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2019年06月25日 12:23:12来源:新华热点

有声名著之远大前程 Chapter15 远大前程Great Expectations英语原版下载 相关名著:查泰莱夫人的情人简爱呼啸山庄有声名著之傲慢与偏见有声名著之儿子与情人有声名著之红与黑有声名著之歌剧魅影有声名著之了不起的盖茨比 Article/200809/49004。

  • If anyone asked you what were the main means of communication between people, what would you say? That isn't catch question. The answer is simple and obvious. It would almost certainly refer to means of communication that involve the use of words. Speakers and listeners - oral communication, and writers and ers - written communication. And you'd be quite right. There is, however, another form of communication which we all use most of the time, usually without knowing it. This is sometimes called body language. Its more technical name is non-verbal communication. Nonverbal, because it does not involve the use of words. NVC for short.When someone is saying something with which he agrees, the average European will smile and nod approval. On the other hand, if you disagree with what they are saying, you may frown and shake your head. In this way you signal your reactions, and communicate them to the speaker without saying a word. I referred a moment ago to "the average European", because body language is very much tied to culture, and in order not to misunderstand, or not to be misunderstood, you must realize this. A smiling Chinese, for instance, may not be approving but somewhat embarrassed.Quite a lot of work is now being done on the subject of NVC, which is obviously important, for instance, to managers, who have to deal every day with their staff, and have to understand what other people are feeling if they are to create good working conditions. Body language, or NVC signals, are sometimes categorised into five kinds: 1. body and facial gestures; 2. eye contract; 3. Body contract or "proximity"; 4. clothing and physical appearance; and 5. the quality of speech. I expect you understood all those, except perhaps "proximity." This simply means "closeness". In some cultures - and I am sure this is a cultural feature and not an individual one - it is quite normal for people to stand close together, or to more or less thrust their face into yours when they are talking to you. In other cultures, this is disliked; Americans, for instance, talk about invasion of their space.Some signals are probably common to all of us. If a public speaker (like a professor, for example) is all the time fiddling with a pencil, or with his glasses, while he is talking to you, he is telling you quite clearly that he is nervous. A person who holds a hand over his mouth when he is talking is signalling that he is lacking in confidence. If you start wriggling in your chairs, looking secretly at your watches or yawning behind your hands, I shall soon get the message that I'm boring you. And so on. I'm sure you could make a whole list of such signals - and it might be fun if you did.All the signals I have mentioned so far can be controlled. If you are aware that you are doing these things, you can stop. You can even learn to give false signals. Most public speakers are in fact nervous, but a godd speaker learns to hide this by giving off signals of confidence. Other kinds of NVC are not so easy to control. Eye contact, for instance. Unless you are confessing intense love, you hardly over look into someone else's eyes for very long. If you try it, you'll find they will soon look away, probably in embarrassment.I've aly mentioned proximity, so just a brief word now about our last two categories, which concern the way people dress and the way they speak. These are both pretty obvious signals. People may dress casually and speak casually, which signals that they are relaxed. Or they can dress formally and speak formally, showing their tenseness. In fact, non-verbal communication can, as the saying goes, speak volumes.假如现在有个人问你,什么是人与人之间的主要交际手段,那么你会说什么?这并不是一个能把人难住了的问题。这个简单而又明确。这几乎可以肯定,指的就是用语言文字作为交际手段。讲话的人和听讲的人用口语进行交际,而写家与读者用书面文字进行交际。对了,你答得相当正确。但是,还有一种交际方式是我们大家在不知不觉地大部分时间都在使用的,这就是我们有时称为的身体语言。身体语言的更加专业化的名称就是非语言交际。之所以称为非语言文字的,就是因为这种交际是不用语言文字进行的。缩写是|NVC。当某人谈了某件事,大多数的欧洲人若是同意了某人所说的事,那么这个欧洲人就会微笑并点头表示同意。相反,若是你这个欧洲人不同意他们所说的事,那么你可能皱眉并摇摇头。用这种方式你表示了你对他们所说的事的反应意见,你就一句话也没说就把你的反应意见传达给了跟你讲话的人。我刚才提到"绝大多数欧洲人",因为身体语言与文化习俗有很大的联系,为了不致误解别人或为了不被别人所误解你必须意识到这一点。