嘉兴曙光整形医院开眼角哪家好健晚报

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 嘉兴曙光整形医院开眼角哪家好同城新闻

1 They’re doing something right out West. Sixty-six percent of Americans are overweight or obese, with the national obesity rate doubling between 1976 and 1999. But as of 2007, California was the only state not getting any fatter.1、肥胖问题正在西方国家肆虐横行。65%美国人超重或肥胖,从1976年到1999年,全国肥胖率翻了一倍。2007年,全美只有加利福尼亚州人口没有增胖。2 The root of the problem? Depending on gender and how active they are, adults should eat 2,000 to 3,000 calories per day. U.S. agriculture now produces 3,900 calories of food per inhabitant per day.2、症结何在?肥胖程度因性别及个性而不同。成人每天需消耗2000-3000卡路里能量。而当下美国农业的产出为每天人均3900卡路里。3 People who regularly eat dinner or breakfast in restaurants double their risk of becoming obese.3.常在餐馆解决早晚餐的人,发胖率是正常人两倍。4 Being overweight reduces a woman’s chances of getting pregnant.4.肥胖会降低女性怀率。5 The National Institutes of Health believes obesity is one of the reasons why the fastest-growing group of women experiencing infertility are those under 25.5.国家卫生院表示,肥胖是引起越来越多25岁以下女性不不育的症候之一。6 We’re trying. Each year nearly billion is spent on diet programs.6.人们一直为解决肥胖问题而努力。每年,约有500亿美元投资于减肥项目。7 People who lose just 10 percent of their weight report significant improvement in their sex lives.7.成功减轻10%体重的人表示,他们的性生活也大有提高。8 Biology is trying to help too. Leptin is a hunger-slaking hormone pumped into the bloodstream by fat cells. The more fat you have, the more leptin you make and the less hungry you feel.8.生物界也一直在努力。“瘦素”是一种能延缓饥饿感的基因,可通过脂肪细胞注入人体血液。脂肪越多,容纳的瘦素就越多,饥饿感也就越少。9 Want to get your hands on some leptin? The hormone never panned out as a diet aid because most overweight people have become insensitive to it.9.你是不是也想注入瘦素呢?可惜瘦素还不及节食援助奏效,因为大部分肥胖的人早已对瘦素麻木了。10 Over the course of a year, about 10 percent of an adult’s fat cells die. Alas, the body promptly replaces them.10.每年,成人体内约有10%的脂肪细胞会消亡。可惜,新陈代谢很快又能跟上来。11 The total number of fat cells in your body remains constant once you reach adulthood. Even after radical weight-loss procedures such as stomach stapling, fat cells return to their presurgery numbers within two years.11.一旦成人,体内的脂肪细胞便会持续累积。哪怕你采取肠胃吻合术这样剧烈的减肥措施,两年后,脂肪也会恢复到手术前的数量。12 Try the vacuum instead. Liposuction is the only way to actually reduce the number of fat cells in your spare tire. Diet and exercise just shrink them.12.抽脂倒可以尝试。吸脂术是唯一能够抽掉腰间脂肪的方法,节食和运动只能让脂肪萎缩而已。13 New Zealander Pete Bethune gave a whole new meaning to biofuel when he used his liposuctioned fat to power the world’s fastest eco-boat. A way to solve the obesity epidemic and the fuel crisis?13.新西兰人彼得·白求恩缔造了“生物燃料”这个全新概念:他用抽出来的脂肪发动了全球最快的生态小艇。可否视其为解决肥胖问题和燃料危机的妙方呢?14 It may make you prettier, but not healthier. Liposuction doesn’t remove fat from around the internal organs, so your fat-related health risks are unchanged.14.抽脂可以让你看上去更漂亮,但未必更健康。它吸不掉体内器官周围的脂肪,所以,肥胖引起的健康隐患依然存在。15 Blame Mom and Dad. Obesity is more heritable than schizophrenia, high blood pressure, and alcoholism.15.要怪就怪你父母吧。肥胖的遗传性比精神分裂症、高血压和酗酒的遗传率还高。16 Cutting saturated fat intake to the recommended 10 percent of your calories will prolong your life, but only by a few months at most, researchers found.16.