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淄博检查不孕不育哪家医院最好淄博市看男科哪一家医院好Business Avon boots out its boss Andreas adieu商业 雅芳把老板给炒了 钟彬娴,再见!An ugly mess at a beauty firm化妆品公司的丑陋乱局;YOU have got to go home tonight, Friday evening, and you have got to fire yourself,; a management coach once told Andrea Jung, the boss of Avon, an American beauty firm.美国化妆品公司雅芳的一位经理曾对老板钟彬娴女士(Andrea Jung)说道:;你今晚必须回家,周五晚上,而且你必须辞职。;The idea was for her to come back to work the following Monday as if starting her job anew.该想法是为了让她能在下周一犹如重新开始工作一样重返办公室上班。Alas, this brilliant tip was not enough.唉,这个聪明绝顶的小建议并不能起到明显作用。As Avons share price has wilted like mascara under a sunlamp, Ms Jung is being pushed out for real.当雅芳公司股价像日光灯下的睫毛膏一样萎缩时,钟彬娴女士确实被推到风口浪尖。On December 13th the firm announced that she will be replaced as chief executive.12月13日,公司宣布钟彬娴将只担任首席执行官一职。The makeover will be gradual.该变动将会是平缓的。Ms Jung, who has run Avon since 1999, will stay on as chairman and help the board find a new boss.钟彬娴自1999年来执掌雅芳,她将留着主席的位置上并帮助董事会找到新的主席。It will be a tough job for anyone.这对任何人来说都是棘手的。Avon is the worlds biggest direct-seller: an army of cheery salesfolk hawk its products door-to-door.雅芳是世界上最大的直销公司:雅芳有一热情洋溢的销售大军,挨家挨户的推销产品。The 125-year-old New York-based company has an annual revenue of over billion and operations in more than 100 countries.总部坐落在纽约的雅芳已经有125年的历史,年收入超过100亿美元,But it has stumbled badly of late.经营范围超过100个国家。Its share price has fallen by 45% this year (see chart).但是最近雅芳发展严重受阻,其股价今年已经下跌了45%。(见图表)Ms Jung had a glossy start at Avon, presiding over six consecutive years of double-digit growth.钟彬娴女士在雅芳上任伊始非常顺利,代领雅芳连续六年创下增长率为两位数的记录。Yet she failed to use these fat years to invest in the business.但是她并没有利用公司繁荣发展的这几年对业务进行投资。By 2005 the firm was looking blemished. Sales declined in major markets.到2005年,公司发展出现问题,主要市场的销量下滑,公司股价下跌。The share price dropped. Ms Jung laid off 25% of senior staff and cut costs everywhere except for advertising and distribution.钟彬娴解雇了25%的高级职员,并且全面消减除广告和配送方面的成本。Avon never really recovered.雅芳从未真正恢复。In March Ms Jung launched the biggest hiring drive in the companys history and nearly doubled the marketing budget.年3月,钟彬娴开始公司成立以来最大的招聘活动并且将营销预算将近翻了一番。She saw in the global economic crisis a chance to overtake Avons rivals. It didnt work.她在全球金融危机中看到打败竞争对手的商机,但是却失败了。Moreover, the company has spent more than 0m on an internal investigation of alleged corruption among sales representatives in China and Latin America.Several have been dismissed. 而且,公司耗资1.5亿美元对中国和拉美的销售代表中所谓的贪污行为进行调查,一些销售代表被解雇。Americas Securities and Exchange Commission is investigating, too.美国券交易委员会也进行调查。If Avon is found guilty of anything, the penalties could be steep.如果雅芳被判定有罪的话,那么处罚将会非常严重。Some problems are beyond Avons control. Brazil, a big market, is slowing down. Europe, which accounts for 28% of Avons sales, is in crisis: its hard to put lipstick on the PIGS.有些问题是雅芳无法控制的。雅芳最大的市场巴西正不断萎缩,为雅芳销售额贡献28%的欧洲市场正面临债务危机:在温饱问题未解决之前,很少有人考虑到美容等形象问题。Avon is doing badly at home in America, too.雅芳在美国本土的业绩同样非常糟糕。顾客们锱铢必较。Shoppers are feeling Grinchy about pennies. And the non-beauty products (such as fashion accessories) that account for a hefty third of Avons sales in America have lower margins than cosmetics. (In other countries non-beauty stuff represents only about 10% of Avons sales.)而且占雅芳在美国销售额高达三分之一的其他非美容产品(诸如时尚饰品)比化妆品的利润要低。