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楼主:好医诊疗 时间:2019年08月18日 02:18:45 点击:0 回复:0
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2.Shoulder the Responsibility of Being a Writer2.肩负起作为一名作家的责任Our tragedy today is a general and universal physical fear so long sustained by now that we can even bear it. 当今人们普遍存在着一种生理上的恐惧,这种恐惧由来已久,以致我们都已经习惯了。There are no longer problems of the spirit. There is only the question: When will I be blown up? 现在不存在精神上的问题,惟一的问题是——我什么时候会爆炸?Because of this, the young man or women writing today has forgotten the problems of the human heart in conflict with itself which alone can make good writing because only that is worth writing about, worth the agony and the sweat.正因如此,今天从事写作的男女青年已经忘记了人类内心的冲突,而这种冲突恰恰是创作的源泉,因为这是惟一值得写、值得呕心沥血地去写的题材。He must learn them again. He must teach himself that the basest of all things is to be afraid; 创作者必须重新学会这一切;必须教会自己认识到一切事物的本质是恐惧;and, teaching himself that, forget it forever, leaving no room in his workshop for anything but the old verities and truths of the heart, 教会自己学会忘记一切恐惧;在自己的创作空间里不给其他东西留任何空间,惟一拥有的是心灵的真谛。the old universal truths lacking which any story is ephemeral and doomed—love and honor and pity and pride and compassion and sacrifice. 世界上放之四海而皆准的真理是:任何创作一旦缺乏爱,荣誉,同情,自豪,怜悯和牺牲都将是短暂的,是注定要失败的。201608/461163VOA流行美语 66: HOT / HAVE A CRUSH ON SB今天Michael和李华在学校的书店里买书。李华会学到两个常用语:hot和to have a crush on someone。M: Li Hua, do you see that girl over there?L: 你是说那个穿红毛衣的女孩?她怎么啦?M: She's so hot! I've seen her around campus before and I would really love to meet her.L: 你在校园里见过她,还想认识她。嗯,她是很漂亮。不过,你又没跟她说过话,你怎么知道她很热呢?M: No, silly. To say someone is "hot" means that he or she is really attractive. That girl over there is definitely hot.L: 噢,说一个人hot是说她很漂亮,很有吸引力,而不是感觉很热的意思。M: That's right, Li Hua. Now, you know who I think is hot. Tell me who do you think is hot?L: 没错,我现在知道你喜欢谁了。至于我喜欢谁嘛,嗯...电影演员汤姆.克鲁斯 - Tom Cruise - 怎么样?I think he's hot!M: Tom Cruise? No, I mean someone you really have a chance of going out with.L: 噢,要能够一起出去玩的人呐?M: Yes, I mean you are not very likely to meet Tom Cruise. Besides, he's a little old now.L: 说得也是,要想认识Tom Cruise恐怕是不太可能的。他当然比以前老了,不过,我觉得他还是很有风度的--He's very hot。M: Now, come on, who do you think is hot?L: 你想知道我心目里谁最hot呀?我才不告诉你呢,免得你泄露了我的机密。M: Fine, be that way, but I will find out sooner or later.******L: 哎, Michael, 你喜欢的那个女孩去付钱了。要不要我去跟她说话?和她认识以后再给你介绍一下。M: NO!L: 为什么?你是信不过我,还是怕羞呀?M: I'm not sure. Besides, I don't want her to know that I have a crush on her. She might not even like me.L: 你不要她知道什么?You have a crush on her -- 这是什么意思?M: "To have a crush on someone" means you really like the person.L: 噢,to have a crush on someone就是喜欢某人。那我喜欢你,你是我的好朋友,我能不能说I have a crush on you呢?M: No, "to have a crush on someone" means you like that person romantically.L: 噢,对不起,刚才没弄清楚。 所以,to have a crush on someone是说对异性有好感,希望和这个人谈恋爱,才能这么说。那我能说I have a crush on Tom Cruise吗?M: Yes, that would be appropriate. But when are you going to like someone you actually have a chance of meeting.L: 你想知道我真的要谁做男朋友啊?这种事我怎么能告诉你啊。M: Why not? Don't you trust me?L: 这不是什么信任不信任的问题。好,等你告诉那个女孩你喜欢她以后我再告诉你,好不好?M: Then I guess I won't know who you have a crush on any time soon.L: 啊呀,你真是没胆量。怪不得你交不到女朋友呢!Michael和李华在学校的书店里买书,李华学到了两个常用语。hot是指一个人对异性很有魅力和吸引力;to have a crush on someone是指对异性有好感。 /200602/3141Now, this nice picture shows a thought-balloon, a thought-bubble.