研究发现,将饱和脂肪减少10%卡路里,最多可延长数月寿命。17 The brain is about 70 percent fat.17.大脑约含70%脂肪。18 Bottlenose dolphins use fatty tissue in the head, concentrated in an organ called the melon, to focus sound waves, giving them their sonar ability.18.胆鼻海豚头部有块叫“鲸脂”的脂肪组织,可用来聚焦声波,使其具备声纳感应能力。19 Think you have a spare tire? Whales are wrapped in fat—a thick layer of blubber—as vital insulation against the cold. Some whales have a blubber layer up to 20 inches thick.19.是不是想到了你腰部的赘肉?鲸鱼全身裹满鲸脂以便御寒。有些鲸鱼的鲸脂厚达20英寸。20 Camels have the opposite problem: Living in hot climates, they want as little heat-trapping insulation as possible, so they concentrate their fat in their humps.20.但骆驼却恰恰相反:沙漠气候下,保暖的脂肪越少越好。所以,骆驼的脂肪全都集中在了驼峰上。 /201210/206729

A website has pulled together some of the ugliest web pages on Earth – and they#39;re all still going strong, despite having been designed in the ;good old days;.一家名为“来自地狱的网站”正致力于汇集全世界最丑的网站,这些中选网站多数诞生于互联网产生初期,但是却都不断成长。Websitesfromhell.net harks back to the nightmarish days when capital letters and fluorescent letters ruled cyber space - often without a picture in sight.Websitesfromhell.net带领大家回到了网络空间恶梦般的日子里,满眼大写字母和荧光字,几乎没有图片。Websitesfromhell.net invites submissions from all over the world only with one condition - that the selection be truly dire.这家网站欢迎全球各地的人们提供备选网站,条件只有一个:网站足够“可怕”。The site says: ;You can submit your own website, a website of your ex-client or the page of the rest home from your grandma who slaps you every time you visit her. The only requirement is: the website should be ugly!;网页上写道:“你可以推选自己的网站,前客户的网站,或是你祖母养老院的网站,因为每次你去探望她都要被那个难看的网站打击一次。唯一的要求是:网站足够丑!”;There is a heavy use of gif images, more frames than you can count, java applets used as navigations, rainbow backgrounds and so on? Yes, that would be a great candidate for hell! Use the submit form! Now!;“有的网站过度使用gif图片、或者是数不清的框架结构、还有用作导航的java小程序、虹色背景等等?是的,这就是一个‘来自地狱的网站’的候选者。现在赶快推荐吧!”The 423 websites include candyromeo.com, which bills itself as the first dog matrimonial website in India. To a background of awful Indian rock music, its creators have arranged a garish visual assault of dog photos, animated pooches and neon colours.432个中选网站中包括号称印度首家婚介网站的candyromeo.com。该网站的印度摇滚背景乐相当糟糕,创建者还在网页上贴满令人眼花缭乱的照片,还配有动画处理的和霓虹色。At the bottom of the homepage are two more pictures of dogs - with their eyes animated to look as if they are twinkling.主页底部还配上了另外两张图片,的眼睛经过动画处理,看上去一眨一眨的。Webking.com purports to be the homepage of a web designer who will build your own for , but the site itself it so bad that only the clueless would employ him.Webking.com声称是一个网页设计者的网站,花上99美金就可以帮你建立自己的网站。不过鉴于该网站本身就足够丑,估计只有脑残才会花钱雇他。Aside from the photo of a man wearing a crown in the top corner, there is also an amateurish picture of a castle and lurid bright text scattered throughout.除去顶部角上那个戴的男人照片,网页上还有一个十分业余的城堡图片,外加通篇的血红色亮字。Another website featured on Websitesfromhell.net is hosanna1.com which purports to be links to ‘the most beautiful pages on the web’. Unfortunately it is so clogged with multicoloured, overlapping text of different colours that it ends up leaving you with a headache.