原标题: 天使之翼美容医院做眉毛好吗放心社区
Newlyweds advised to lower hopes期望值不能太高The secret of a long and happy marriage appears to be not to expect too much from it.长久而又幸福婚姻的秘密在于不要期望太多。US researchers say that, unless you have superior relationship skills, your hopes of cosy coupledom are likely to be dashed.美国的研究人员说,除非你具备处理婚姻关系的高超技巧,否则你对美满婚姻的憧憬很可能会破灭。Far better, they say, to aim low to ensure you are not disappointed.他们还说,最好降低对婚姻的期望,这样可以保你不失望。The key to keeping that newlywed glow appears to be forgiveness and communication.宽恕和交流是保持新婚的关键。The study, by researchers from Ohio and Florida Universities looked at 82 couples.来自美国俄亥俄州和佛罗里达州各大学的研究人员对82对夫妻进行了研究。They quizzed all the spouses independently over four years.研究人员在4年多的时间里对所有的配偶单独进行研究。Their study, published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found those who believed their partner would be unfailingly kind, loving and agree with their every word, could retain their positive outlook by being forgiving, and having charitable explanations for their partner#39;s negative behaviour.他们的研究成果发表在《人格和社会心理学》杂志上。他们发现那些相信自己的伴侣会永远对自己好,永远爱着自己,同意自己每一句话的人会对婚姻的前景保持积极乐观的态度,因为他们能够宽恕并仁慈的解释伴侣的消极行为。However those with high expectations but without those relationship skills are likely to be brought down to earth fairly quickly as their Prince or Princess Charming falls off their pedestal.然而,那些对婚姻期望太高却又不具备处理婚姻关系技巧的人,一旦他们心中的白马王子或白雪公主从神圣的光环中跌落,他们可能很快就被迫回到现实中。In contrast, the researchers say holding a more prosaic view of your loved one means you are less likely to be disappointed, and therefore more satisfied with your marriage.相反,研究人员说,用平常心来看待自己的爱人就意味着你不太会失望,所以也就会对婚姻更加满意。Writing in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, researchers led by James McNulty, professor of psychology at Ohio University, said: ;In contrast to the idea that expectations in the early years of marriage exert main effects on satisfaction, the current findings suggest that the effects of expectations interact with the skills partners bring to their relationships.;由俄亥俄州立大学心理学教授詹姆斯·迈克纳蒂领导的研究者们在《人格和社会心理学》杂志上发表文章说:“以往的研究表明,结婚最初几年对于婚姻的期望值会对婚姻的满意程度产生重要影响,与此形成鲜明对照的是,目前的研究表明期望值的影响力与伴侣对其婚姻关系所采用的技巧是相互作用的。”Previous research found that people tend to select like-minded partners who they believe will be able to maintain a stable relationship.上述研究还发现,人们倾向于选择志趣相投的伴侣,他们相信这样能够维持一份稳定的婚姻。The finding contradicts the old adage that opposites attract.这一发现与过去所认为的“不同性格相互吸引”的说法截然不同。Instead, the US researchers said people looking for long-term relationships should select partners who were similar to themselves, rather than seeking out the highest quality partner available.取而代之的是,美国的研究人员说,寻找长期婚姻关系的人们应该选择与自己性格相近的伴侣而不是寻求最优秀的伴侣。 /201401/272257Forget cards, flowers and chocolates, most people want a special experience rather than a gift for Valentine’s Day今年情人节,大多数人们最想要的礼物不是贺卡、鲜花和巧克力,而是一段特别的经历。“People are really interested in experience gifts, rather than object gifts,” said Gian Gonzaga, a social psychologist with the dating website eHarmony, which conducted the online survey。开展这一在线调查的婚恋交友网站eHarmony的社会心理学家吉安#8226;冈萨加表示:“相比物质礼物,人们确实对体验更感兴趣一些。”“The more you have experiences with someone, the more you are able to build memories and share histories that help to make the relationship more intimate.”“你和某人的共同经历越多,就能创造更多的回忆,拥有更多共同的过去,这有助于让两人的感情关系更亲密。”Unlike material gifts, he added, an experience, whether it is an outing, a vacation or a special meal, is something unique to the couple, especially if it reflects both people’s interests。他补充道,与物质礼物不同,一段经历,无论是郊游、度假还是一顿特别的晚餐,尤其是一起做两人都感兴趣的事情,才是情侣间独一无二的礼物。 /201401/273472

Pilates vs. Yoga健康问答:普拉提还是瑜伽?Question:问:Is Pilates better than yoga for strengthening exercises?在力量练习方面,普拉提是否比瑜伽更好?Asked by Rodin#39;s Muse——Rodin#39;s MuseAnswer:答:The answer depends to a large degree on what it is you#39;re trying to strengthen.在很大程度上取决于你想要增进哪方面的力量。In general, Pilates exercises, originally developed by the fitness trainer Joseph Pilates, target the core muscles around the spine. If your aim is to strengthen your midsection, then Pilates is a fine choice. In a small but well-designed study last year, nine sedentary women who completed 36 weeks of supervised Pilates training bulked up their abdominal muscles by as much as 20 percent, while also lessening any existing muscular imbalances there.总的来说,由健身教练约瑟夫·普拉提(Joseph Pilates)开发的普拉提训练,针对的是脊柱周围的核心肌群。如果你的目标是强化身体中段,那么普拉提是个很好的选项。去年一个规模较小但设计优良的研究发现,九位习惯静坐不动的女性在完成了36周经专人指导的普拉提训练后,腹部肌肉增加了多达20%,该部位原有的肌力不平衡问题也有所缓解。;Pilates can be recommended as an effective method to reinforce the muscles of the abdominal wall and to compensate pre-existing asymmetric developments,; the authors said.“在强化腹部肌肉群,减缓既有的肌肉不对称恶化上,普拉提可以推荐作为一种有效的训练手段,”研究作者表示。But whether such training fortifies the rest of the body is questionable. A review last year of Pilates-related science found little credible evidence that the exercises added muscle or incinerated body fat apart from in the midsection.但这种练习是否可强化身体的其他部位,尚不得而知。去年,一篇有篇普拉提研究的综述认为,现在尚无可靠据明,普拉提练习可以增加身体中段以外其他部位的肌肉或燃烧脂肪。Yoga, however, especially hatha yoga, with its flowing poses, may strengthen larger sections of the body.不过,瑜伽,尤其是哈达瑜伽,因其姿势是流动的,也许能增强全身更广泛的部位。;Depending on the specific style, yoga is a quite intensive exercise intervention,; said Holger Cramer, a research fellow in integrative medicine at the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany, who is studying the physical impact of yoga. A telling 2011 study published in the Asian Journal of Sports Medicine found that after six months of almost-daily sun salutations (a multipart yoga pose) and no other resistance training, young men and women could bench-press significantly more weight and complete far more push-ups and pull-ups than at the start of the study.