night Before Christmas.; Moore wrote about Santa and the eight reindeer in 1822. But in 1809 another great American author named Washington Irving wrote a book titled Diedrich Knickerbocker, and in it he wrote about St. Nicholas delivering presents to children “by flying over the treetops in a wagon.; Clement Moore simply expanded on that previous description.很多人认为在克莱门特#8226;穆尔(Clement Moore)的名诗《圣古拉斯的来访》(A Visit from St. Nicholas)中,将圣诞老人的驯鹿和节日联系了起来,这首诗现在也被称为《圣诞节前夜》(Twas the Night Before Christmas)。穆尔在1822年写了关于圣诞老人和八只驯鹿的故事。然而在1809年,另一名伟大的美国作家华盛顿#8226;欧文(Washington Irving)写了一本书《迪德里奇.尼克巴克》(Diedrich Knickerbocker),他在书中写道圣尼古拉斯坐着马车飞跃在树梢上给孩子送礼物。克莱门特#8226;穆尔只是对以前故事的描述加以扩展。The first department store Santa appeared in 1841 at J.W. Parkinson#39;s Dry Goods store in Philadelphia. This Santa tried to slide down a chimney to impress the children who were watching, but he got stuck halfway down.1841年,圣诞老人出现在第一百货商店—— 费城的帕金森干货商场(J.W. Parkinson#39;s Dry Goods store in Philadelphia)。圣诞老人试图滑下烟囱,来给正在观看的小孩留下深刻印象,但是他却卡在了那里。During the Civil War, a magazine artist named Thomas Nast began drawing cartoons of Santa as a diversion for ers from the horrors of war. He sketched Santa as living at the North Pole, and having a lot of elves as his assistants. Everyone believed that must be true.内战期间,艺术家托马斯#8226;纳斯特(Thomas Nast)开始创作圣诞老人的漫画,这成为了战争恐怖下人们的。他勾画出了这样一幅画面——生活在北极的圣诞老人,身边围绕着一群调皮的小精灵助手。此后,每个人都相信有这样一位人物。Mrs. Claus began appearing in Christmas lore in the late 1880s. In 1889 a poet/composer named Katharine Lee Bates wrote a poem called “Goody Santa Claus on a Sleigh Ride.” (Wives in those days were often referred to as ;good wives,; or ;goody; for short.) In the poem, Mrs. Claus tells Santa that she will deliver gifts that year, since it#39;s not fair that he gets to have all the fun. In 1910 another poem of Ms. Bates was set to music and published as a song everyone knows – America the Beautiful.克劳斯夫人于19世纪80年代末的圣诞传说中第一次亮相。1889年,一位诗人、作曲家凯瑟琳#8226;李贝茨(Katharine Lee Bates)写了一首诗《糖果圣克劳斯的雪橇之旅》(Goody Santa Claus on a Sleigh Ride)。(在那个时代,妻子经常是 “好妻子”或“糖果”的简称。)在这首诗里,劳克斯夫人告诉圣诞老人,她希望在那一年由她来派送礼物,因为在此之前只有圣诞老人一人享受了其中所有的乐趣,这是不公平的。1910年,贝茨的另一首诗改编成了音乐,发表之后成为人人皆知的一首歌——“美丽的美利坚”(America the Beautiful)。In 1890 department store Santas began appearing all over America, especially on the East Coast around Boston. They were so popular that parents in other cities joined together and hired passenger trains to take their families to see these Santas.1890年,圣诞老人百货商场盛行于美国,尤其是在波士顿的东海岸。它们是如此的受欢迎,世界各地的家长一起带着家人,坐着租来的旅客列车观赏这些圣诞老人。About this same time, Ralph E. Morris of the New England Telephone Company looked at switchboard lights and proposed that strings of them be hung on Christmas trees- they would be safer than candles.大约在同一时间,新英格兰电话公司(New England Telephone Company)的拉尔夫#8226;莫里斯(Ralph E. Morris)看着圣诞树上挂着的一串串交换灯,而这些比蜡烛更安全。Our modern-day image of Santa as a stout man is based on Coca-Cola ads from the 1930s. Artist Hans Sundblom used as his model a retired salesman named Les Prentice.我们现在对于圣诞老人这个身材丰满的形象是基于上个世纪三十年代的可口可乐广告。艺术家汉斯#8226;松德布卢姆(Hans Sundblom)用一个退休的销售员诺士#8226;普伦蒂斯(Les Prentice)作为他的模特。 /201512/417931

  1. Cleopatra was not Egyptian.埃及艳后克里欧佩特拉竟不是埃及人Along with King Tut, perhaps no figure is more famously associated with ancient Egypt than Cleopatra VII. But while she was born in Alexandria, Cleopatra was actually part of a long line of Greek Macedonians originally descended from Ptolemy I, one of Alexander the Great#39;s most trusted lieutenants.说起古埃及,除了图特王(King Tut),最有名的人物大概就是克里欧佩特拉七世了。尽管她出身于埃及亚历山大,但她实际上是希腊马其顿人的后裔,而马其顿人则是亚历山大大帝麾下最受信任的将军托勒密一世的后代。The Ptolemaic Dynasty ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 B.C., and most of its leaders remained largely Greek in their culture and sensibilities. In fact, Cleopatra was famous for being one of the first members of the Ptolemaic dynasty to actually speak the Egyptian language.从公元前323年到公元前30年,托勒密王朝统治了埃及,并且大部分君主在文化和情感上都延续着希腊人的传统。事实上,克里欧佩特拉闻名于世的原因却在于她是托勒密王朝第一批会说埃及语的王室成员。 /201601/423375

