原标题: 广州结扎恢复那家医院好医苑爱问
The Etiquette of Chinese Banquets宴席礼仪China has long been known as the “land of ceremony and propriety”.中国自古以来就是一个文明礼仪之邦。Consequently, there are certain manners that should be observed at banquets or formal dinners.这种“文明礼仪”表现在饮食文化上,便出现了诸多的宴席礼节。First,seat order.首先是宴席的座次。Chinese people attach great importance to the seating order at banquets or formal dinners.中国人非常讲究“长幼有序”,形成了严格讲究宴席座次的传统礼俗。In the ancient times, at a banquet, people sat in a circle on the ground.古代酒席一般是席地围坐。Their seating arrangements are unknown,but it is certain that they were arranged in a certain order.其座次的顺序尚不得而知,但肯定是有区别的。It was recorded that the most honorable guest sat facing the east, the next important guest sat facing the south, next facing the north and the last facing the west.据资料记载:古代宴席以坐西面东为尊位,坐北面南次之,坐南面北又次之,坐东面西为下座。Even today at formal banquets people are arranged in a certain order, but in different areas, there are different rules concerning seat order.即使是现在,日常生活中稍微正规一些的场合,人们对酒席上的座次仍然有严格的要求,但各地的习惯却并不一样。In the past, Chinese people often sat around a so-called eight-immortal table (a table with a rectangular top, normally with eight seats around it) to dine.过去,中国民间喜欢用正方形的八仙桌。In the north, the seat order was arranged this way:北方八仙桌的座次一般是:the two seats facing the door were the most important, the host sat on the right and the most honorable guest on the left;面门的两个座位为正座,其中右位为主客,左位是主人;opposite these two seats sat two specially invited guests who were supposed to help entertain the main guests;正座的对面(即背门的两个座位)为陪座,通常是晚辈或主人家找来的陪客;the other people, guests or specially invited guests, were arranged, according to their age, to sit on the other two sides of the table.左右两侧为侧座,或客人或陪客,大多依年龄长幼顺序而坐。The two seats closer to the host and most honorable guest were considered more important than theother two seats.靠近正座者为上,靠近陪座者为下。In the south, the seat order was a bit different.南方的八仙桌座次略有不同。Apart from seat order, there are also rules regarding the order of serving dishes and the way dishes are set on the table.其次是上菜的顺序和摆菜的位置。所谓上菜的顺序,就是指菜肴依次端上宴席的次序。实际上,宴席上的“出菜”有广义、狭义之分。Dishes, in the broad sense, refer to wine (or liquor), meat and vegetable dishes and grain food; in the narrow sense, it only refers to meat and vegetable dishes.广义的出菜,是指酒、荤素菜、饭的上席顺序,狭义的出菜则仅指菜肴的上席顺序。The rules have undergone some changes.上菜的规矩有很大的变化。In the ancient times, grain food was served before wine, while today wine and meat and vegetable dishes are served before grain food.在古代,先上饭后上酒,而现在则是先上酒、菜,后上饭。For meat and vegetable dishes, there are cold dishes and hot dishes.荤素菜分为凉菜和热菜两种。Normally cold dishes are served before hot ones, dry dishes are served before soup.通常先上凉菜,后上热菜;先吃干的,后喝稀的。Hot dishes are the main courses; usually there are even numbers of hot dishes, 4, 6 or 8.热菜为主,一般为双数,如4个、6个、8个。Sometimes there could be 16 or 32 dishes.有时甚至16个,或者32个。The most sumptuous feast—Man Han Feast, has as many as 108 dishes.Soup is usually the last dish.最豪华的宴席——“满汉全席”有108道菜。汤一般是最后上。For the way dishes are set on the table, there are also rules.端上席的菜肴摆放在宴席的什么位置,也是中国宴席非常讲究的一个内容。For example, newly served dishes are always put near the most honorable guest; when whole fish, whole chicken or whole duck is served, the dish is normally put in such a way that the head is towards the most honorable guest. This is a way to show respect to the most honorable guest.比如:新上的菜都要放在靠主席或主宾的位置;上整鸡、整鸭、整鱼时,一般将头部冲着主席或主宾,以示尊敬等等。In order to show their respect and hospitality, Chinese hosts often help the guests to the dishes.在中国,为了体现对客人的尊敬和好客,主人通常给客人夹菜。For hygiene’s sake, when doing this, they usually use an extra pair of chopsticks or spoon put on the table.出于卫生,餐桌上摆有备用的筷子和勺子。 /201509/394039