“视乎特定流派,瑜伽可以是一种颇为激烈的训练干预手段,”德国杜伊斯堡-埃森大学(University of Duisburg-Essen)结合医学研究员霍尔格·克莱默(Holger Cramer)介绍说。他目前研究的是瑜伽对身体的作用。2011年,一篇发表于《亚洲运动医学》(Asian Journal of Sports Medicine)的研究引人注目地发现,一群年轻男女进行拜日式体位练习(这是一种要练习身体各部位的瑜伽体位),而且没有进行其他任何阻力训练,在半年几乎每天勤练不辍的训练后,相比研究之初,他们卧推的重量显著增加,完成的俯卧撑和引体向上数也有明显上升。The upshot? Pilates may be preferable if your primary goal is a solid core, but if you#39;re hoping to strengthen your upper body and goose your push-up tally, you#39;ll probably accomplish more with sun salutations and other yoga moves.结论是?如果你的主要目标是练出有力的核心肌群,普拉提也许是个好选项;可如果你希望强化上半身,做更多的俯卧撑,也许通过练习拜日式和其他瑜伽姿势,能达成这个目标。Do you have a health question? Submit your question to Ask Well.有健康问题?向Ask Well提问。 /201409/326649Date:日期:Source:来源:Center for BrainHealth大脑健康中心Summary:概述:New research illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal.新研究阐述了大脑在人们看到威胁影像时如何产生恐惧情绪。这个新奇的研究首次通过控制唤醒的维度将威胁与情感分割开来。An estimated 8% of Americans will suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point during their lifetime. Brought on by an overwhelming or stressful event or events, PTSD is the result of altered chemistry and physiology of the brain. Understanding how threat is processed in a normal brain versus one altered by PTSD is essential to developing effective interventions.据估计约8%的的美国人在他们的某个时段会遭受创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的折磨。由强悍而令人难以应对的或紧张的一个或多个事件所引发,PTSD是大脑化学上和生理上改变的结果。理解恐惧在一个正常的脑部活动中被PTSD改变对采取有效的干预是至关重要的。New research from the Center for BrainHealth at The University of Texas at Dallas published online today in Brain and Cognition illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal, the emotional reaction provoked, whether positive or negative, in response to stimuli. Building on previous animal and human research, the study identifies an electrophysiological marker for threat in the brain.达拉斯德州大学的大脑健康中心今天在大脑和认知论坛上发布了新研究,阐明了当人们看到威胁影像时,如何产生恐惧情绪。这个新奇的研究首次通过控制唤醒的维度将威胁与情感分割开来,无论是积极的还是消极的,情绪反应都是响应于刺激。基于之前对动物和人类的研究,该研究确定了一个反映大脑中威胁的电生理指标。;We are trying to find where thought exists in the mind,; explained John Hart, Jr., M.D., Medical Science Director at the Center for BrainHealth. ;We know that groups of neurons firing on and off create a frequency and pattern that tell other areas of the brain what to do. By identifying these rhythms, we can correlate them with a cognitive unit such as fear.;“我们试图发现想法存在于大脑中的位置,”大脑健康中心的医学科学主任、医学士John Hart, Jr解释道。“我们知道组神经元放电和停电时,会创建一个频率和模式,告诉大脑的其他区域该做什么。通过识别这些节律,我们能把它们与恐惧等认知单元相联系。”Utilizing electroencephalography (EEG), Dr. Hart#39;s research team identified theta and beta wave activity that signifies the brain#39;s reaction to visually threatening images.利用脑电图(EEG),哈特士的研究小组发现了表示大脑对视觉威胁影响反应的θ和β波活动。;We have known for a long time that the brain prioritizes threatening information over other cognitive processes,; explained Bambi DeLaRosa, study lead author. ;These findings show us how this happens. Theta wave activity starts in the back of the brain, in it#39;s fear center -- the amygdala -- and then interacts with brain#39;s memory center -- the hippocampus -- before traveling to the frontal lobe where thought processing areas are engaged. At the same time, beta wave activity indicates that the motor cortex is revving up in case the feet need to move to avoid the perceived threat.;“我们很早就知道大脑对威胁信息的敏感度要高于其他认知过程,”该研究的首席作者Bambi DeLaRosa解释道。“这些发现向我们展示了它是如果发生的。θ波活动开始于位于大脑后部的恐惧中心——杏仁核——然后在前往思维加工区域,大脑额叶之前,与大脑记忆中心——海马体——相互作用。同时,β波活动表明,在需要移动位置以避免威胁时,运动皮层加速加速运转。”For the study, 26 adults (19 female, 7 male), ages 19-30 were shown 224 randomized images that were either unidentifiably scrambled or real pictures. Real pictures were separated into two categories: threatening (weapons, combat, nature or animals) and non-threatening (pleasant situations, food, nature or animals).在这项研究中,给予年龄在19岁到30岁之间的26个成年人(19个女性,7个男性) 224随机影像,要么是无法辨认的乱码,要么是真实的图片。真实的图片被分为两类:具有威胁性的(武器、战斗、自然或动物)和的不具有威胁性的(愉快的场景、食品、自然或动物)。While wearing an EEG cap, participants were asked to push a button with their right index finger for real items and another button with their right middle finger for nonreal/scrambled items. Shorter response times were recorded for scrambled images than the real images. There was no difference in reaction time for threatening versus non-threatening images.在戴着脑电图帽的同时,参与者被要求用右手食指按下按钮以看到真实图片,另用右手中指按另一个按钮以看到不真实的图片或乱码。乱码图像比真正的图像记录的响应时间更短。威胁性图片和不具威胁性的图片在反应时间上没有差别。EEG results revealed that threatening images evoked an early increase in theta activity in the occipital lobe (the area in the brain where visual information is processed), followed by a later increase in theta power in the frontal lobe (where higher mental functions such as thinking, decision-making, and planning occur). A left lateralized desynchronization of the beta band, the wave pattern associated with motor behavior (like the impulse to run), also consistently appeared in the threatening condition.脑电图结果表明威胁图片诱发枕叶(大脑中处理视觉信息的区域)中的θ波活动早期增加,紧随其后的是枕叶区域(更高级的心理机能,如思考、决策和计划,在这里发生)θ波的增加。β波左单侧性的去同步化,与运动行为(如脉冲运行)相关的波动行为,也一再出现在威胁情况下。This study will serve as a foundation for future work that will explore normal versus abnormal fear associated with an object in other atypical populations including individuals with PTSD.本研究将成为未来研究工作的基础,将在其他非典型人群中,包括在患有创伤后应激障碍的人群中,探索与一个对象相联系的正常和不正常的恐惧。This work was supported by the Berman Laboratory of Learning and Memory at The University of Texas at Dallas and the Jane and Bud Smith Distinguished Chair.这项工作是达拉斯德州大学的学习和记忆伯曼实验室、Jane和Bud Smith特聘教授提供持。 /201409/332012