例如,一位华人在微笑时很可能并不表示同意,很可能表示某种有点难为情不好意思。关于"非语言文字的交际"这一研究课题现在正进行相当大量的工作。比如说,这一研究课题对于经理、总管之类的人员来讲,很显然是重要的。经理之类的人员每天都必须同员工们打交道,并且必须明白,如果经理人员能创造出一个良好的工作环境,那么别人都会有什么感觉。有时可以把身体语言,或者叫非语言文字的交际信号,分成五大类:(1)身体的姿态和面部表情;(2)目光的接触;(3)身体的接触或者"亲近度";(4)衣着打扮和天生的长相;(5)讲话的态度攻内容。我想,也许除了"亲近度"而外,这一切你都明白。这就是讲"亲近到什么程度"。在某些文化习俗当中--我敢肯定这是某一民族的风俗文化的特征,而不是某一个人的习惯特征--当人们在跟你谈话时,跟你站得很近或者或多或少地把脸巾近了你的脸,这都是十分正常的。而在另外一些民族的文化习俗当中,这样做是人们所不喜欢的。例如,美国人认为你侵犯了他们的隐私空间范围。也许有信号是我们大家所共有的。如果一位公开演讲的人,在给你们作报告时,他老是在摆弄一铅笔或者是摆弄他的眼镜,那么,他这是很清楚告诉你,他心情很紧张。一个人如果在谈话时总是用一只手罩着嘴,这就表明他缺乏自信。如果你们开始不能安稳地坐在椅子上,开始偷偷地不时看看钟表,或者你们开始用手捂住嘴打哈欠来,那么,我将会马上得到一个信息,那就是我使你们感到厌倦了。如此等等。我敢肯定你们会把这类感到厌倦的信号列出一整张纸来--如果你们现在就写的话,可能会很有趣。我上面所提到的这些信号都是人们可以控制的。如果你意识到了你正在做那些小动作,你就会停止不做了。甚至你们还能学会发生假装出来的信号。事实上绝大多数公开发表演讲的人都心情紧张,但是一位擅长演讲的人会发出自信心很强的姿态信号来掩饰紧张的心情。另外几种非语言文字的交际就不是很容易控制的了。比如说目光接触吧。除非你坦白承认你深深爱上了她,要不然的话你就不会长时间地凝视着她的眼睛。如果你将来试一试凝视她的眼睛,你就会发现她会扭转头把眼睛挪开看其他地方,也许是出于难为情吧。我上面已经把"亲近度"解释过了。现在用简明扼要的话讲讲最后两大类语言文字交际信号。这两类涉及到人们穿着的方式和讲话的方式。这两在类都是很明显的交际信号。凡是穿着随随便便而讲话又漫不经心的人,这些信号都说明这些人的心情很轻松。如果人们穿得整整齐齐地,讲起话来一本正经,这表明他们的心情很紧张很不轻松。事实上,非语言文字的交际,含义是很深的。 Article/200802/27997。
  • 1"And now this admonition is for you, O priests. 2If you do not listen, and if you do not set your heart to honor my name," says the Lord Almighty, "I will send a curse upon you, and I will curse your blessings. Yes, I have aly cursed them, because you have not set your heart to honor me. 3"Because of you I will rebuke your descendants ; I will sp on your faces the offal from your festival sacrifices, and you will be carried off with it. 4And you will know that I have sent you this admonition so that my covenant with Levi may continue," says the Lord Almighty. 5"My covenant was with him, a covenant of life and peace, and I gave them to him; this called for reverence and he revered me and stood in awe of my name. 6True instruction was in his mouth and nothing false was found on his lips. He walked with me in peace and uprightness, and turned many from sin. 7"For the lips of a priest ought to preserve knowledge, and from his mouth men should seek instruction-because he is the messenger of the Lord Almighty. 8But you have turned from the way and by your teaching have caused many to stumble; you have violated the covenant with Levi," says the Lord Almighty. 9"So I have caused you to be despised and humiliated before all the people, because you have not followed my ways but have shown partiality in matters of the law." 10Have we not all one Father ? Did not one God create us? Why do we profane the covenant of our fathers by breaking faith with one another? 11Judah has broken faith. A detestable thing has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem: Judah has desecrated the sanctuary the Lord loves, by marrying the daughter of a foreign god. 12As for the man who does this, whoever he may be, may the Lord cut him off from the tents of Jacob -even though he brings offerings to the Lord Almighty. 13Another thing you do: You flood the Lord 's altar with tears. You weep and wail because he no longer pays attention to your offerings or accepts them with pleasure from your hands. 14You ask, "Why?" It is because the Lord is acting as the witness between you and the wife of your youth, because you have broken faith with her, though she is your partner, the wife of your marriage covenant. 15Has not the Lord made them one? In flesh and spirit they are his. And why one? Because he was seeking godly offspring. So guard yourself in your spirit, and do not break faith with the wife of your youth. 16"I hate divorce," says the Lord God of Israel, "and I hate a man's covering himself with violence as well as with his garment," says the Lord Almighty. So guard yourself in your spirit, and do not break faith. 17You have wearied the Lord with your words. "How have we wearied him?" you ask. By saying, "All who do evil are good in the eyes of the Lord , and he is pleased with them" or "Where is the God of justice?" Article/200810/51777。
  • Who is That Woman? 那女人是谁? The newlyweds entered the elevator of their Miami Beach hotel. The operator, a magnificent blonde, looked at them in surprise and said, "Why, hello, Teddy, how are you?" When the couple reached their room, the piqued bride demanded: "Who was that woman?!" "Take it easy, honey," said the groom, "I'm going to have trouble enough explaining you to her."一对新婚夫妇走进位于迈阿密海滩旅馆的电梯。电梯操作员是一个漂亮的金发碧眼的美女,看到他们十分惊奇,她说:“嗨,Teddy,你好吗?”夫妇俩到了他们自己的房间,愤怒的新娘要求丈夫做出解释:“那女人是谁?!”“冷静点,宝贝,”新郎说:“我得对她解释你是谁,这已经足够烦死我了。” Article/200804/35886。