  The spending power and keen interest in travel by those in China#39;s well-heeled LGBT community are attracting growing attention from tourism startups and investors.我国富裕的同性恋群体的消费能力和对旅游的热衷正愈发吸引旅游创业公司以及调查者的注意。Wang Zhao, CEO and co-founder of GLOW Travel, an acronym for Gays and Lesbians On the Way, had been a travel consultant for years when his gay friends said he should be providing services tailored for people like them.GLOW Travel(同性恋在路上的缩写)公司的创始人兼CEO王钊,在他的同性恋朋友们告诉他应该为同性恋人群提供务时,已经担任旅游顾问很多年了。In November 2014, Wang organized a trip for a group of 11 gay travelers to the island of Bali, Indonesia. Its success confirmed his decision to start a company focusing exclusively on such services for China#39;s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community.在2014年11月,王钊组织了11名同性恋游客前往印度尼西亚的巴厘岛度假的活动。这一活动的成功也坚定了他创办一家专注于为中国女同性恋,男同性恋,双性恋和变性人社区等提供务的网站。;People like us have totally different interests and demands when traveling abroad. We want to explore local communities that are friendly to homosexuals instead of pure sightseeing,; said Wang, 35. ;Additionally, LGBT people have strong demands for acceptance during their trips. Travel is also a good way for them to make friends.;“像我们一样的人,在旅游时有完全不同的兴趣和需求。我们想要探索那些对同性恋友好的地方,而不是纯粹的观光。”35岁的王钊说道。“此外,同性恋群体在旅行期间有强烈的接受外界的需求。旅行也是一个很好的交朋友的方式。”Although there are no official statistics, it is estimated that China has 50 million to 70 million people who identify as LGBT. A report from WorkForLGBT, a nonprofit business network in Beijing, said those they surveyed in China#39;s cities are not only doing well financially, they also enjoy traveling.虽然并没有官方数据,但是据估计,我国已公开的同性恋者数量在5000万到7000万之间。根据北京的一个非营利的商业网络站--WorkForLGBT的报道,他们调查的这些中国城市里的群体,不仅财务良好,而且很享受旅行。The survey said 75 percent of its respondents traveled within the Chinese mainland over the past year and a quarter traveled overseas.该调查还显示,受访者中的75%在过去的一年中曾在国内旅行,四分之一的人曾去海外旅行。 /201601/422393



  Wu Jiayao and Wu Jianfei are at opposite ends of China’s migrant miracle. One was there at the very beginning, and the other came on the scene only as the miracle began to fade. The lives of this father and daughter are like bookends to the economic transformation of China. What a difference a generation makes.吴佳瑶和吴建飞处于中国移民奇迹的两极。一个出现在最初阶段,另一个则只是出现在奇迹开始消退之际。这对父女的生活就像是中国经济变迁的序幕和尾声。一代人之间的差别可真大。Jiayao, 28, has a car, a flat, two degrees, a white-collar job and a money-market fund — not to mention a husband, a baby and the coveted right to live as a permanent resident of the ultra-modern city of Shanghai.吴佳瑶今年28岁,有一辆车、一套公寓、两张学位书,一份白领工作以及一份货币市场基金,更不用说还有一个丈夫、一个宝宝以及令人艳羡的超现代大都市上海的永久居住权。Jianfei, 50, has a simple one-storey home surrounded by peanut fields and drying corn cobs. He lives in an ancestral compound, alongside his octogenarian mother, in the village of Qinghu, in eastern China’s Jiangsu province. It used to take a whole day to travel from Qinghu to Shanghai by boat; now it takes a couple of hours using a vast suspension bridge and multi-lane tunnel. What a difference three decades make.吴建飞今年50岁,只有一间被花生地和干玉米棒包围着的平房。他现在与自己80多岁的老母亲住在江苏省青湖镇的一个老宅里(见上图)。在过去,从青湖坐船到上海需要一整天时间;现在有了巨大的吊桥和多车道隧道只需两个小时。30年见了多大的变化啊。In their own way, they are both foot soldiers in the migrant army that built the economic phenomenon that is China. This is the cohort that helped lay the foundation for a two-superpower world anchored at one end in Washington and the other in Beijing . But life in the trenches just isn’t what it used to be.他们分别以自己的方式,成为建设中国经济奇迹的农民工大军的步兵。