The experiment was not for the squirmish. Volunteers were made to itch like crazy on one arm, but not allowed to scratch. Then they were whisked into an M.R.I. scanner to see what parts of their brains lit up when they itched, when researchers scratched them and when they were finally allowed to scratch themselves.首先要申明的是,做这个实验可不是要存心折磨人——研究人员通过某些手段致使志愿者们一条手臂痒得发疯,却不允许他们用任何方式挠痒。然后再将他们送入磁共振(MRI)扫描仪,观察他们感到痒痒时,当研究人员帮他们挠痒,以及当他们终于得以自己挠痒时,他们的大脑中分别有哪些部位处于活跃状态。The scientific question was this: Why does it feel so good to scratch an itch?这项研究所要解决的科学问题是:为什么挠痒的感觉这么爽?;It#39;s quite intriguing to see how many brain centers are activated,; said Dr. Gil Yosipovitch, chairman of dermatology at the Temple University School of Medicine and director of the Temple Center for Itch (he conducted the experiment while working at Wake Forest School of Medicine). ;There is no one itch center. Everyone wants that target, but it doesn#39;t work in real life like that.;“观察有多少大脑中枢受到激活,这差事相当有趣,”美国天普大学医学院(Temple University School of Medicine)的皮肤学系主任,天普大学瘙痒中心(Temple Center for Itch)主任吉尔·杨斯波维奇(Gil Yosipovitch)士说。(他在威克森林大学[Wake Forest School of Medicine]工作时已经开展这项实验)。“大脑中并没有一个专门的瘙痒中枢。当然大家都希望能有这样一个靶标可以用来对付瘙痒,可现实并不总能尽如人意。”Instead, itching and scratching engage brain areas involved not only in sensation, but also in mental processes that help explain why we love to scratch: motivation and reward, pleasure, craving and even addiction. What an itch turns on, a scratch turns off — and scratching oneself does it better than being scratched by someone else. The study results were published in December in the journal PLOS One.与人们的期望相反,瘙痒和挠痒不仅与脑部感觉区有关,还涉及了某些心理过程,譬如:动机和奖赏、愉悦、渴求乃至成瘾等,这就从一定程度上解释了人们喜欢挠痒的原因。挠痒可以关闭那些被瘙痒激活的脑部活动,而且,自己挠痒痒的效果往往优于别人代劳。这些研究结果发表在12月的《公共科学图书馆:综合》杂志(PLOS One)上。Itching was long overshadowed by pain in both research and treatment, and was even considered just a mild form of pain. But millions of people suffer from itching, and times have changed. Research has found nerves, molecules and cellular receptors that are specific for itching and set it apart from pain, and the medical profession has begun to take it seriously as a debilitating problem that deserves to be studied and treated.长期以来,无论是在研究领域还是治疗领域,瘙痒作为一个课题总是被另一个课题——疼痛抢尽了风头,甚至,人们一度以为瘙痒只是疼痛的一种较为温和的形式。然而,全球遭受瘙痒之苦的患者已达数百万之多,时代也已经发生了变迁。研究发现,瘙痒具有其特异性的神经、分子和细胞受体,这将它与疼痛区分开来。医学界已经认识到瘙痒也可以削弱人的身体,并开始将其作为一个值得研究和治疗的问题认真对待。Within the last decade, there has been a flurry of research into what causes itching and how to stop it. Along with brain imaging, studies have begun to look at gene activity and to map the signals that flow between cells in the skin, the immune system, the spinal cord and the brain.在过去的十年里涌现出了一系列的研究,探讨了引起瘙痒的原因以及如何才能阻止瘙痒。在脑成像技术的帮助下,现在的研究日益关注有关基因的活性,并试图去捕捉和描述那些在皮肤细胞、免疫系统以及脊髓和脑之间流动的信号。The concern is not so much the fleeting nastiness of mosquito bites and poison ivy, but the unending misery caused by chronic itching — the kind that won#39;t go away, that torments people night and day and very often resists remedies like antihistamines and cortisone cream.研究所关注的重点并非是像蚊虫叮咬和毒葛那种转瞬即逝的小麻烦,而是因长期慢性瘙痒引起的无休止的痛苦——它挥之不去,日日夜夜折磨着人们,而且往往对抗组胺药物和可的松软膏等疗法都具有耐受性。For the first time in the ed States, itching research and treatment centers have opened: Temple#39;s in September, in Philadelphia, and Washington University#39;s Center for the Study of Itch, in 2011, in St. Louis.9月在费城开办的天普大学瘙痒中心以及2011年在圣路易斯开办的华盛顿大学(Washington University)瘙痒研究中心(Center for the Study of Itch)是美国开办的第一批瘙痒研究和治疗中心。;Itch is now where pain was probably 20 years ago,; said Dr. Lynn Cornelius, chief of the dermatology division at Washington University School of Medicine. ;It used to be lumped together with pain.;“今天,人们对瘙痒的重视程度与20年前对疼痛的重视程度相仿,”华盛顿大学医学院(Washington University School of Medicine)皮肤病学系的主任琳内特·科尔内留斯(Lynn Cornelius)士说。“过去,人们总是把它与疼痛混为一谈。”But now, she said, there is more interest in itching and in sorting out its different types, and more research money being spent on it.但现在,她继续说,人们对瘙痒及其分类更感兴趣,也愿意在这方面投入大笔的研究资金。;The science has to lead to treatment, I believe,; Dr. Cornelius said. ;If that happens, it will translate to better and better, more targeted therapies, so clinicians won#39;t just look upon someone itching as someone who needs antihistamines.;“我坚信,科学的发展必将导致治疗领域的进步,”科尔内留斯士说。“若果真有这么一天,科研成果将转化为更好,也更有针对性的疗法,这样,医生就不至于只能向受到瘙痒困扰的患者处方抗组胺药物了。”Scratching, and therefore itching, appear widesp in the animal kingdom — though no one knows for sure why animals claw, bite or peck themselves, or scrape against trees or fences.搔痒行为在动物世界里普遍存在。尽管没有人能确切地知道动物为什么要去抓、咬或啄自己,或将身体在树木或栅栏上擦,但人们推测,这很可能是因为它们也会感到瘙痒。Even fruit flies engage in ;robust grooming behaviors; that look a lot like scratching when they are infected with mites, said Diana Bautista, an assistant professor of cell and developmental biology at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research includes studying various strains of itchy mice that are models for human ailments.即使是果蝇这种低等生物,在它们感染螨虫时,也会出现一种跟搔痒看起来颇为相似的“强力梳理行为(robust grooming behaviors)”,加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)的细胞和发育生物学助理教授戴安娜·鲍蒂斯塔(Diana Bautista)说。此外,她的研究还包括多种品系的瘙痒小鼠,它们都是业已建立的不同人类疾病的模型小鼠。;I have a collection of movies showing different animals scratching,; Dr. Bautista said. ;I#39;m hoping they will help me determine if there is a difference between itch-evoked scratching versus wiping and other behaviors in diverse species.;“我还收集了许多介绍不同动物搔痒行为的视频资料,”鲍蒂斯塔士说,“我希望它们可以帮助我确定在不同的物种中,瘙痒引起的挠痒行为与擦拭及其他行为之间是否存在差异。”One of her favorite s shows a seal lying on the beach, briskly rubbing its head with a flipper.她最喜欢的一段视频展示了这样的景象:一只海豹躺在沙滩上,轻快地用自己的鳍状肢擦着头部。In people, there are different types of itching. The most familiar type, from a mosquito bite or hives, occurs when cells in the skin release histamine, which causes nerves in the skin to fire off signals to the spinal cord and brain. Antihistamine pills or creams usually bring relief.在人类当中,存在着多种不同类型的瘙痒。人们最熟悉的一种因蚊虫叮咬或荨麻疹引起,此时皮肤细胞释放出组胺,引起皮肤中的神经产生信号,并传导到脊髓和大脑。抗组胺片剂或药膏通常可以缓解其症状。