另外一家上榜网站是hosanna1.com,该网站宣称自己可以链接到“最美网站”上。然而不幸的是,该网站颜色过多,不同颜色的文字层层叠叠,只会让人头痛。In the middle there is even a bizarre section which orders the viewer in bright pink capitals: ‘CLICK HERE FOR PUPPIES!!!’网页中部还诡异地用亮粉色大写字母告诉读者:“点此得小!”Some of the websites have been changed since appearing on the website, such as Florida-based TNT Events. Before being named and shamed however it had an inexplicable yellow and scarlet colour scheme and text overlayed on top of a picture of its two founders, making the words unable.一些网站在被点名为最丑网页后进行了改良,比如来自佛罗里达州的TNT Events。在其获提名并因此而蒙羞之前,该网站颜色为让人费解的红黄色系,并且顶部两位网站建立者照片之上还叠加了文字,从而导致文字模糊不清。 /201205/180572The opens showing a bespectacled Akio Toyoda in a charcoal suit and tie, waving to the cameras. Then suddenly, he is in a red and black racing jump suit, helmet on, climbing behind the wheel of a psychedelic Camry sedan at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway. A cockpit-mounted camera displays the 56-year-old corporate chief shifting into high gear as the bass thunders on the car#39;s sound system. 这是一段2011年秋季在美国播出的丰田汽车(Toyota Motor Corporation)电视广告。视频开头出现的是丰田公司总裁丰田章男(Akio Toyoda),他戴着眼镜,身着深灰色西装和领带,向摄影机挥手。随后画面突然切换,丰田章男换上一身红黑相间的连体赛车,戴上头盔,在赛车场(Las Vegas Motor Speedway)驾驶一辆迷幻色的凯美瑞(Camry)轿车奔驰。一台安装在驾驶仓内的摄像头拍摄到56岁的丰田章男不断换档提速,汽车音响系统爆发出震撼人心的重低音。 #39;How do you reinvent the best-selling car in America?#39; a voice intones in the TV aid aired in the U.S. last fall. #39;From behind the wheel. Akio Toyoda: race car driver and president of Toyota Motor Corporation.#39; “怎样重新打造美国最畅销的汽车?”此时片中响起一个画外音,“从手握方向盘开始。丰田章男:赛车手、丰田汽车总裁。” It isn#39;t just the Camry being reinvented, but Mr. Toyoda himself. As he tries to turn around the auto giant from years of what many call bland design, an embarrassing 2009 recall and the effects of the 2011 earthquake, he is grabbing the wheel and playing the role of personal pitchman. 正在脱胎换骨的不仅是凯美瑞,还有丰田章男本人。多年来,丰田汽车的设计一直被许多人视为平淡乏味,2009年尴尬的召回事件以及2011年的地震也给公司带来严重冲击。现在,丰田章男驾驶汽车,亲自扮演宣传员的角色,以期振兴这家汽车巨头。 Mr. Toyoda isn#39;t the first auto executive to do so. Chrysler Chief Executive Lee Iacocca did it on a factory floor. Ford Motor Co. Chairman Bill Ford Jr. has done it from behind a desk. And #39;Dr. Z#39; Dieter Zetsche did it for DaimlerChrysler in a Dodge Challenger. 丰田章男并非第一个亲自上阵的汽车公司高管。克莱斯勒公司(Chrysler)首席执行官李.艾科卡(Lee Iacocca)在工厂车间,福特汽车公司(Ford Motor Co.)董事长小比尔.福特(Bill Ford Jr.)在办公桌旁,戴姆勒-克莱斯勒公司(DaimlerChrysler)董事长迪特.蔡澈(Dieter Zetsche)在一辆道奇挑战者(Dodge Challenger)车内,都为公司做过宣传。 But none was shown climbing 31-degree banks at the Daytona International Speedway, let alone appearing at racing events flanked by a pair of leather-clad female chaperones holding parasols. (The Gazoo Ladies, named after Toyota#39;s Gazoo Racing motor sports team, are part of Mr. Toyoda#39;s racing entourage and draw a big following in Japan.) 但这其中没有任何一个人驾车攀爬过31度倾角的雷特娜国际赛道(Daytona International Speedway)陡坡,也没有在一对身穿皮衣、手拿遮阳伞的赛车女郎簇拥下出现在竞技赛场上。(这对美女被称为“Gazoo女郎”,得名于丰田的Gazoo Racing车队,是该车队的随行阵容,在日本吸引了大量粉丝。) That rock star persona reflects the unusual way Mr. Toyoda has defined the job he took over in 2009. He has become both the company#39;s de facto chief marketing officer and chief test driver. He has vowed to vet as many vehicles as possible, especially muscle cars like the ,000 Scion FR-S coupe and 5,000 Lexus LFA super car. 