好了,这张图展示的是一个“思维泡泡”。I think everybody understands what that means.我想大家都知道这是什么意思。Thats supposed to exhibit the stream of consciousness.它展示了意识流。This is my favorite picture of consciousness thats ever been done.这是到目前,我最喜欢的展示意识的图片。Its a Saul Steinberg of course -- it was a New Yorker cover.它是Saul Steinberg的作品——是《纽约客》的一幅封面图片。And this fellow here is looking at the painting by Braque.这个人是在看Braque的画。That reminds him of the word baroque, barrack, bark, poodle,让他想起了巴洛克、兵营、树皮、狮毛Suzanne R. -- hes off to the races.Suzanne R. 精正要开始。Theres a wonderful stream of consciousness here这是个极好的意识流and if you follow it along, you learn a lot about this man.如果你一直跟下去,你可以了解这个男人很多事情What I particularly like about this picture, too,我还特别喜欢这个图片里边is that Steinberg has rendered the guy Steinberg in this sort of pointillist style.把整个人渲染成一种点画风格Which reminds us, as Rod Brooks was saying yesterday:这让我们想起,Rod Brooks昨天所说的:what we are, what each of us is -- what you are, what I am --我们是什么,我们每个人是什么——你是什么,我是什么——is approximately 100 trillion little cellular robots.是将近一万亿亿的小细胞机器人。Thats what were made of.那就是我们的组成成分。No other ingredients at all. Were just made of cells, about 100 trillion of them.没有任何其他成分。我们就是细胞组成的,约一万亿亿个。Not a single one of those cells is conscious;这些细胞中没有任何一个有意识,not a single one of those cells knows who you are, or cares.没有一个知道你是谁,或者在乎这个。Somehow, we have to explain从某种意义上,我们需要解释how when you put together teams, armies, battalions of hundreds of millions of little robotic unconscious cells我们如何把数队,数军,数营的成百百亿的无意识细胞机器not so different really from a bacterium, each one of them the result is this. I mean, just look at it.他们每个都与细菌没有多大区别,组合成了这个。我的意思是,就看一下。The content -- theres color, theres ideas, theres memories, theres history.这些内容——有颜色、有想法、有回忆,有历史。And somehow all that content of consciousness is accomplished by the busy activity of those hoards of neurons.从某种意义上,这些意识的内容是由那些聚集的神经元的繁忙活动完成的。How is that possible? Many people just think it isnt possible at all.这怎么可能呢?很多人认为这一点可能性都没有。They think, ;No, there cant be any sort of naturalistic explanation of consciousness.;他们觉得,“不,不可能有任何对意识的科学的解释。”This is a lovely book by a friend of mine named Lee Siegel,这是一本由我朋友Lee Siegel写的可爱的书,whos a professor of religion, actually, at the University of Hawaii,他是夏威夷大学的宗教方向教授,and hes an expert magician, and an expert on the street magic of India,而且还是个魔术专家,是印度街头魔术的专家,which is what this book is about, ;Net of Magic.;也就是这本书的内容,“魔术的网。”And theres a passage in it which I would love to share with you.我要与你们分享里面的一篇文章。It speaks so eloquently to the problem.这些话在这个问题上说的真是太好了。;Im writing a book on magic, I explain, and Im asked, Real magic?“‘我在写一本关于魔术的书,’我解释道,然后我又被问道,‘真正的魔术?’By real magic, people mean miracles, thaumaturgical acts, and supernatural powers.真正的魔术,人们指的是奇迹、魔法,以及超自然力量。No, I answer. Conjuring tricks, not real magic.‘不’,我回应道。‘变戏法而已,不是真正的魔术。’Real magic, in other words, refers to the magic that is not real;真正的魔术,换句话来说,指的是那些并不真实可行的魔法,while the magic that is real, that can actually be done, is not real magic.;而那些真实可行的魔术,又不是真正的魔法。”201607/454865Well, we chose the second option, and language is the result.我们选了第二条路,语言就是产物Language evolved to solve the crisis of visual theft.语言的进化解决了观察性窃取的危机Language is a piece of social technology for enhancing the benefits of cooperation语言是社会技术用于加强合作的益处for reaching agreements, for striking deals and for coordinating our activities.