But antihistamines are often no help to people with chronic itching, which can be caused by skin diseases like eczema or psoriasis, kidney or liver failure, dry skin, an overactive thyroid gland, certain cancers, and pinched or damaged nerves. And the itching from psoriasis almost certainly has a different mechanism from that caused by a pinched nerve.然而,这些药物对慢性瘙痒患者往往就爱莫能助了。湿疹或银屑病(牛皮癣)等皮肤病、肾脏或肝脏衰竭、皮肤干燥、甲状腺功能亢进、某些癌症以及神经受到挤压或损坏都可能导致慢性瘙痒。而且几乎可以肯定的是,因银屑病引起的瘙痒与神经受压引起的瘙痒具有不同的机制。;It#39;s a very hot area,; Dr. Cornelius said. ;It#39;s a huge clinical problem and a huge unmet market.;“这是一个非常热门的领域,”科尔内留斯士说,“它既是重大的临床问题,又提供了一个需求远远未得到满足的巨大市场。”Recent research has shown that substances other than histamine, released from inflammatory cells, are involved in chronic itching, along with three different types of nerve cells, Dr. Bautista said. Drug companies are trying to find ways to block those substances.鲍蒂斯塔士介绍道,最近的研究表明,除了组胺,炎性细胞还释放出了其他一些与慢性瘙痒有关的物质,此外,还有三种不同类型的神经细胞也参与了这一过程。制药公司正致力于寻找可阻断这些物质的方法。;Before, the focus was on next-generation antihistamines,; Dr. Bautista said. ;Now, it#39;s on new molecular and cellular targets to develop new therapies. The pharmaceutical industry is recognizing that they have to go beyond antihistamines.;“以前,他们的研发重点一直是新一代的抗组胺药物,”鲍蒂斯塔士说,“现在,他们则瞄准了新的分子和细胞靶标来开发新的疗法。医药行业已经认识到,他们不能再局限于抗组胺药物,必须有所超越。”But pain pathways have to be dissected in minute detail if new targets are to be found. Many researchers say that one of the most important advances in the field was reported in the journal Nature in 2007 by a Washington University team led by Zhou-Feng Chen, who is now director of the itch center. Working with mice, his team was studying receptors, molecules on cells that respond to certain chemical signals to change the cells#39; behavior.但是,要找到新的靶标,就必须将疼痛通路的每个微小的细节都剖析清楚。现任华盛顿大学瘙痒中心主任陈宙峰(Zhou-Feng Chen)领导团队利用小鼠研究了可对特定的化学信号作出反应,并改变细胞行为的细胞表面受体和分子。这一2007年发表在《自然》杂志(Nature)上的研究被众多研究人员一致认为是该领域最重要的进展之一。The group was the first to find a receptor in the spinal cord that was specific for itching, called gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, or GRPR. The discovery helped to prove that signals for itching and pain travel on different pathways.该小组首次在脊髓中发现了瘙痒特异性受体,称为胃泌素释放肽受体(gastrin-releasing peptide receptor),简称GRPR。这一发现有助于明瘙痒和疼痛的信号传导途径并不相同。In an interview, Dr. Chen said that mice without the receptor — or with the receptor blocked by a drug — did not itch. Nor was the group without a receptor harmed by the lack of it.陈士在接受采访时表示,不具备该受体,或该受体被药物阻断的小鼠就不会产生瘙痒的感觉。且无受体组的小鼠并未因此而受到损害。;If you block function of this receptor alone, you pretty much stop chronic itching,; he said.“仅仅阻断该受体的功能,就几乎足以给慢性瘙痒画上句号,”他说。The receptor is present in humans, too, and Dr. Chen said it might be possible to develop a drug that would block it.该受体也存在于人体之中,陈士认为未来有望开发出一种可以阻断它的药物。For many patients, new treatments cannot come soon enough.但对于大多数患者而言,新疗法问世的速度还不够快。Chronic itching becomes more common with age. One reason is that older people often develop dry skin, but Dr. Yosipovitch said the itching also might occur because certain nerves in the skin deteriorate — nerves that transmit pain and inhibit itching. ;Then itch kind of pops out,; he said.随着年龄的增长,慢性瘙痒在人群中日渐常见。其原因之一是老年人往往存在皮肤干燥。但杨斯波维奇士认为,皮肤中某些神经的受损也可能造成瘙痒——这些神经原本负责传导疼痛并抑制瘙痒,它们一出毛病,“瘙痒就蹦了出来,”他说。Aging monkeys have provided some clues. When Dr. Yosipovitch was still at Wake Forest, he and his colleagues noticed older female macaques scratching their backs and lower limbs, the same spots where older people tend to itch.衰老的猴子为此提供了一些线索。早在杨斯波维奇士在维克森林大学工作时,他和同事们就发现老年雌性猕猴会抓挠自己的背部和下肢——老年人经常感到瘙痒的也是同样的部位。They sent samples from the monkeys to Dr. Chen, who found extra activity in the skin and spinal cord from the gene that produces GRPR, the itch receptor. Why the gene becomes more active with aging is not known, but this finding in a primate supports the idea that the receptor is a good target for new drugs in people, Dr. Chen said.他们将这些猴子的样本送到了陈士的实验室。陈士他们随后发现,在这些猴子的皮肤和脊髓里,表达瘙痒受体GRPR的基因过度活跃。陈士表示,目前尚不清楚该基因为什么会随着衰老而趋于活跃,但这一在灵长类身上得到的发现持这一观点:该受体是研发治疗人类瘙痒的新药的良好靶标。Many older people have trouble with itching in hard-to-reach spots on the back, between or just below the shoulder blades.许多老年人都存在这样的麻烦:瘙痒的部位正好位于后背上肩胛骨下方或其之间的位置,他们的手很难够着。;It drives them crazy,; said Dr. Cornelius, at Washington University. They rub against door jambs, stockpile back scratchers, and enlist others to scratch them.“这简直要把他们逼疯了,”科尼利厄斯士在华盛顿大学时说。他们只好用身体擦门框,大量购置痒痒挠,并要求其他人来帮他们瘙痒。The condition has a name, notalgia paresthetica, and is often associated with spine and disk problems that pinch or damage nerves. The skin in the itchy spots may darken.这种疾病名为感觉异常性背痛(notalgia paresthetica),它通常与脊柱和椎间盘出现问题,压迫或损伤了神经相关。痒点处的肤色有可能会变暗。;Some neurologists, I would say the majority, do not know about this,; Dr. Yosipovitch said.“一部分神经科医生,甚至可以说其中的大多数都不知道这一点,”杨斯波维奇士说。He and other doctors have prescribed various remedies — numbing patches, sometimes along with the hot-pepper ingredient capsaicin; Botox injections; pills like gabapentin that affect nerve transmission; and physical therapy to change posture. Often, it is possible to find something that helps.他和其他医生也曾处方过多种治疗方法:止痒贴片,有时辅以辣椒中的成分辣椒素;注射肉毒杆菌毒素(Botox);加巴喷丁(gabapentin)等可影响神经传导的药剂;物理治疗等,试图改善瘙痒症状。但基本上没有一种见效。Dr. Yosipovitch said many patients found their way to him only after seeing multiple doctors who could not help and who sometimes misdiagnosed their problems as mental rather than physical.杨斯波维奇士说,许多患者都是在拜访过众多表示爱莫能助的医生(其中甚至有人将身体的瘙痒误诊为心理疾病)后才找上了自己。;They#39;re not crazy,; he said.“他们当然不是脑筋出了问题,”他说。One of the patients was a boy who had scratched his arms and legs raw. Unable to find a cause or a treatment that worked, doctors had referred him and his family to a psychiatrist.