Nineteen buildings disappeared in the space of 10 seconds after being demolished by a controlled explosion in China yesterday.昨天,中国一次控制爆破让19栋楼在10秒钟之内被夷平。The blocks of flats which were up to 12 storeys high in the city of Wuhan are making way for a huge new business district including a 707-metre tall skyscraper.位于武汉的这些楼房有12层楼高,这些建筑(被夷平是)为一个新的商业区让路,这个商业区包括一栋高707米的天大楼。Experts waited until dark had fallen before detonating demolition charges which brought down 150000 square metres of concrete glass and steel in 10 seconds.专家等到夜幕降临才实施爆破,10秒钟内就夷平了十五万平方米的混凝土、玻璃、钢筋。The residents of the Hankou Binjiang estate had been moved out weeks before.汉口滨江的居民数周前就已将财产转移。The area is close to the city centre and the demolition contractors had to make sure that when they brought down the buildings they did not damage a light rail viaduct nearby or a shopping mall and electricity sub-station.这个区域靠近市中心,爆破方必须确保爆破时不会影响到附近的一条轻轨线路、一个购物中心和变电站。Jia Yongsheng general director of the demolition company told China#39;s state TV channel CCTV: #39;For this kind of large-scale blasting demolition conducted in the downtown area we not only need to guarantee the demolition result but also strictly control the adverse effects of blasting.#39;爆破公司总指挥贾永胜告诉中国国营电视台CCTV说:像这样在市中心的大规模爆破任务,不但要保爆破结果(精确),还要控制爆破产生的不良影响。 /201701/489955

HONG KONG — For a few brief hours this week, China had its own answer to WikiLeaks: a mysterious Twitter account that posted the personal information of dozens of the country’s most prominent people, including billionaires and even the architect of the country’s Internet controls.香港——在本周的短短几个小时里,中国有了自己的维基解密(WikiLeaks):一个神秘的Twitter账号公布了中国几十个名人的个人信息,包括亿万富翁,甚至还有中国互联网管控的缔造者。The account @shenfenzheng — which means “personal identification” in Chinese — was suspended by Twitter on Thursday afternoon, making its posts no longer available. Before it was suspended, the account was used to post photographs and screenshots containing personal information including addresses, national identification numbers, educational attainment and marital status of well-known Chinese.周四下午,Twitter冻结了@shenfenzheng这个账号,导致网友无法再看到相关发帖。被冻结前,该账号发布了多张包含个人信息的照片和屏幕截图,包括相关名人的住址、身份号、受教育水平和婚姻状况。Among them were the two richest people in mainland China, Jack Ma, the chairman of the Internet giant Alibaba Group, and Wang Jianlin, the chairman of Dalian Wanda Group, a real estate company.其中包括中国大陆最富有的互联网巨头阿里巴巴集团董事局主席马云,和房地产公司大连万达集团董事长王健林。It was not clear who controlled the account, or whether that person was inside or outside China. If inside, the person had the technical means to overcome the country’s so-called Great Firewall, which blocks Twitter. The person, or people, appear to view China’s Internet controls with some disdain: One of the identification cards posted by @shenfenzheng was purported to be that of Fang Binxing, known as the architect of the Great Firewall. 尚不清楚是谁控制着这个账号,以及此人是在国内还是国外。如果在国内,则此人在技术上有办法越过屏蔽Twitter的“防火长城”。该账户的所有者似乎对中国的互联网管控有一些鄙视:@shenfenzheng公布的其中一张身份的主人,据称是被称作“防火长城”缔造者的方滨兴。In mainland China, buying and disseminating personal information is against the law, and violators can face three to seven years in jail and fines, according to a statute passed last year by the National People’s Congress. But thousands, if not millions, of people have access to the national police database that contains such information, and if they do not, they may know someone who does. 