这种摇滚明星般的形象反映出丰田章男2009年接管丰田汽车后对这项工作非同寻常的定位方式。他实际上已成为公司的首席营销官和首席试车员。他承诺要尽可能多地试驾汽车,尤其是马力强劲、高性能的“肌肉车”,如售价24,000美元的Scion FR-S 跑车和售价375,000美元的雷克萨斯(Lexus) LFA超级跑车等。 It is a remarkable evolution for a man who first stayed largely behind the scenes when he took over the company founded by his grandfather. Thrust into the spotlight during Toyota#39;s acceleration-pedal recall in late 2009, his initial public comments seemed awkward. But he found his voice during U.S. congressional testimony in early 2010, telling lawmakers: #39;My name is on every car.#39; (The corporate name was changed to Toyota in 1936 because it sounds snappier in Japanese.) 这对丰田章男来说是一个巨大的变化。刚刚接管祖父创办的这家公司时,丰田章男大部分时间都居于幕后。然而,在2009年底的丰田汽车“踏板门”召回事件中,丰田章男被推到聚光灯前。他的首次公开讲话略显笨拙,但终于在2010年初的美国国会听会上找到了自己的声音。他告诉国会议员:“每一辆丰田车上都有我的名字。”(该公司在1936年将Toyoda更名为Toyota,因为这在日语里更上口。) Company officials say that the campaign featuring Mr. Toyoda as a cockpit jockey helps the company turn the page on its recent mishaps and provides a sportier image for the brand. The current marketing effort was built around the launch of the latest-generation Camry, a humdrum people-mover that has been the best-selling car in the U.S. all but of the one of the past 15 years. 公司管理人士称,以赛车手丰田章男为形象的广告宣传有助于扭转公司近期的颓势,并为丰田品牌带来更多的运动气息。当前的营销活动是为了配合最新一代凯美瑞的上市。在过去十五年里,各方面表现中庸的凯美瑞一直是美国最畅销的乘用车,只有一年例外。 Mr. Toyoda says he honed his driving skills in the 1980s driving a used Porsche in Manhattan, where he was working as an investment banker. He bought it after someone stole his Toyota Celica. The Porsche is long gone, but Mr. Toyoda likes to show off his Porsche ballpoint pen clad in the steel mesh used to protect wiring under the hood. #39;Look at this,#39; he told a reporter Thursday. #39;It#39;s just like an auto part.#39; 丰田章男说,他的驾驶技术是二十世纪八十年代在曼哈顿开一辆二手保时捷(Porsche)时培养起来的。当年他在曼哈顿一家投资工作,因为自己的一辆丰田Celica跑车被盗,于是买下了保时捷。那辆保时捷早已不在,但丰田章男喜欢秀他的保时捷圆珠笔,笔身包裹着一层用于保护汽车引擎盖下配线的钢网。他对记者说:“看这笔,就像汽车零件一样。” His daredevil activities are raising his profile in a way that few of his button-down predecessors sought. The company#39;s last president, Katsuaki Watanabe, tried to keep out of the limelight during his stint, spending his leisure time singing in a men#39;s choir. 这些锐意进取的大胆行为提升了丰田章男的知名度,而他那些保守的前任们很少有人走这条路。丰田公司上一任总裁渡边捷昭(Katsuaki Watanabe)在任期间努力远离公众视线,闲暇时在一个男声合唱团里唱歌。 Mr. Toyoda#39;s approach carries risks, not least of which is the possibility of the type of high-speed accident that killed Toyota#39;s chief test car driver in 2010. That was one year after Mr. Toyoda drove for the third year in a row in an annual 24-hour race on a Grand Prix track in Nurburg, Germany. The company says he hasn#39;t been in a competitive race since then - a decision prompted in part by pressure from Toyota#39;s board, according to a person familiar with the matter. But he hasn#39;t quit his habit of racing solo at top speeds on closed courses. 但丰田章男的做法也伴有风险,高速驾驶中的意外事故就是其中之一。2010年,丰田汽车首席试车员在一起高速事故中身亡。