其中一名患者是个男孩子,他把自己的手臂和腿都抓挠得破了皮。医生找不到病因,也没什么有效的疗法,只好将他转诊给了心理医生。In an interview, the patient, Joshua Riegel, now 18, said, ;They said I was doing it to manipulate my parents.; Thus began what he calls ;that weird part of my life where they thought I was mentally ill.;这位名叫乔舒亚·里格尔(Joshua Riegel)的患者现年18岁,他在接受采访时说:“他们都说我这样是故意的,目的是为了作弄我的父母。”从那时候起,他称其为“我被当成精神病的一段最诡异的人生经历”开始了。He was 12 or 13 when the psychiatrist prescribed antidepressants, which he dutifully took for two or three years. But they brought on terrible side effects: At one point he was hospitalized with suicidal thoughts.在他十二三岁的时候,心理医生一直给他处方抗抑郁药物,他听话地坚持用了两三年。可这些药物带来了可怕的副作用:他一度因为自杀念头而不得不住院。As a last resort, his parents took him from their home in Hillsville, Va., to see Dr. Yosipovitch, who was then at Wake Forest.抱着最后一丝希望,他的父母带他离开了位于弗吉尼亚州希尔斯维尔的家,来到维克森林大学拜访当时在那里工作的杨斯波维奇士。;He had a hunch on what it was,; Mr. Riegel said.“他好像凭直觉就知道是哪里不对劲,”里格尔先生说。Tests found a rare form of a genetic disease, epidermolysis bullosa, that was causing a particularly destructive set of symptoms: intense itching and skin so fragile that scratching ripped it to shreds.经过测试,研究人员发现他患有一种很罕见的遗传病——大疱性表皮松解症(epidermolysis bullosa),这种病可以造成一系列极具破坏性的症状:剧烈瘙痒,皮肤极度脆弱,以至于连挠痒都会将皮肤划破。;Dr. Yosipovitch was quite angry I was being told I was mentally ill when I wasn#39;t,; Mr. Riegel recalled.“在得知明明没有精神病的我却被人说成是精神病时,杨斯波维奇士非常生气,”里格尔先生回忆道。Getting off the antidepressants lifted his spirits and let him be normal again. Since then, other drugs have been prescribed for the itching, with mixed results. It never really goes away, but Mr. Riegel uses games or his cellphone to take his mind off it and keep from scratching.停用抗抑郁药物后,他的精神重新振奋起来,并恢复了正常。此后,医生向他处方了其他药物来治疗瘙痒,效果好坏参半。虽然从未真正摆脱过瘙痒,但里格尔先生可以借助电脑游戏或手机转移自己的注意力,以避免抓伤自己。For people with other types of chronic itching, Dr. Yosipovitch said: ;This is just the beginning of a big era. In the next five years I predict there will be drugs targeted specifically for itch. We#39;re in the middle of the tip of an iceberg.;对于患有其他类型慢性瘙痒的患者而言,杨斯波维奇士说:“这个伟大的时代才刚刚拉开序幕。预计在接下来的五年里就会出现专门针对瘙痒的靶向药物。我们正站在冰山的一角上。” /201410/336953

Which is more primal, hard cider or a strawberry margarita?什么才更原始,烈性苹果酒还是草莓玛格丽塔酒?Would a self-respecting cave man check his iPhone after 8 p.m., as long as he was wearing amber goggles?一个有自尊心的穴居人会在晚上8点戴着琥珀色护目镜查看iPhone吗?What about that morning beauty regimen? Is coconut oil or castor oil more likely to restore that neo-Neanderthal glow to a woman’s cheek?晨间美容又如何?新穴居人用椰子油还是蓖麻油来为女性的面颊增色?To the uninitiated, the much talked about Paleo diet — a nutritional regimen centered around pasture-raised meat, eggs, fresh fruit and vegetables, and nuts, in the spirit of our cave-dwelling forebears — may seem like another low-carb fad, the South Beach diet dressed up in a mammoth hide. But the time has passed when it could be written off as a fringe movement of shaggy-haired Luddites with an outsize taste for wild boar meatloaf.备受关注的旧石器饮食(Paleo diet)是一种饮食养生,借鉴我们穴居人老祖先的精神,食谱上主要是牧草饲喂的肉制品和禽蛋,此外还有新鲜水果、蔬菜和坚果。不了解它的人会觉得和南海岸饮食法,即另一种低卡路里饮食没什么两样,无非是披上一层猛犸象的包装。认为它是一个蓬头垢面、反技术进步,同时又大啖野猪肉的边缘运动的时代,过去了。Lately, Paleo has charged toward the mainstream, not only as a hugely popular diet (it was most-searched diet of 2013, according to the Google Trends Zeitgeist list), but also as a cave-man-inspired lifestyle that has spawned a fast-growing industry.最近,旧石器饮食开始迈向主流,不仅是作为一种非常流行的饮食法(根据谷歌时尚热点列表,它是2013年被搜索次数最多的饮食法),也开始成为一种受原始人启发的生活方式,还带来了一个快速增长的产业。There are now glossy magazines on the Paleo lifestyle, conferences like Paleo f(x) that feature Paleo speakers and products, and vacation retreats like PrimalCon, billed as a five-day immersion into all things Paleo. There are Paleo books, action figures, beauty products, liquors, sleep masks, “barefoot” shoes and clothing, not to mention a glut of places that sell all manner of Paleo foods, including almond-flower macaroons, elk jerky and grainless granola bars.现在,有若干种关于旧石器生活方式的精美杂志;有类似“旧石器f(x)”这样的集会,会上有说旧石器时期语言的人和旧石器时期的物品;还有PrimalCon这样的度假地,提供五天的旧石器时期生活沉浸式体验;有关于旧石器时期的书籍、人偶模型、美容制品、酒类饮料、睡眠眼罩、“大脚怪”鞋子和衣;更有一大堆贩卖按旧石器时期方式制作的食物,包括杏花马卡龙、麋鹿肉干和无谷即食麦片棒。And, of course, Paleo has its celebrity followers. Actors like Megan Fox, Jessica Biel and Matthew McConaughey have reportedly taken the plunge.当然,旧石器生活方式也少不了名人拥趸。有报道说,梅根·福克斯(Megan Fox)、杰西卡·贝尔(Jessica Biel)和马修·麦康纳(Matthew McConaughey)都深深投入其中。“Ancestral health,” to use a term popular among Paleo followers, has gone mass. For them, Paleo is a way of life, a philosophical prism that colors everything from child rearing to sunscreen.“祖先的健康原则”是旧石器生活方式拥趸们当中流行的一句话,如今这种方式已经走向大众。对于他们来说,旧石器是一种生活方式,一种哲学光谱,从养育孩子到防晒霜——它可以涵盖生活的方方面面。“It’s like taking the red pill or the blue pill in ‘The Matrix’; once you take the red pill, there’s no going back,” said Karen Phelps, a freelance writer in Ashland, Ore., referring to her conversion to the diet a few years ago, when a successful weight-loss push ended up becoming a total-life commitment. “It’s a total rabbit hole,” she said. “You start thinking, ‘Wait a minute, if I can fix my diet from ancestral health principles, what else can I fix through ancestral health principles?’ The list is endless.”“这有点像在《黑客帝国》(The Matrix)中选择红药片还是蓝药片;一旦你选择了红药片,就再也没有回头路了,”俄勒冈州阿什兰德的自由撰稿人凯伦·菲尔普斯(Karen Phels)说,她在几年前开始尝试这种饮食法,不仅令她得以成功减肥,还变成了她的整个生活。“这就像兔子洞,”她说,“你开始思考,‘等一下,如果我可以按照祖先的健康原则去改善饮食,那么我还能按照祖先的健康原则去改善什么?’能改善的东西有很多。”Certainly, trendy diets and quasi-religious zeal have long gone hand in hand, a point familiar to anyone who has ever endured a newcomer to, say, Atkins spinning out soliloquies on cheese omelets. Even so, such dieters tend to limit their enthusiasm to what’s on the plate. Who ever heard of an Atkins bedroom or an Atkins medicine cabinet?当然,流行的饮食法早就和类宗教狂热密不可分,这么说吧,只要你见过阿特金斯低碳饮食法(Atkins)的新入门者对着奶酪煎蛋卷自言自语的情形就会明白的。