根据全国人民代表大会去年通过的一项法律,在中国大陆,购买和散布个人信息是违法的,违反相关规定者可能会被处以三到七年有期徒刑和罚款。但能访问包含这类信息的全国警用数据库的人,没有上百万也就几十万。就算自己无权访问该数据库,他们也可能认识有访问权限的人。“Surprised by these tidbits of information?” @shenfenzheng posted before the account was suspended. “I hope this can get fellow countrymen thinking. Personal privacy is worth nothing in China.”“很惊讶这点信息吗? ”@shenfenzheng在账号被封前说。“希望能引起国人的思考,个人隐私在中国根本不值钱。”The goal of @shenfenzheng appears to be to draw attention to the illegal selling of personal information in China, a widesp practice. Private investigators can buy troves of personal data to obtain information on companies or individuals. Others abuse the online national police files for more prosaic reasons, like planning class reunions.@shenfenzheng的目的似乎是引起对非法出售个人信息行为的关注。在中国,这种现象颇为普遍。私人调查者可以购买大量个人数据,以掌握和公司或个人有关的信息。还有一些人则出于一些更普通的原因滥用全国警用在线档案,比如策划同学聚会。In the ed States, nine-digit Social Security numbers say little about a person, other than perhaps the region where they lived when they applied for a card.在美国,九位社会安全号码除了能显示持有人申请该卡时所在的地区外,几乎透露不了一个人的任何信息。In mainland China, national identity numbers contain far more information in its 18 digits, including sex, birth date and the province, city and even neighborhood of a person’s legal residence. Those numbers, despite the tough new law, can sometimes be found on websites of government agencies, like the State Administration of Industry and Commerce. 在中国大陆,身份号包含的信息远多于它的18位数字,包括性别、出生日期和一个人的法定住所所在的省、市甚至街区。尽管新出台的法律颇为严厉,但有时候依然能在国家工商行政管理总局这种政府机构的网站上看到这些数字。There are other ways to legally obtain such numbers. Chinese citizens who are directors in companies registered in Hong Kong often provide their home addresses and national identification card numbers on publicly available documents found on the city’s online company registry. 还可以通过其他方式,合法获得这类数字。中国公民在注册地为香港的公司担任董事时,通常需要在对外公开的文件上提供自己的家庭住址和身份号。在香港的网上查册中心便可看到这些文件。Reporters who investigate the business interests of China’s politically powerful families — and the billionaires who court them — use identification numbers to “bulletproof” their articles, giving them a vital level of certainty difficult to obtain in a country where more than 90 million people share the same last name, Wang.记者在调查中国政治势力的强大家族,以及调查巴结这些家族的亿万富翁的商业利益时,会用身份号作为报道的“防弹衣”,给报道一种至关重要的确凿性。在中国这个姓王的人超过9000万的国家,做到确凿是颇为困难的。The New York Times was able to verify the accuracy of the identification numbers of several of the people exposed by the @shenfenzheng account, including Mr. Wang; his wife, Lin Ning; his son, Wang Sicong; and Mr. Ma of Alibaba.《纽约时报》能够核实@shenfenzheng曝光的其中几人的身份号的准确性,包括王健林、其妻林宁、其子王思聪以及阿里巴巴的马云。The Chinese Public Security Bureau did not respond to a fax asking whether the agency was concerned about the security of its online database and, if it is, what measures it might take to control leaks. News about the online leak was reported earlier by Bloomberg News. 记者给中国公安机关发传真,询问其是否担心自己的在线数据库的安全,以及如果担心的话可能会采取什么措施控制泄密,但对方未回复。早前,彭新闻社(Bloomberg News)报道过网络泄密问题。Twitter did not respond to a request for comment.Twitter未回复记者的置评请求。Twitter prohibits the posting of personal information such as national identification numbers. Accounts that violate that policy can be temporarily blocked or permanently suspended, according to rules on the company’s website. Twitter禁止发布身份号这样的个人信息。根据该公司网站上的规定,违反这项政策的账号可能会被暂时或永久性冻结。 /201605/443814Yahoo Inc. last year secretly built a custom software program to search all of its customers#39; incoming emails for specific information sought by U.S. intelligence officials, according to people familiar with the matter.据知情者称,雅虎公司去年秘密定制软件程序,对所有用户的接收邮件进行搜索,帮助美国情报官员寻找特定信息。