(在其他国家,非美容产品只占雅芳销售额的10%。)Other problems are self-inflicted. Avon made a mess of its new IT system in Brazil.其他问题则是自身的原因。雅芳将其用于巴西新的信息技术系统搞得一团糟。Its working capital is chewing up a third of its gross cashflow, mainly due to poor inventory management.由于糟糕的库存管理,雅芳营运资本占现金流总量的三分之一。If Avon reduced its working capital, it would have less trouble paying dividends, says Connie Maneaty of BMO Capital in New York.位于纽约BMO Capital公司的Connie Maneaty说:如果雅芳减少运营资本,那么其付股息的困难就会小很多。It would also have more cash for acquisitions in fast-growing markets such as Vietnam or India.同样会有更多的现金用于诸如越南和印度等快速发展市场的兼并业务。Many will be sorry to see Ms Jung tossed overboard.很多人对钟彬娴被扫地出门深表遗憾。As the Princeton-educated daughter of Chinese immigrants, she embodied the American dream.她毕业于普林斯顿大学,其父母是来自中国的移民,美国梦在她身上得以展现。She was also a role model for women, in particular Avons 6.5m sales representatives, most of whom are female.她也是女性学习的角色模范,特别是雅芳公司650万销售代表,大部分都是女性。One reason why Avon wants her to stay as chairman is that she is popular with the salesforce.雅芳希望任命她为主席的原因之一就是她在销售队伍中颇受欢迎。But Avon is ailing and needs an overhaul.但是雅芳发展存在;诟病;,现在需要彻底检查。A new boss will be a good start, says Ali Dibadj of Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm.研究公司Sanford C. Bernstein的Ali Dibadj认为,新的主席对雅芳来说将会是一个不错的开局。The list of possible candidates includes Ed Shirley, vice chairman of the beauty and grooming unit at Procter amp; Gamble, an American consumer-goods giant, and Elizabeth Smith, who was in line to succeed Ms Jung at Avon before leaving the company to take over as boss of OSI Restaurant, a restaurant chain.新主席的候选人中包括:美国日用消费品巨头宝洁公司美容与装饰部门的副总裁艾德雪莉,以及伊丽莎白?史密斯,她在离开雅芳之前是钟彬娴的继任者、目前是OSI连锁餐厅总裁。Whoever gets the job, the changes required will be more than cosmetic.不论是谁成为新的总裁,雅芳想要改变,化妆品是远远不够的。 /201211/211292淄博哪家男科好 Science and technology科学技术Intelligence testing智力测试Who are you calling bird-brained?叫谁是笨蛋呢?An attempt is being made to devise a universal intelligence test人类正尝试设计一种通用的智力测验WHAT is the IQ of a chimpanzee? Or a worm? Or a game-show-winning computer program? Or even an alien from the planet Zaarg who can learn any human language in a day, can beat grandmasters ten at a time and can instantly factor the products of large prime numbers?黑猩猩、蠕虫或用于智力竞赛的计算机程序,甚至是来自Zaarg星球的外星人外星人能在一天内学会任何一门人类语言,每次都能赢棋类大师10分,能立即分解出大质数的因子,它们的智商是多少呢?At the moment it is impossible to say.当问到这类问题,没有人能回答出来。IQ tests depend on language, and even Watson, a computer program that beat two human contestants in a special edition of “Jeopardy!”on February 16th, does not have a perfect command of English.IQ测试依赖于语言,而且就算是Watson系统对英语也不是了如指掌2月16日,Watson系统在美国智力竞赛;Jeopardy!;的特别节目中击败了两名人类对手。In any case there is, at the moment, no meaningful scale on which non-human intelligence can be compared with the human sort.但不管怎么样,现在还没有一个有意义的标尺能用于任何非人类和人类智商的比较。The most famous test for artificial intelligence is that devised by Alan Turing, a British computing pioneer.最著名的人工智力测试是由英国计算科学先驱阿兰图灵设计的。To pass the Turing test, and thus be considered intelligent, a program must fool a human being into believing that it is another human being. 为了通过图灵测试,机器中的程序必须使对方误以为它也是一个人类,But the Turing test still requires the program to share a language with the tester and, because it is all or nothing, cannot be used to rank different forms of artificial intelligence against one another.