尽管如此,这样的饮食法实践者倾向于把狂热局限在餐桌上。谁听说过阿特金斯低碳睡眠法或者阿特金斯低碳医疗箱呢?But among the Paleo crowd, limiting one’s enthusiasm for Paleo to food is almost a rookie maneuver.但是对于旧石器生活方式的拥趸们来说,把对旧石器时期的热情仅仅局限在食品方面,只是初级者的做法。“Most people come to the Paleo diet thinking, ‘Hey, I can lose some weight,’ ” said Cain Credicott, the editor and publisher of Paleo Magazine, which sells at the checkout counter at Barnes amp; Noble, next to Bon Appétit.“大多数刚刚接触旧石器饮食法的人都想,‘嘿,这能让我减肥’,”《旧石器杂志》(Paleo Magazine)的编辑和出版人凯恩·克莱迪克特(Cain Credicott)说,这本杂志可以在巴恩斯与诺贝尔书店的收银处买到,就放在《好胃口》(Bon Appétit)旁边。“Everybody recognizes now that if you eat a squeaky clean diet but are still going to bed at 1 a.m. after watching TV, waking up at 6 a.m. with an alarm clock and slathering yourself with sunscreen, it doesn’t matter how good your diet is, you’re not going to be healthy,” Mr. Credicott said.“现在所有人都意识到,就算你的饮食无可挑剔,但假如你仍然是看完电视凌晨一点上床,又在早晨6点被闹钟唤醒,全身涂满防晒霜,那么就算吃得再好也还是无法获得健康,”克莱迪克特说。The basic theory of the so-called cave-man diet (which, at this point, you would virtually have to live in a cave to be unaware of) is that the modern diet, with its reliance on grains, starches, dairy and processed sugar, is not what the human body evolved to thrive on, and has contributed to widesp “diseases of civilization” like diabetes and heart disease.所谓的“穴居人饮食法”(到了今天,假如你还不知道“穴居人饮食法”,那你没准真的住在洞穴里),它的基本理论是:现代人的饮食依赖谷类、淀粉、牛奶和加工糖类,它们并不是人类身体进化过程中所需要的食品,而且造成了广泛传播的“文明病”,比如糖尿病和心脏病等。That is why leaders of the movement like Loren Cordain and Robb Wolf advocate a “wild” diet that falls roughly in line with that of those Paleolithic forager ancestors who had not yet learned to cultivate and eat grain, much less pry the lid off a Pringles can.所以罗恩·科丹(Loren Cordain)和罗布·伍尔夫(Robb Wolf)等旧石器饮食运动的倡导者鼓吹“野性”的饮食,它主要依照我们旧石器时代的祖先而设计——他们需要四处觅食,还有没学会种植庄稼和食用谷物,更别说吃品客薯片了。Paleo is not without its critics. The science has been endlessly debated: Some nutritionists counter that verboten foods like grains, dairy and beans contain valuable nutrients, such as calcium, vitamins B and D, antioxidants and fiber. Elizabeth Kolbert, in a recent New Yorker road test of the diet, also pointed out that a meat-heavy diet has dire environmental implications. Still, proselytes often find that being Paleo quickly becomes a round-the-clock duty.旧石器饮食不乏批评者。科学界无休无止地讨论:有些营养学家反驳说,谷物、牛奶和豆类这些被旧石器饮食严格禁止的食品中包含有益的营养成分,诸如钙质、维生素B、维生素D,抗氧化物和纤维。伊丽莎白·科尔伯特(Elizabeth Kolbert)最近在《纽约客》杂志对这种饮食法进行的实际检测中也指出,偏重肉食的饮食法对环境有极坏的影响。但皈依者们通常会发现保持旧石器生活方式很快就成了他们全天候的职责。That was the experience of Michelle Tam, a former pharmacist in Palo Alto, Calif., who has adopted a primal sleep regimen.米歇尔·塔姆(Michelle Tam)的经历就是如此,她原本是加利福尼亚州帕罗阿尔托的药剂师,目前在尝试原始人睡眠养生法。It all started four years ago, when Ms. Tam, now 40, tried the Paleo diet to combat sluggishness and a stubborn muffin-top. But it didn’t end when she shed the extra pounds, as she sought to reorder the rest of her life along those ancestral principles. She quit her hospital job and transformed herself into something of a Martha Stewart of Paleo. Her recipe blog, Nom Nom Paleo, draws more than 100,000 page views daily. And she has a best-selling cookbook, a cooking app and action figure (though, oddly, it’s made of vinyl, not stone).塔姆女士现年40岁,她从四年前开始尝试旧石器饮食法来对抗自己的惰性,以及对玛芬甜点的顽固喜好。但一切并未随她减重几磅而结束,她希望按照祖先的方式来重新安排自己的余生。她辞去了医院的工作,把自己重塑为旧石器时代的玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)。她的菜谱客“Nom Nom Paleo”每天有10万人次访问。她的烹饪书成了畅销书,她还有一个烹饪app,以及人偶模型(奇怪的是,它不是用石头,而是用树脂做成的)。Ms. Tam also found herself altering her sleep to become more Paleo. As Mark Sisson put it in his seminal 2009 book, “The Primal Blueprint,” “our ancestors’ activity and sleep patterns were shaped by sunrise and sunset.” In the primal mind, the modern sleep ritual, interrupted by iPads and Jimmy Fallon, seems as unhealthy as a dinner of Fiddle Faddle with a Mountain Dew chaser.为了更像旧石器时代的人,塔姆改变了睡眠方式。正如马克·希森(Mark Sisson)在2009年的畅销书《原始蓝图》(The Primal Blueprint)中所写,“‘我们的祖先’日出而作,日落而息”。现代人的睡眠不时被iPad和吉米·法伦(Jimmy Fallon)的深夜秀打断,在原始人心目中这就像是把甜食和软饮当晚饭一样不健康。That’s why Ms. Tam, a confessed television addict, decided to cut out all electronic devices after 8 p.m. If she has to check her iPhone, she wears amber goggles to block the blue-spectrum light that she believes interferes with her circadian rhythms. Next, she turned her bedroom into the equivalent of a Lascaux cave, removing all clocks (her two young sons serve as her morning alarm, she said) and installing blackout window inserts.所以承认自己迷恋电视的塔姆决定晚八点一过就关掉所有电子设备。如果不得不查看手机,她会带上琥珀镜片护目镜屏蔽蓝光,她认为这种蓝光会干扰她的生物钟。此外,她把卧室布置得和原始岩洞没两样,拿走了所有钟表(她说,由两个小儿子来充当她的闹钟),还装上了遮光窗板。The move paid dividends. “I used to envy how my young two boys would fall asleep almost immediately after their heads hit the pillow,” Ms. Tam said. “At dawn, they’d bound out of bed, eager to tell us about the previous night’s dreams. Now, I sleep like them.”她的做法有了回报。“我以前羡慕我的两个年幼的儿子头一沾枕头就能睡着,”塔姆说,“一到清晨,他们就从床上跳起来,等不及告诉我们前一天晚上做了什么梦。现在我也能和他们一样了。”She is not the only beneficiary. As Bloomberg Businessweek reported last fall, Indow Windows, the Portland, Ore.-based manufacturer of her window inserts, said traffic to its site tripled after Ms. Nam tweeted that she was “the happiest zombie on the planet” thanks to the company’s product.她并不是唯一的受益者。《彭商业周刊》(Bloomberg Businessweek)去年秋天的报道说,她使用的那种窗板是俄勒冈州波特兰的Indow Windows公司生产的。塔姆女士在Twitter上说:用了该公司的产品后,自己就成了“地球上最快乐的僵尸”。该公司声称,自那以后,公司网站的访问量增加了三倍。But the lifestyle does not end when you roll out of bed. For many, the quest to rid one’s daily regimen of “poisonous things,” to use Mr. Sisson’s phrase, includes the morning beauty routine. Vita Pedrazzi, a former fashion manager at Harrods in London who now lives in the Canary Islands, said she used to be the sort of beauty obsessive who would slap on makeup to take out the trash, in part because of her sheepishness over her acne. But when the primal path inspired her to rid her bathroom of any product containing creepy-sounding chemicals, she adopted a zero-tolerance policy to any store-bought beauty product or cleanser — even soap.