  • 20In those days Hezekiah became ill and was at the point of death. The prophet Isaiah son of Amoz went to him and said, "This is what the Lord says: Put your house in order, because you are going to die; you will not recover." 2Hezekiah turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord , 3"Remember, O Lord , how I have walked before you faithfully and with wholehearted devotion and have done what is good in your eyes." And Hezekiah wept bitterly. 4Before Isaiah had left the middle court, the word of the Lord came to him: 5"Go back and tell Hezekiah, the leader of my people, 'This is what the Lord , the God of your father David, says: I have heard your prayer and seen your tears; I will heal you. On the third day from now you will go up to the temple of the Lord . 6I will add fifteen years to your life. And I will deliver you and this city from the hand of the king of Assyria. I will defend this city for my sake and for the sake of my servant David.' " 7Then Isaiah said, "Prepare a poultice of figs." They did so and applied it to the boil, and he recovered. 8Hezekiah had asked Isaiah, "What will be the sign that the Lord will heal me and that I will go up to the temple of the Lord on the third day from now?" 9Isaiah answered, "This is the Lord 's sign to you that the Lord will do what he has promised: Shall the shadow go forward ten steps, or shall it go back ten steps?" 10"It is a simple matter for the shadow to go forward ten steps," said Hezekiah. "Rather, have it go back ten steps." 11Then the prophet Isaiah called upon the Lord , and the Lord made the shadow go back the ten steps it had gone down on the stairway of Ahaz. 12At that time Merodach-Baladan son of Baladan king of Babylon sent Hezekiah letters and a gift, because he had heard of Hezekiah's illness. 13Hezekiah received the messengers and showed them all that was in his storehouses-the silver, the gold, the spices and the fine oil-his armory and everything found among his treasures. There was nothing in his palace or in all his kingdom that Hezekiah did not show them. 14Then Isaiah the prophet went to King Hezekiah and asked, "What did those men say, and where did they come from?" "From a distant land," Hezekiah replied. "They came from Babylon." 15The prophet asked, "What did they see in your palace?" "They saw everything in my palace," Hezekiah said. "There is nothing among my treasures that I did not show them." 16Then Isaiah said to Hezekiah, "Hear the word of the Lord : 17The time will surely come when everything in your palace, and all that your fathers have stored up until this day, will be carried off to Babylon. Nothing will be left, says the Lord . 18And some of your descendants, your own flesh and blood, that will be born to you, will be taken away, and they will become eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon." 19"The word of the Lord you have spoken is good," Hezekiah replied. For he thought, "Will there not be peace and security in my lifetime?" 20As for the other events of Hezekiah's reign, all his achievements and how he made the pool and the tunnel by which he brought water into the city, are they not written in the book of the annals of the kings of Judah? 21Hezekiah rested with his fathers. And Manasseh his son succeeded him as king. Article/200809/50894。
  • I like painting. It makes me very happy. I loved using paint when I was young. I was really good at drawing, even in elementary school. My school reports said I had a talent in art. I won the school painting competition many times. My friends say painting is difficult. I disagree. All you have to do is pick up a brush and put the paint on the paper. Anyone can do it. It's child's play. I don’t understand why people say they can't paint. For me, it's so easy to paint. It's the most natural thing in the world to do. My friends say my paintings look so real, and that their paintings look like children's paintings. I'm not sure why this is. I'm lucky, I guess. I don't know what I would do without painting. It really helps me to relax. Article/201106/141695。
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