且如果机器通过了测试,该机器就被认为是人工智能。但图灵测试仍要求程序和测试者使用相同的语言。并且由于测试的结果是“是”或者“否”,因此不能用于不同形式人工智能间的评级。José Hernández-Orallo of the Polytechnic University of Valencia, in Spain, and David Dowe of Monash University, in Australia, think they can do better than this.来自西班牙瓦伦西亚理工大学的José Hernández-Orallo和澳大利亚莫纳什大学的David Dowe认为他们能设计出比图灵更完善的测试。They believe not only that a universal scale of intelligence can be devised, but also that it can be assessed without reference to language.他们相信不仅能设计出可通用的智商标尺,而且测试可以与语言无关。If they are right, an insult like “bird-brained” will, in the future, be finely calibrated.如果真能如他们所说,那么将来就可以精确计算出“愚蠢”的程度了。Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe, both computer scientists, propose to make their measurement by borrowing a concept called Kolmogorov complexity from information theory, a branch of computer science. The Kolmogorov complexity of a computers output is the shortest possible program that could produce that output.Hernández-Orallo士和Dr Dowe士都是计算机科学家,他们提出:借用信息论中的Kolmogorov复杂度概念来实现测量。计算机输出的Kolmogorov复杂度是指能产生该输出的可能最短程序基于计算机代码的二进制位数。On this measure, an entitys intelligence would be measured by the Kolmogorov complexity of the most complex tests it can solve—a clear, numerical value.在这种设计下,可以通过最复杂测试的Kolmogorov复杂度来测量一个实体的智商。In practice, calculating the true Kolmogorov complexity of a system is almost impossible. But an approximation can be made. And that, the researchers reckon, will be good enough.实际上,要正确计算出系统的Kolmogorov复杂度几乎是不可能的。但可以计算出它的近似值。而对研究人员的估算工作而言,近似值也就足够了。The actual tests would employ the well-honed methods of operant conditioning, developed initially on pigeons, in which the test subject has first to work out what is going on by trial and error.实际的测试会采用精确的操作性条件反射方法,测试对象首先要清楚实验的过程和错误。As in operant conditioning, correct responses would be ewarded—by money, perhaps, for a human being; by bananas for a chimpanzee or by the numerical value itself for an appropriately programmed computer.在操作性条件反射中,正确的反射响应将得到奖励—对人而言可能是金钱,对黑猩猩而言是香蕉,对可编程计算机而言则可能是数值本身。If the test were noughts and crosses, the test-taker would first have to work out that the game is won by getting three in a row on a 3-by-3 grid, before actually going on to play.如果测验是画圈叉游戏,则在进行游戏之前测试参与者首要要弄懂在3X3的网格中,3个格连成一行就赢得游戏了。A chimpanzee might not manage a test of this level of complexity, but could, maybe, work out the idea of three-in-a-row when only a single row was involved. Chess, though, would surely be beyond it.黑猩猩可能没办法理解这种复杂度等级的测验,但当只有一行时,它们也许就可以明白;3格-1行;的概念了。Games like draughts and dominoes would lie somewhere in between.而象棋的难易度远超过黑猩猩的理解程度。西洋跳棋和多米诺骨牌这类游戏的难易程度则介于圈叉和象棋之间。In fact Dr Hernández-Orallo and Dr Dowe do not plan to use existing games. Instead they are employing a computer to enerate novel games and patterns.实际上,Hernández-Orallo士和Dowe士计划采用计算机产生的新游戏和新花样来代替已有的游戏。Their approach eliminates human bias.他们的方法消除了人类的偏见,It also allows them to generate tests with any level of complexity they like—even ones that are far beyond the ability of humans to complete.同时也允许产生任何复杂度等级的测验—甚至可以是远超过人类能力的。When it comes to testing the tests, then, aliens from the planet Zaarg will be particularly welcome to apply.当可以进行测试时,特别欢迎来自Zaarg星球的外星人。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231157淄博友谊医院看不孕