但是从床上爬起来,穴居人的生活方式还没结束。用希森的话说,还要除掉日常生活中“有毒害的东西”,比如早晨的美容工序。维塔·派德拉奇(Vita Pedrazzi)曾是伦敦哈罗德百货分管时装的经理,如今住在开曼群岛,她说,她曾经是美容狂人,就算出去倒垃圾也要化妆,部分是由于对自己的粉刺感到害羞。但原始人的生活方式鼓励她把洗手间里所有含有令人毛骨悚然的化学成分的制品都扔掉,如今她对任何商店里贩卖的美容用品和清洁都采取零容忍态度——连肥皂也不例外。As she proudly related on her blog, Vita Lives Free, Ms. Pedrazzi, 30, now makes her own beauty products, including a “no-poo” shampoo method (baking soda and apple cider vinegar, with a few drops of jojoba oil for the tips as a leave-in conditioner), body scrub made from olive oil and brown sugar, and toothpaste made with coconut oil and baking soda, with activated charcoal tablets for whitening. Although houseguests are shocked to find not so much as a canister of Ajax in her house — her horrified father-in-law recently raced out to the drugstore to buy toilet cleaner, instead of her white vinegar solution — she feels transformed.她的客名叫“维塔自由生活”,她在上面骄傲地写道:30岁的派德拉奇女士,如今亲手制作自己的美容用品,包括“不使用香波”的洗头方式(用小苏打和苹果醋清洗,再在发梢涂上几滴荷荷巴油作为护发素)、用橄榄油和红糖做成的身体磨砂膏,还有用椰子油和苏打做成的牙膏,并用小块活性炭为牙齿增白。尽管客人们震惊地发现,她的家里连Ajax清洁用品也没有(她的公公看到她用白醋清洗厕所简直吓坏了,赶快跑到杂货店去买来清洁剂),但她看上去宛如脱胎换骨。“The new natural beauty routine totally transformed my skin, and I finally defeated my acne,” she said. “I was finally free.”“新的自然美容法彻底改变了我的皮肤,我也最终战胜了粉刺,”她说。“我终于自由了。”As the Paleo day continues, many find a way to keep at least a toe in the primal world at the office. A writer for Paleo Lifestyle Magazine recommends keeping a jar of virgin coconut oil in a desk drawer. (“If I end up getting an afternoon sugar craving, or just feel like I’m in need of a quick snack, I just take out my spoon and eat a glob.”)很多人还找到办法,在办公室里也能至少保持一点原始世界的样子。一位《旧石器生活方式杂志》(Paleo Lifestyle Magazine)的撰稿人建议,在办公桌抽屉里放一罐初榨椰子油——“如果我下午想吃甜食或者想吃快餐,就吃一匙椰子油。”That may be one reason so many are looking to blow off some primal steam at the gym after work.所以下班之后,许多人希望能在健身房里也来点原始精神。The preferred form of exercise for the Paleo tribe is CrossFit, a high-intensity workout that stresses Cybex-equipment-free motions like lunges and burpees, and the high-protein, low-carb diet of neo-cave men. As John Durant, a founder of Paleo NYC and Barefoot Runners NYC, put it in his 2013 book, “The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health,” “other animals don’t ‘exercise’ so much as they either play or just do what is required to survive. Birds fly. Fish swim.”交叉健身法(CrossFit)是备受“原始人”们青睐的健身方式,这是一种高强度的健身,强调弓步和波比(burpees)等不需要器械的动作,还要辅以新穴居人们推崇的高蛋白、低卡路里饮食。约翰·杜兰特(John Drant)是“纽约旧石器与纽约大脚怪跑步者”的创始人,他在2013年出版了《旧石器宣言:终生健康的古老智慧》(The Paleo Manifesto: Ancient Wisdom for Lifelong Health)一书,书中说,“其他动物不必‘锻炼’,因为它们不是在玩耍,就是在做生存必须的事情。鸟儿飞翔,鱼儿游泳。”In that spirit, humans are just supposed to do what humans naturally do — or did, 10,000 years ago — to stay fit: Climb. Run around. Hoist things. And never for unnaturally long stretches.也就是说,为了保持健康,人类也应该做人类生来自然而然就要做的事——或者说,一万年前自然而然要做的事——攀爬、奔跑、搬东西。并且不做不自然的长时间锻炼。“Evolutionary fitness” die-hards can also partake in back-to-nature workout retreats like MoveNat started by a French exercise guru named Erwan Le Corre, where participants crawl up hillsides on all fours, play catch with rocks and balance on logs over creeks.“进化的健康”的铁杆拥趸们还参加回归自然的健身法,比如一位名叫埃尔文·勒·科赫(Erwan Le Corre)的法国导师创立的MoveNat健身,参加者们要手脚并用地爬山,用石头玩接球游戏,在小溪上架设圆木,练习平衡身体。For those who spend their day rearing children, the primal impulse has made major inroads into parenting, too. Websites like The Primal Parent extol corn-syrup-free trick-or-treating, baby slings for “attachment parenting” and placenta-eating for new mothers.还有那些白天要照顾孩子们的人,原始的冲动也闯进了养育儿童的领域。诸如“原始人父母”之类网站倡导不要给孩子吃玉米糖浆,实行“亲密育儿法”,把婴儿悬挂起来,还有让产妇吃胎盘等做法。Unstructured play, in particular, has become a cherished concept among Paleo-minded parents like Ms. Phelps, the Oregon devotee, who argued that “play is the method by which all mammals learn.”信奉旧石器方法的父母们尤其喜爱随意游戏的概念,比如俄勒冈的菲尔普斯女士,她认为“游戏是一切哺乳类动物学习的方式”。Primal parents are the polar opposite of the hyper-achievement-oriented “Tiger Mom” model. Instead of overscheduling her 5-year-old daughter with cello lessons and science fairs, Ms. Phelps prefers to spend hours with her after school playing in a muddy creek near their house. “She loves bugs,” Ms. Phelps said. “She loves dirt. I think she’s going to be an entomologist.”原始人做父母的方式和如今致力于让孩子取得成就的“虎妈”模式截然相反。菲尔普斯没有给五岁的女儿安排大堆提琴课和科学活动,而是在她放学后和她一起去附近泥泞的小溪玩耍。“她喜欢虫子,”菲尔普斯说,“她喜欢泥土,我觉得她可以当个昆虫学家。”Mud. Rocks. Olive oil showers. From the outside, it may be easy to conclude that the Paleo lifestyle is all about hair shirts and self-denial. But Paleos, too, know how to rage after the workday is done, even though liquor, logically speaking, should be off limits. (It’s not as if hunter-gatherers were slugging back highballs). Dr. Cordain’s 85/15 rule of compliance allows for wiggle room, after all.泥巴、岩石、橄榄油浴。从外表看来,你可能会觉得旧石器生活方式意味着满身长毛和自我克制。但信奉旧石器生活方式的人也知道下班后该怎样疯狂一下,尽管从逻辑上说,烈酒本应当是被禁止的(狩猎-采集者似乎不会痛饮烈性威士忌)。但科丹士的85/15原则(罗恩·科丹提出的一种规则,生活中遵循旧石器原则的饮食与不遵循旧石器原则的饮食应大致保持在85%对15%的比例——译注)提供了弹性空间。For those looking to raise a glass, anything grain-forward, like beer, is typically out. But Paleos tend to look the other way on vodka (particularly potato vodka, which is free from all associations with gluten) and 100 percent agave tequila (hey, it’s cactus).对于那些喜欢喝酒的人来说,啤酒等谷物酿造的酒类是绝对禁止的。但旧石器生活方式的信奉者们乐于对伏特加另眼相看(特别是土豆酿制的伏特加,它不含谷蛋白),以及100%龙舌兰酒(嘿,它可是用仙人掌做的)。Pinterest, in fact, is brimming with Paleo cocktail recipes, like the Paleo Strawberry Daiquiri, courtesy of Paleo Girl’s Kitchen. It is made with organic strawberries, ice, fresh-squeezed orange juice, rum and honey. It sounds pretty much like a regular daiquiri.Pinterest网站上有大量旧石器鸡尾酒调制单,比如旧石器草莓代基里酒,由“旧石器女孩厨房”提供。