正是他们这些人帮助为当今世界两个超级大国的格局打下了基础——这个世界的一头是华盛顿,另一头是北京。但是第一线的生活已今非昔比了。Jianfei spent a lifetime away from his wife and his mother, and from Jiayao, who was raised in the village while her father worked as a painter far away. Sometimes, like other migrant construction workers, he lived in the flats he was decorating, inhaling the fumes of the paint he applied during the day. They are flats like the one his daughter now lives in — except, he says, hers is even nicer. For much of her childhood he came home only once a year, even when he lived in Shanghai, now just a short car drive way.吴建飞一辈子都没有多少时间陪伴其妻子和母亲以及佳瑶。佳瑶在青湖长大,而他的父亲却在遥远的地方当油漆匠。与其他从事建筑业的农民工一样,他有时会睡在自己做装修的公寓单位,吸着自己白天涂的油漆的气味。他说,这些公寓就像他女儿现在的家,只是她的住房更高档一些。在佳瑶小时候的大部分时间里,吴建飞一年才回家一趟,即便他住在上海——现在两地只有很短的车程。Two decades later, he had enough money to pay for only half of his modest Rmb100,000 home. It is spotless, shining and decorated with colourful ceramic tiles but is furnished with only simple wooden benches and a couple of bamboo-covered lounge chairs in the sitting room.20年后,他攒了5万元人民币,然后又借了5万,才买了一套房子。新家干净整洁,光线充足而且还铺着色瓷砖,但客厅里的家具只有简单的木凳和一对竹藤躺椅。Though Jiayao went to university on a scholarship, the cost of raising her left Jianfei having to borrow half the money for his new house. The only signs of prosperity are the motorcycle parked in the sitting room, and a modest washing machine tucked next to the lavatory hand basin.吴建飞和他用一辈子的打工积蓄在家乡盖的房子 尽管佳瑶靠奖学金上了大学,但抚养她长大仍让吴建飞捉襟见肘,他买新房的一半资金不得不靠借债。表明他生活还不错的仅有迹象是客厅里停放的托车,以及卫生间洗手池旁边的一台中档洗衣机。Jianfei’s was the first generation of young men from his village sent out to labour as migrant workers, building the Chinese dream. As part of the village’s construction team — a vestige of the days when the Communist party gave everyone a job and told them when and where to do it — he was sent to work in Shanghai, collecting a meagre annual payout of Rmb200.吴建飞是他的村子里第一代外出打工、建设中国梦的年轻人中的一员。作为村里建筑队——国家对个人大包大揽时期遗留下的产物——的成员,他被派到上海干活,当时年收入只有区区200元人民币。Four years later, he moved to Xinjiang province to help build worker accommodation at the vast Karamay oilfields in the far north of the country. It took a week to get home, on a special migrant worker train, but at least the pay was 10 times what was available in Shanghai. Jianfei spent 11 years in Xinjiang.4年后,他到了新疆,在中国西北巨大的克拉玛依油田帮助建造工人宿舍。从那里乘坐农民工专列火车需要一周时间才能回家,但最起码报酬是上海的10倍。吴建飞在新疆呆了11年。And, thanks to that sacrifice, the daughter whom he seldom saw graduated from high school, received an undergraduate and a masters degree in Shanghai, became a teacher in one of the city’s most prestigious high schools and then a human resources professional in an ecommerce company.得益于这种牺牲,他那很少见面的女儿从高中毕业,在上海完成了本科和研究生学业,成为该市最知名高中之一的教师,随后又跳槽至一家电子商务公司从事人力资源工作。While her father still refuses to use an ATM machine, and keeps his cash stashed in the house, she saves in a money-market account and uses Alipay, the Chinese online payments service, to do her shopping, making most of her purchases online. She likes to dabble in investments, sometimes on behalf of her parents.尽管她的父亲仍拒绝使用自动取款机,将现金藏在家里,但佳瑶却会购买货币基金,使用中国在线付务付宝(AliPay)来购物,大量使用网购。她喜欢尝试投资,有时还帮父母投资。Now the flood of migrants to the cities has eased, and many of those who previously only squatted there — living in prefabricated hostels on construction sites or in fume-filled empty flats or in squalid warrens of rented rooms — are buying flats, getting married and settling down in cities forever.如今涌向城市的农民工大潮有所减退,许多早先只是暂住城市的农民工——住在工地上的预制板房或者散发着浓厚油漆味的空房间,或者租住肮脏拥挤的屋子——买了房,结了婚,在城市里定居下来。What a difference a generation makes: the generation that separates Jiayao and her father. China, and its migrant miracle, will never be the same again.佳瑶和她父亲之间的这一代人见了多么巨大的变化。中国及其移民奇迹将再也不会和过去一样了。 /201510/402448


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