淄博哪个医院治疗早泄好In todays Tech Bytes, Sony brings 3D to its point-and-shoot camera. Sonys unveiled two new cyber-shot models that feature a 3D panorama mode.The system works by capturing a rapid fire burst of pictures as you sweep the camera around and the software does the rest turning it into 3D. But you wont be able to see the effect on a viewfinder, you will need a 3D TV or computer. The cameras will be released in September.今天的Tech Bytes节目将介绍的是索尼公司推出的3D傻瓜相机。索尼最新推出的两款数码相机以3D全景模式为卖点。这两款相机能够自动将捕捉到的画面通过软件合成为3D画面,你要做的仅仅是用镜头扫摄。但通常你是看不到3D效果的,只有在3D电视或者电脑上才能看到效果。这两款相机将于9月发行。One of the issues that may prevent electric cars from catching on is the amount of time it takes to charge them. But a Japanese company claims it has solved that problem. The company says its developed a charger that needs just 3 minutes for a 50% charge and 5 minutes to get up to 70%. That is about the same amount of time it takes to fill up the car with gas. The company expects its charger to be in gas stations all over Japan by next March.充电时间过长是阻碍电动汽车发展的一大问题。但一家日本公司声称他们已经解决了这个问题。这家公司表示他们发明出一款新的充电电池,仅需3分钟就能冲50%的电,5分钟就能达到70%。这和汽车加油的的时间几乎一样。这家公司希望这款充电器能在3月遍及日本的所有加油站。Microsofts been rolling out a new version of its hotmail email service to some users. The overhauled programme has new features that address spam and clutter and give you tools to better manage your Inbox. USA todays Ed Baig says Microsoft has really cleaned up its act.微软已经对部分用户开展了hotmail的付费务。这项务的一大特色就在于用户可以用特殊工具对垃圾邮件和杂乱无序的邮件进行删除或分类整理,更好地管理邮件。《今日美国》的编辑Ed Baig表示,微软正在藉此大捞一笔。;I used to have nothing but spam in my hotmail inbox. Now through the efforts Microsofts making largely behind the scenes, most of it, not all of it, has disappeared. Its worth giving it a second look. The new hotmail is relevant. Its modern and it stacks up nicely against its competitors, Yahoo and Gmail.;“我的hotmail收件箱里通常只有垃圾邮件。现在借微软强大的后台功能,大部分的垃圾邮件,虽然不是全部,都不见了。这项务是值得一试的。它和新版的hotmail是相关的。它充满现代气息,并且和行业竞争者保持着友好的竞争关系,比如雅虎,Gmail。”And you can it as full review on USATODAY.COM.更多信息详见USATODAY.COMFinally residents in Pennsylvania can now get Chianti and Cabernet the same way they get a Coke by vending machine. The state recently introduced the countrys first wine kiosks. Customers choose a wine on a touch screen display. They swipe their ID. They blow into an alcohol sensor and then they get their wine. The whole process takes about just 20 seconds.最后一则消息,家住宾夕法尼亚州的居民可以买到Chianti和Cabernet两种葡萄酒,就像从贩卖机购买可口可乐一般。宾夕法尼亚州乡间首开自动酒铺,消费者在触摸屏上点击需要购买的酒,并扫描ID,酒精传感器将选定酒,并最终送到顾客手上。整个过程仅仅需要20秒钟。For information of all these stories log on to the technology page of abcnew.com. With your Tech Bytes, Im Jeremy Hubbard.以上所有信息的更多内容,请登录abcnew.com科技板块。这就是今天的Tech Bytes节目,我是Jeremy Hubbard。cyber-shot 数码相机panorama 全景rolling out 延伸cleaned up 清理;大捞一笔stacks up 总计,较量vending machine 自动贩卖机注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201207/189296淄博无痛包皮手术要多少钱 Science and Technology Healthy living Mind and body科技 健康生活 身与心The reason loneliness could be bad for your health孤独会对你的健康不利的原因SCIENCE has many uses, but it doesnt often produce handy pick-up lines.科学有很多用处,但是它通常不会给你顺口的搭讪理由。Recent work on the genetics of disease, however, suggest a way of opening a conversation with that solitary attractive stranger in a bar: loneliness can make you ill.然而,近来对疾病遗传学的研究却给了我们一个在酒吧里跟某个孤单的吸引你的陌生人搭讪的理由:孤独会让你生病。