事发前一年,丰田章男已连续第三次参加每年一度在德国尼尔堡(Nurburg)大奖赛(Grand Prix)赛道上举办的24小时耐力赛。丰田汽车称,丰田章男自此之后没有再参加竞技比赛。据知情人士透露,该决定在一定程度上是迫于丰田公司董事会的压力,但丰田章男并没有放弃在封闭赛道上独自驾车挑战极限速度的爱好。 At a news conference in March, Mr. Toyoda appeared alongside three Toyota test drivers and made the case for keeping the keys. #39;Ten years ago, I was once chewed out by our chief test driver for not knowing how to put a car through its paces, something they risk their lives to do everyday,#39; he said. #39;Now, I see myself as a bridge who can talk to both racing pros and average car owners.#39; 在2012年3月的一次新闻发布会上,丰田章男与三名丰田试车员一同露面,并阐述了自己继续试驾丰田汽车的理由。他说:“十年前,我们的首席试车员有一次曾训斥我不懂如何全面检测车辆性能,而这是他们每天都要冒着生命危险去做的事情。现在,我视自己为一座桥梁,能同时与专业车手和普通车主进行沟通。” Mr. Toyoda has cut back on other pastimes such as golf to spend more hours at the test track. That shift from the back nine to starting line came, he says, after a journalist chided him by saying that most Toyota executives#39; appreciation of #39;handling#39; is limited to golf clubs. 丰田章男缩短了打高尔夫球等其他活动的时间,把更多时间花在试车场上。他表示,这一转变得益于此前受到的来自一名记者的斥责。这名记者说,丰田汽车大多数高管对于“操作”一词的理解仅限于在高尔夫球杆上。 He regularly shows up at events wearing a tailor-made Nomex fireproof red and white racing suit - featuring a shoulder patch with a cartoon of his dog, Morizo. While many CEOs hand out business cards, Mr. Toyoda#39;s chief calling cards are stacks of stickers with that dog patch design. 丰田章男经常现身各种赛事,身着红白相间的Nomex定制防火赛车──肩章上印着他的爱犬Morizo的卡通像。许多公司高管给人递的是名片,但丰田章男递得最多的是一堆贴画,上面印着肩章上的卡通形象。 In an effort to energize some 1,100 dispirited Toyota dealers and employees attending a company conference in Las Vegas last November, he bounded to the stage in his racing suit. 2011年11月在举行的公司大会上,为了给与会约1,100名情绪不高的丰田汽车经销商和雇员打气,丰田章男身穿赛车跃上舞台。 In the midst of a pep talk, he led the crowd in chanting #39;WAKU-DOKI, WAKU-DOKI, WAKU-DOKI,#39; a term loosely translated as #39;heart-pounding excitement.#39; 丰田章男在演讲中给大家加油鼓劲,领着人们反复地喊“WAKU-DOKI, WAKU-DOKI, WAKU-DOKI”,这个词翻译过来的意思大致是“血脉贲张”。 Mr. Toyoda often uses that phrase to illustrate the passion needed in his company#39;s vehicles, the design of which he told reporters in April was #39;too Democratic#39; to inspire. 丰田章男常常用这个词来说明丰田汽车的设计所需体现的。他在4月份告诉媒体,丰田汽车的设计过程“过于民主”,导致产品平淡无奇。 Mr. Toyoda has taken a deep interest in product development. During the development of the FR-S sports car, which began in 2008, he drove prototypes at least once a month and offered sometimes blistering feedback on everything from the suspension to the design of the exterior badge. 丰田章男对产品开发有着浓厚的兴趣。丰田汽车从2008年起开始研发FR-S运动汽车,在此期间,丰田章男每个月至少都要试驾一次原型车,有时候会很不客气地提出反馈意见,涉及从减震装置到外部车标设计的方方面面。 #39;Mr. Toyoda#39;s comments can be quite harsh. At one point, we were at a crossroads in development and he said the car wasn#39;t talking to him at all, which was his way of letting us know it wasn#39;t anything special,#39; recalled Tetsuya Tada, the FR-S#39;s chief engineer. #39;I don#39;t remember that ever happening with past presidents.#39; “丰田章男提的意见有时候相当尖锐。有一回我们正处于产品开发的十字路口,而丰田章男说那款车根本不能同他交谈,意思就是说车的设计没有任何特色。”FR-S车型首席工程师多田哲哉(Tetsuya Tada)回忆道,“在我的印象中,以往的总裁从来没有这样做过。” /201207/192941