The company complied with a classified U.S. government directive, scanning hundreds of millions of Yahoo Mail accounts at the behest of the National Security Agency or FBI, said two former employees and a third person apprised of the events.两名前雅虎雇员和熟悉这一事件的另外一个人说,雅虎按照一份美国政府的机密指令,应美国国家安全局或联邦调查局的要求,对数千万用户的电邮进行扫描。Some surveillance experts said this is the first known case of a U.S. internet company agreeing to a spy agency#39;s demand by searching all arriving messages, as opposed to examining stored messages or scanning a small number of accounts in real time.一些监督专家说,这是第一次出现美国网络公司接受情报机构的要求,对所有接收邮件进行搜索,而不是仅仅检查储存信息或即时扫描少量账号。It is not known what information intelligence officials were looking for, only that they wanted Yahoo to search for a set of characters. That could mean a phrase in an email or an attachment, said the sources, who did not want to be identified.目前还不清楚,情报官员寻找的是些什么信息,只知道他们要求雅虎搜索特定字样。不愿透露姓名的知情者说,搜索内容可能是邮件或附件中的某个词组。 /201610/470557

Google has patented a sticky coating for driverless cars that could reduce damage done to pedestrians in the event of a collision. People struck by the vehicle would become glued to its bonnet, rather than being thrown off and further injured.谷歌已经就在无人驾驶汽车添加粘性涂层获得专利,该涂层能够在撞倒行人情况下减少对其的损伤。被车辆撞击的人将会被粘在引擎盖上,而不是被甩出去,造成进一步的受伤。One transport safety professor said the concept could reduce injuries sustained in a pedestrian collision. Google did not say whether it intended to implement the idea in its driverless vehicles.一位运输安全教授表示,这个概念可以减少与行人碰撞发生的损伤。不过谷歌方面并没有透露是否计划在无人驾驶汽车上实施这个想法。;It does have some merit to it,; said Andrew Morris, Professor of Human Factors in Transport Safety at Loughborough University. ;When pedestrian accidents happen, often the person is thrown up onto the bonnet and there may be injuries from that contact, but sometimes there are not. But when a driver brakes in a collision, a totally natural reaction, the pedestrian is thrown onto the ground and you can get injuries from that contact.;“这确实是有一定道理的,”拉夫堡大学运输安全人为因素的教授安德鲁·莫里斯说道。“当行人事故发生的时候,往往是行人被撞到发动机罩上,这可能导致伤害,但有时也不会。但是,当司机刹车的时候,这是一个完全自然的反应,行人会被撞飞到地上,这就会造成严重的伤害了。”Google#39;s patent explained that the adhesive layer would be hidden under a protective coating, to ensure it did not gather debris during journeys.谷歌的专利文件解释道,粘合剂层将被隐藏在一个保护层下,以确保它的行程期间不会聚集碎片。;Upon the initial impact between the colliding object and the vehicle, the coating is broken, exposing the adhesive layer,; the patent document said.专利文件叙述道:“在碰撞物体和车辆之间初始冲击时,涂层将破碎,暴露出粘合剂层。”Prof Morris said it remained to be seen whether the idea would work in practice. ;Whether they could realistically make a car that has the right material in it and works reliably, we can#39;t categorically say that,; he told the B.莫里斯教授表示,该想法是否会在实际中运用仍有待观察。他接受B采访时表示:“能否切实地在车上涂合适的材料并让其可靠地发挥作用,我们还不能下结论。”Kevin Clinton, head of road safety at the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents, said: ;As well as developing new technology that prevents pedestrians from being hit in the first place, it#39;s also crucial to develop ways of reducing the severity of injuries suffered if a pedestrian is knocked over. This idea is a fascinating example of just how far vehicle technology is changing. It will obviously need to be developed and tested to ensure that it works reliably and doesn#39;t cause any unintended consequences.;事故预防皇家学会的道路安全负责人凯文·克林顿表示:“除了开发新的技术以防止行人被撞之外,减少被撞倒后的伤害程度也同样重要。这一想法是汽车技术已经发生重大改变的一个有趣例子。显然我们需要开发和测试,以确保其可靠地发挥作用,而不会造成任何意想不到的后果。” /201606/448677

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