Lonely people, it seems, are at greater risk than the gregarious of developing illnesses associated with chronic inflammation, such as heart disease and certain cancers.孤独的人跟爱交际的人相比,似乎患跟慢性炎症相关的疾病——如心脏病和某些癌症——的风险更大。According to a paper published last year in the Public Library of Science, Medicine, the effect on mortality of loneliness is comparable with that of smoking and drinking.据去年发表在《科学公共图书馆——医学》杂志上的一篇论文称,孤独对死亡率的影响跟抽烟和酗酒相当。It examined, and combined the results of, 148 previous studies that followed some 300,000 individuals for an average period of 7.5 years each, and controlled for factors such as age and pre-existing illness.文章仔细检查了148个先前的研究(这些研究跟踪观察了大约30万人,每人平均跟踪观察7年半),并综合其结果,还控制了诸如年龄和已患疾病此类因素,It concluded that, over such a period, a gregarious person has a 50% better chance of surviving than a lonely one.最后下结论:超过这样一段时间,一个爱交际的人比一个孤独的人的生存率高50%。Steven Cole of the University of California, Los Angeles, thinks he may know why this is so.加州大学洛杉矶分校的Steven Cole认为他可能知道这是为什么。He told the AAAS meeting in Washington, DC, about his work studying the expression of genes in lonely people.他在华盛顿特区举办的美国科学促进会大会上展示了他对孤独的人的基因表达所做的研究。Dr Cole harvested samples of white blood cells from both lonely and gregarious people.Cole士收集了孤独之人和爱交际之人的白细胞样品。He then analysed the activity of their genes, as measured by the production of a substance called messenger RNA.然后他分析了他们基因的活性——靠测量信使RNA的多少。This molecule carries instructions from the genes telling a cell which proteins to make.这种分子携带着基因上的指令,告诉细胞合成那类蛋白质。The level of messenger RNA from most genes was the same in both types of people.在这两种人中,大多数基因的信使RNA的水平是一样的。There were several dozen genes, however, that were less active in the lonely, and several dozen others that were more active.然而有些基因在孤独之人中活力较弱,同时另外一些基因却活力较高。Moreover, both the less active and the more active gene types came from a small number of functional groups.而且,无论是活力较高的基因还是活力较低的基因都来自少数功能群。Broadly speaking, the genes less active in the lonely were those involved in staving off viral infections.一般来说,孤独的人体内活力较低的基因是那些帮助人们避开病毒感染的基因。Those that were more active were involved in protecting against bacteria.而那些活力较高的基因帮助人们抵抗细菌。Dr Cole suspects this could help explain not only why the lonely are iller, but how, in evolutionary terms, this odd state of affairs has come about.Cole士怀疑这不但能够解释为什么孤独之人容易得病,而且能从进化的角度这种奇怪的状态时怎么进化来的。For inflammation is an antibacterial response.因为炎症反应时抵抗细菌的反应。The crucial bit of the puzzle is that viruses have to be caught from another infected individual and they are usually species-specific.这个问题的关键点是,病毒必须从另外一个已经感染此病毒的身上感染另一个人,并且病毒通常有其一对一的特殊宿主。Bacteria, in contrast, often just lurk in the environment (like tetanus), and may thrive on many hosts (as does bubonic plague, for example).细菌却相反,它们潜伏在周围环境中(像是破伤风杆菌),并且宿主众多(比如说黑死病)。The gregarious are therefore at greater risk than the lonely of catching viruses, and Dr Cole thus suggests that past evolution has created a mechanism (the details of which remain unclear) which causes white cells to respond appropriately.因而爱交际的人比孤独之人更易感染病毒。因此Cole士认为进化过程创造出了一种机制(细节仍不清楚),可以让白细胞对这一状况进行反应。Conversely, the lonely are better off ramping up their protection against bacterial infection, which is a bigger relative risk to them.相反,孤独之人更善于加强他们对细菌感染的保护反应,这对他们来说是一个相对更大的风险。