POLITICAL revolutionaries turn the world upside down. Scientific ones more often turn it inside out. And that, almost literally, is happening to the idea of what, biologically speaking, a human being is.世界在政治革命家手中上下颠倒,在科技革命者手中却常常里外颠倒。在字面上来看,这句话恰巧从生物学角度解释了:人类到底是什么。The traditional view is that a human body is a collection of 10 trillion cells which are themselves the products of 23,000 genes. If the revolutionaries are correct, these numbers radically underestimate the truth. For in the nooks and crannies of every human being, and especially in his or her guts, dwells the microbiome: 100 trillion bacteria of several hundred species bearing 3m non-human genes. The biological Robespierres believe these should count, too; that humans are not single organisms, but superorganisms made up of lots of smaller organisms working together.传统观点认为,人体是十万亿个细胞的集合体,这些细胞又是23000个基因表达后的生成物。如果生物革命者的观点正确,那这些数字就远远的低估了实际情况。因为在人体的各个部位,尤其是内脏寄居着微生物群落:来自几百个类型的上百万亿个细胞携带着300万个非人类基因。生物学家罗伯斯比尔认为:这些数字是有价值的,因为人体不是单一的有机个体,而是由成千上万个微小的有机体共同作用构成的超级个体。It might sound perverse to claim bacterial cells and genes as part of the body, but the revolutionary case is a good one. For the bugs are neither parasites nor passengers. They are, rather, fully paid-up members of a community of which the human ;host; is but a single (if dominating) member. This view is increasingly popular: the world#39;s leading scientific journals, Nature and Science, have both reviewed it extensively in recent months. It is also important: it will help the science and practice of medicine.要说细菌、细胞和基因是人体的一部分,可能令人无法接受,但这一革命性的结论确是有益的。这些小东西既非寄生生物,也非人体系统的过客,而是人体独立这个宿主环境内的忠实成员。这个观点越来越普及,全球先进的科学报刊《自然》和《科学》,用大篇幅对该观点进行,它的重要性在于能够帮助医学理论和实践的发展。All in this together齐聚一堂The microbiome does many jobs in exchange for the raw materials and shelter its host provides. One is to feed people more than 10% of their daily calories. These are derived from plant carbohydrates that human enzymes are unable to break down. And not just plant carbohydrates. Mother#39;s milk contains carbohydrates called glycans which human enzymes cannot digest, but bacterial ones can.微生物群落通过许多工作向人体换取生存原材料和环境。有一种微生物向人体提供每月所需热量的10%,这些热量产生自一种人体酶无法分解的植物碳水化合物,其实不仅是植物糖类,人类母乳中包含的多糖也无法被人体自身的酶消化,细菌酶却可以。This alone shows how closely host and microbiome have co-evolved over the years. But digestion is not the only nutritional service provided. The microbiome also makes vitamins, notably B2, B12 and folic acid. It is, moreover, capable of adjusting its output to its host#39;s needs and diet. The microbiomes of babies make more folic acid than do those of adults. And microbiomes in vitamin-hungry places like Malawi and rural Venezuela turn out more of these chemicals than do those in the guts of North Americans.这个例子只能说明人体和微生物群落是如何在几十年内协同作用产生进化的。但消化只是微生物为人体提供的多种营养务之一,它们还能产生维生素,特别是B2、B12和叶酸(维生素B),此外它还能根据人体需要和膳食情况调节产量。婴儿体内的微生物可以产生比成人多的维B,维生素缺乏地区,如马拉维和委内瑞拉的农村,这些地方的人们内脏产生的维生素就要多于北美地区。