达成共识,买卖交易以及协调活动And you can see that, in a developing society that was beginning to acquire language,你可以看到,处于发展中形态的社会刚刚开始习得语言not having language would be a like a bird without wings.还没有完全掌握就像一个没有翅膀的鸟儿Just as wings open up this sphere of air for birds to exploit,就像翅膀之于鸟儿扇动空气去探索天空language opened up the sphere of cooperation for humans to exploit.语言之于人类开启合作来探索未来And we take this utterly for granted, because were a species that is so at home with language,我们以为这是理所当然,因为我们是纯熟掌握语言的物种but you have to realize that even the simplest acts of exchange that we engage in are utterly dependent upon language.但是你应当意识到,甚至我们最简单的交换行为也完全依赖于语言And to see why, consider two scenarios from early in our evolution.为了弄清为什么,请假想进化早期的两个场景Lets imagine that you are really good at making arrowheads,假设你擅长制造箭头but youre hopeless at making the wooden shafts with the flight feathers attached.但是完全不会制造嵌着飞羽的箭杆Two other people you know are very good at making the wooden shafts,你知道另外两人擅长制箭杆but theyre hopeless at making the arrowheads.但他们不会造箭头So what you do is -- one of those people has not really acquired language yet.那么,那两人中一个还没真正学会使用语言And lets pretend the other one is good at language skills.另外一个熟练语言技巧So what you do one day is you take a pile of arrowheads,有一天你带了一堆箭头and you walk up to the one that cant speak very well,去找那个不太会说话的人and you put the arrowheads down in front of him,你把箭头放在他面前hoping that hell get the idea that you want to trade your arrowheads for finished arrows.希望他明白你想用箭头交换做好的箭But he looks at the pile of arrowheads, thinks theyre a gift, picks them up, smiles and walks off.但他看着一堆箭头,以为是礼物,就捡起来冲你一笑就走了Now you pursue this guy, gesticulating.你追上他连比带划地解释A scuffle ensues and you get stabbed with one of your own arrowheads.结果打起来了,被他用你自己的箭头捅伤了Okay, now replay this scene now, and youre approaching the one who has language.好的,现在再重复这个场景,你去找有语言的那个人You put down your arrowheads and say, ;Id like to trade these arrowheads for finished arrows. Ill split you 50/50.;你放下箭头说,“我想用这些跟你交换做好的箭,我们对半分”The other one says, ;Fine. Looks good to me. Well do that.; Now the job is done.那人说:“没问题。就这么办。”交易做成了。201701/489554

From the beginning, America has been a place that has cherished the freedom of worship.从一开始,美国一直是个珍视自由信仰的地方。That is the promise the first settlers saw in our vast continent这是首批定居者见到我们广袤大陆时的承诺and it is the promise that our bravest warriors have protected for all of our citizens in centuries since, a long time ago.这是我们最英勇的士兵们从数个世纪前开始保卫我们所有公民时的承诺。这很长时间了。Sadly, many around the globe do not enjoy this freedom不幸的是,很多全球的人们并不享有这样的自由and one of the gravest threats to religious freedom remains the threat of terror.其中一个最严重的宗教自由威胁,仍然是恐怖的威胁。On Palm Sunday, as Christians around the world celebrate the beginning of Holy Week,在棕枝全日,世界各地的基督徒庆祝宗教周的开始,ISIS murdered at least 45 people and injured over 100 others at two Christian churches in Egypt.ISIS在埃及的两个基督教堂谋杀了至少45人,100多人受伤。We condemn this barbaric attack.我们谴责这样的野蛮袭击。We mourn for those who lost loved ones.我们为那些失去亲人的人们悲痛。And we pray for the strength and wisdom to achieve a better tomorrow我们为实现更好明天的力量和智慧祈祷one where good people of all faiths, Christians and Muslims and Jewish and Hindu, can follow their hearts and worship according to their conscience.各种信仰的优秀的人们,基督徒,穆斯林,犹太教徒,印度教徒,遵循着他们的道德心,跟随着他们的内心和信仰。201704/505481

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