What Dr Cole seems to have revealed, then, is a mechanism by which the environment (in this case the social environment) reaches inside a persons body and tweaks its genome so that it responds appropriately.Cole士想要揭示的是这样一种机制:环境(在这里是社交环境)可以影响人们体内的生化活动,调整人体内的基因组以让其做出合适的反应。It is not that the lonely and the gregarious are genetically different from each other.并不是说孤独之人和爱交际之人在基因上彼此不同。Rather, their genes are regulated differently, according to how sociable an individual is.而是他们根据个人对交际喜爱的程度不同,各自以不同的方式调控各自的基因。Dr Cole thinks this regulation is part of a wider mechanism that tunes individuals to the circumstances they find themselves in.Cole士认为这种调节是一种更广泛的让个人适应他们所在环境的机制中的一部分。Where it goes wrong is when loneliness becomes chronic, and the inflammatory response becomes chronic at the same time.当孤独的生活状态变成一种常态,问题就出现了——炎症反应同时也变成常态了(成了慢性疾病)。Before civilisation intervened, such chronic loneliness would have been so rare (because isolated individuals are so vulnerable to predation) that evolution would have ignored it.在文明到来之前,这种常态性的孤独非常罕见(因为单独的个体易被捕食),进化就把它忽略了。Now, paradoxically, the large population that civilisation makes possible means loneliness is commonplace—and with it consequences that natural selection, which is blind to the future, has not yet had time to deal with.现在,自相矛盾地,文明使得人口众多成为可能,意味着孤独状态成为常事——在这种情况下看不清未来的自然选择的后果还来不及去应付。 /201212/215970淄博男科哪个医院比较好

淄博友谊医院做包皮要多少钱Science and technology.科技。Exercise and addiction.锻炼也会上瘾。Fun run.奔跑的奥秘。People, it seems, have evolved to be addicted to exercise.人类似乎在进化过程中对锻炼上瘾了。AS THE legions of gym bunnies and jogging enthusiasts who race out into the spring sunshine every year clearly demonstrate, running can be fun. More specifically, running triggers the release of brain chemicals called endocannabinoids that create a potent feeling of pleasure. As their name suggests, these endocannabinoids work in the same way as the active ingredient of marijuana.那一大批在春日和煦的阳光中奔跑着的健身爱好者无不向我们展示着奔跑的乐趣。更确切地讲,在奔跑时人体内有一种化学物质被释放,从而使人产生一种强烈的愉悦感。正如其名字的含义一般,这些endocannabinoids有着跟大麻中的有效成分一样的效果。From an evolutionary standpoint this surge of endocannabinoids, and the ;runners high; it creates, make sense. For ancient humans, remaining fit enough to run after game and away from predators and enemies was vital for survival. Yet whether other mammals are also driven to exercise by endocannabinoids has remained a mystery. Now a study led by David Raichlen of the University of Arizona has revealed that the runners high does exist in other species, but not in all.从进化论的观点来看,人体内endocannabinoids水平的上升及由此而生的;赛跑者的亢奋;对人类的发展是有意义的。那些远古时代的人类,为了能够顺利追捕到猎物并从其他猎食者的追击中逃脱,必须将身体状态始终维持在一个良好的水平。既然人类如此,那么其他哺乳动物是否也会在endocannabinoids的内在驱动下而进行锻炼呢?这仍是个未解之谜。现在一项由Arizona大学的David Raichlen士领衔的研究已经在其他哺乳动物体内---并非全部都有——发现了endocannabinoids的存在。You expect me to what?你猜我在干什么?Dr Raichlen hypothesised that endocannabinoid-driven exercise highs would be found in those mammals that gain an evolutionary benefit from being fast on their feet: antelopes, horses and wolves, for example. However, he also thought that they would not be present in those which are known for being quick and agile, but not for running, like ferrets. To test these ideas, he and a team of colleagues devised an experiment that monitored the endocannabinoid levels of different species after they had been walking or running on a tmill.Raichlen先提出了一个假设:像羚羊,马和狼这样一些因拥有;飞毛腿;而在进化过程中受益的哺乳动物中也存在着;锻炼产生的兴奋;现象;而那些以灵动著称,却非凭奔跑文明的动物,如雪貂,则不会出现此现象。