The microbiome also maintains the host#39;s health by keeping hostile interlopers at bay. An alien bug that causes diarrhoea, for instance, is as much an enemy of the microbiome as of the host. Both have an interest in zapping it. And both contribute to the task. Host and microbiome, then, are allies. But there is more to it than that. For the latest research shows their physiologies are linked in ways which make the idea of a human superorganism more than just a rhetorical flourish.微生物还通过抵御外界有毒物质入侵,帮助人体的健康。例如引起腹泻的细菌,是人体和体内微生物共同的敌人,两者都希望消灭它,这就需要;宿主;与微生物群联合才能完成任务。除此以外,近期研究还表明,人体与微生物在生理机能上也存在一定的联系,这让人体是超级个体的说法脱离了繁冗修辞的嫌疑。These links are most visible when they go wrong. A disrupted microbiome has been associated with a lengthening list of problems: obesity and its opposite, malnutrition; diabetes (both type-1 and type-2); atherosclerosis and heart disease; multiple sclerosis; asthma and eczema; liver disease; numerous diseases of the intestines, including bowel cancer; and autism. The details are often obscure, but in some cases it looks as if bugs are making molecules that help regulate the activities of human cells. If these signals go wrong, disease is the consequence. This matters because it suggests doctors have been looking in the wrong place for explanations of these diseases. It also suggests a whole new avenue for treatment. If an upset microbiome causes illness, settling it down might effect a cure.生理机能上的联系在它出现问题时体现得更加突出,微生物功能将产生许多问题:过度肥胖或消瘦;营养不良;1型和2型糖尿病;动脉硬化和心脏病;多发性硬化症;哮喘和湿疹;肝病;肠道内的多种疾病,包括肠道癌;孤独症。这些问题的细节不甚明了,但在一些病例中反应出,似乎微生物制造的分子可以帮助调节人体细胞功能。这一点很重要,因为它反映出医生在分析这些疾病时错误的切入点。同时也提出了出全新的治疗方法,如果是微生物功能紊乱引起疾病,那只需要解决这个问题就可能治愈。Yogurt companies and health-food fanatics have been banging this drum for years. And in the case of at least one malady, irritable-bowel syndrome, they are right. So-called probiotics, a mixture of about half a dozen bacterial species found in yogurt, do act to calm this condition. But there is little evidence that consuming probiotics has the tonic effect on healthy people that certain adverts suggest.酸奶制造商和营养品热衷者多年前就鼓吹这种说法。但至少在过敏性肠道综合症这个病症上,他们说对了,所谓的益生菌,主要存在于酸奶中,混合了大约六个菌种,可以缓解这一病症。但有些广告说益生菌对人体有滋补作用,目前暂无据可以实。A handful of doctors are taking a more fundamental approach to another microbiome-related disease, infection with Clostridium difficile. This bacterium, which causes life-threatening distension of the gut in some people who have been treated with antibiotics and thus had their microbiomes disrupted, is a bane of hospitals. It kills 14,000 people a year in America alone. But recent experiments have shown it can be eliminated by introducing, as an enema, the faeces of a healthy individual. ;Stool transplants; are a pretty crude approach, to be sure, but the crucial point is that microbes are much easier to manipulate than human cells. For all the talk of superorganisms (and despite the yuck factor of what is being moved from one body to another), transplanting a microbiome is far easier than transplanting a heart or a kidney.一小部分医生采取更为基本的方式治疗另外一与微生物有关的疾病:梭状芽胞杆菌感染。一些病患曾接受抗生素治疗。导致体内微生物群落紊乱。梭状芽胞杆菌可以引起致命的肠道扩张,这种病向来是让医院极其苦恼的,仅在美国,每年死于该疾病的就有14000人。但近期有实验结果表明,可将一个健康人体的粪便,用灌肠剂的方法引入体内消除这类芽胞杆菌。粪便移植的确是种残忍的手段,不可否认,但关键在于处理微生物要比人体细胞简便得多。尽管关于超级有机体众说纷纭,尽管在人体间转移的东西很恶心,移植微生物的简易性远不是心脏或肾脏移植可比。 /201208/195859

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