为了检验这些猜想,Raichlen和由其同事所组成的团队设计了一个实验——对在跑步机上行走,奔跑过后的动物体内的endocannabinoids水平进行监控。The experimental animals in question were ten people, eight dogs and eight ferrets. Dr Raichlen had them run or walk on the tmill for 30 minutes. Since running and walking speeds differ from species to species, the speed at which the tmill moved was varied so that it raised the heart rates of the different participants to the same level. Running speeds were thus set at 2.5 metres a second for people, 1.83 for dogs and 0.84 for ferrets. Walking speeds were set at 1.25 metres a second for people and 1.1 for dogs. The ferrets proved too easily distracted to walk consistently on the tmills and were thus left to sit quietly in their cages for this part of the study. Each participating animal ran for one session and walked for one other, and did so on separate days, to avoid exhaustion. Before and after each session, blood was drawn from each and the endocannabinoid levels in it were measured.被考虑用来进行实验的动物有以下三种:十个人,八条和八只雪貂。Raichlen士先让他们在跑步机上行走或奔跑30分钟。由于不同的动物速度不一,所以跑步机的传送带速度设置是以使不同动物的心率达到同一水平为依据。这样设置的结果便为:奔跑速度为人类2.5米/秒,1.83米/秒,雪貂0.84米/秒;行走速度为人类1.25米/秒,1.1米/秒。雪貂由于太易分心,没办法让它持续在跑步机上行走,所以在进行该部分实验时它们被留在了笼中静静地坐着。每只动物会跑一段走一段,为了避免动物们出现筋疲力尽的情况,实验是分成几天进行的。在实验前和试验后,动物们都会被抽血以检验其中的endocannabinoid水平。The researchers report in the Journal of Experimental Biology that, after 30 minutes of walking (or sitting in a cage), participants endocannabinoid levels did not rise. After running, however, the average humans endocannabinoid levels rose from 2.4 picomoles per millilitre (pmol/ml) to 6.1. Dogs showed a similar trend, with levels rising from 2.4 pmol/ml to 8.0. Ferrets were different. Although they did show an increase, from 3.0 to 3.9 pmol/ml, this was not a statistically significant rise. These findings suggest that dogs experience a ;runners high; but ferrets do not.研究人员在《生物学实验》杂志中提到,在经过30分钟的行走(雪貂是呆在笼中)之后,参加实验的动物的endocannabinoid水平并没上升。然而在奔跑过后情况则有所不同:那10个人的平均endocannabinoid水平从2.4 pmol/ml上升到了6.1 pmol/ml。的变化趋势与人类似——由2.4 pmol/ml升至8.0 pmol/ml。唯独雪貂例外。他们的endocannabinoid水平虽亦有所上升——3.0 至 3.9 pmol/ml,但仍处于统计学上可不被纳入考虑的范围内。这些发现表明中同样存在着;赛跑者的亢奋;现象,而雪貂则没有。Dr Raichlen argues that it makes sense for ferrets not to have systems that reward cardiovascular activity, since such exercise consumes a lot of energy, may cause injury, and is not crucial to the stealthy hunting technique of sneaking down burrows and killing rabbits in their sleep. What is not clear is whether the endocannabinoid reward is an ancient mechanism that has been lost on branches of the mammalian tree that do not need it, or is something that evolves quickly in species which become active. Given that humanitys arboreal simian ancestors would presumably have had little need to run, it is probably the latter. But to be sure Dr Raichlen will need to put animals far less co-operative than ferrets on the tmill.看来雪貂体内并不存在对心血管活动进行阳性强化刺激的系统,Raichlen士认为这对雪貂的发展同样是有意义的,要知道太剧烈的运动会消耗掉过多的能量, 甚至引发受伤,且这并非是雪貂捕猎技术中的关键——它们一般只需偷偷溜进兔子窝并在兔子们熟睡时将其杀死即可。仍有待考的是,究竟这种endocannabinoid刺激机制是从远古时代起即为哺乳类动物所拥有(但在一些不需此机制的哺乳类分中渐渐退化),还是从某些活跃的个别物种中进化出来的?鉴于人类的祖先—类人猿是树栖动物,据推测它们很少有奔跑的需要,因此正确结论很可能是后者。但若要确认此假设,Raichlen士需将更多如雪貂般不太合作的动物哄上跑步机。 /201209/199733 山东省淄博生建八三厂医院有泌尿科吗淄博哪里 治阳痿早泄好




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