它由有机草莓、冰块、鲜榨橙汁、朗姆酒和蜂蜜制成。听上去和普通代基里酒差不多。In movements that require at least a dash of faith, however, sometimes it’s the spirit that counts.不过,在这种多少需要一点信念的运动中,有时候精神才是最重要的。 /201409/332235China has only made it to one World Cup, in 2002, but there was some hope it would contribute to this year#39;s tournament following reports that a group of baby pandas in Sichuan would try to predict the outcome of matches in Brazil.中国唯一一次进入世界杯决赛圈是在2002年,人们原本希望中国为今年的世界杯做点贡献――此前有报道称,四川的一群大熊猫幼崽将尝试预测巴西世界杯的比赛结果。Chinese authorities have, however, intervened and scrapped the plan. A spokesman for the China Conservation and Research Center for Giant Pandas said the predictions were dropped over fears that the cubs would be overwhelmed by cameras and excited onlookers.但中国当局进行了干预并最终取消了这项计划。中国大熊猫保护和研究中心(China Conservation and Research Center for Giant Pandas)的发言人称,预测赛事的计划被取消是因为担心中心将挤满摄像机和兴奋的围观者。#39;The safety and health of pandas is most important. We won#39;t sacrifice it,#39; the center spokesman said.该中心的发言人称,大熊猫的安全和健康是最重要的事情,他们不会牺牲这一点。It is a harsh blow to the pandas#39; dreams of doing something useful with their lives beyond the daily grind of eating bamboo and being pressured into having sex. There is no point them filing a complaint at their designated grievance facility, otherwise known as a panda-moan-ium, because the decision appears final.这对大熊猫是一次沉重的打击。除了每天咀嚼竹子和被迫交配之外,它们原本还能做点有意义的事情。大熊猫无法提起申诉,因为这似乎已经是最后决定了。The pandas had been expected to predict the outcome of matches by either picking food from bowls marked with the national colors of competing teams, or climbing trees flying certain flags.大熊猫预测赛事的计划原本是这样设计的:在涂上足球队所属国家国旗颜色的碗中盛上食物,看看熊猫会选择哪个碗中的食物;或者看看熊猫会爬上哪棵树并挥舞某国的国旗。Paul the Octopus pioneered the grand tradition of animals picking World Cup winners after a dream run of forecasts for the 2010 tournament in South Africa. He also had a good record at Euro 2008. But Paul is dead, and the search for a worthy successor continues.章鱼保罗曾开启了动物预测世界杯结果的先河,它对2010年南非世界杯的比赛结果进行了预测。它2008年预测欧洲杯的成绩也很出色。但章鱼保罗已经去世了,人们仍在寻找和它一样优秀的继任者。U.K. tabloid the Sun proudly introduced its World Cup tipster -- Pele the Piranha - last week. The newspaper said its #39;Amazonian toothsayer#39; had correctly forecast the results of England#39;s three World Cup warm-up matches by picking one of three morsels of fish to eat.上周,英国小报《太阳报》(Sun)骄傲地推出了它的世界杯预测者――水虎鱼佩莱。该报称,佩莱通过从食物中三选一的方式成功预测了英格兰三场世界杯热身赛的结果。But Pele#39;s World Cup has got off to a poor start, as he predicted England would beat Italy in their opening match.但佩莱的世界杯预测之旅开局不力,它预计英格兰将在首战对阵意大利的比赛中获胜。#39;When offered the three choices for England#39;s opening game against Italy on Saturday, he showed no hesitation and munched the Cross of St George grub,#39; the Sun said.《太阳报》称,在预测周六英格兰对阵意大利的三种比赛结果时,它毫不犹豫地大嚼代表英格兰队将取胜的食物。Italy won 2-1.但最终意大利以2比1战胜了英格兰队。 /201406/305904Pete Frates can no longer speak. But in the last two and a half weeks, a posted on Facebook by Mr. Frates, a 29-year-old former college baseball player, has inspired people like Bill Gates, LeBron James, Chris Christie and Taylor Swift to dump a bucket of ice on their heads and speak out for his cause.大学时曾是棒球运动员的皮特·弗雷迪斯(Pete Frates)再也没办法讲话了。但在过去的两周半时间里,29岁的他上传到Facebook上的一段视频,促使比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)、勒布朗·詹姆斯(LeBron James)、克里斯·克里斯蒂(Chris Christie)和泰勒·斯威夫特(Taylor Swift)等人将一桶加了冰的水从头顶浇下,并且发声持他的目标。The “Ice Bucket Challenge” has lit social media on fire, raising both money and awareness for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, commonly known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. About 30,000 Americans now have the disease, which attacks nerve cells and ultimately leads to total paralysis, though the mind remains sharp. Life expectancy is typically two to five years from the time of diagnosis.“冰桶挑战”这项活动在社交媒体上火了起来,既为肌萎缩性脊髓侧索硬化症(amyotrophic lateral sclerosis,简称ALS)的研究筹集到了资金,又增强了人们对这种病的认识。这种疾病通常被称作葛雷克氏症(Lou Gehrig’s disease)。目前,美国大约有3万人患有ALS,这种病会攻击神经细胞,最终会导致患者彻底瘫痪,但患者的思维仍会保持敏捷。确诊后,患者的寿命通常只有两到五年。(患者俗称“渐冻人”。——译注)The stunt goes like this: People make a of themselves dumping a bucket of ice water on their heads, post it on Facebook, Instagram or other social media sites, and then challenge friends to do the same within 24 hours or donate 0 to ALS. (Many do both.)这项活动是这样的:人们将自己把一桶冰水从头顶浇下的过程拍摄成视频,并上传到Facebook、Instagram或其他社交媒体网站上,然后向朋友发起挑战,让对方在24小时之内做同样的事情,否则就捐100美元(约合620元人民币)用于ALS研究。(很多人既接受挑战,也捐了款。)People have shared more than 1.2 million s on Facebook between June 1 and Aug. 13 and mentioned the phenomenon more than 2.2 million times on Twitter since July 29, according to those sites. Donations to the ALS Association have spiked. As of Sunday, the association said it had received .3 million in donations since July 29, compared with .7 million during the same period last year. It said there were about 260,000 new donors. (With a spate of celebrities and business executives joining in over the past few days and pledging contributions, that number is expected to rise.)从6月1日到8月13日,人们在Facebook上分享了120万个视频。同时,自7月29日以来,这一现象在Twitter上被提到了超过220万次。上述数据分别来自这两家网站。ALS协会(ALS Association)收到的捐款也大幅增加。该协会表示,从7月29日到周日,收到了1330万美元捐款,而去年同期,该协会收到的捐款仅有170万美元。ALS协会称大约有26万名捐赠者是新增的。(鉴于过去几天里,大量名人和企业高管也参与进来并承诺捐款,这一数字预计会上升。)The Ice Bucket Challenge had been making the rounds on the Internet for several weeks before it was tied to ALS. Matt Lauer, the host of N’s Today Show, had water poured over his head on July 15 after being challenged by the golfer Greg Norman.在和ALS联系在一起之前,冰桶挑战活动就已经在互联网上流传了数周。7月15日,在被高尔夫球手格雷格·诺曼(Greg Norman)点名后,N节目《今日秀》(Today Show)的主持人马特·劳尔(Matt Lauer)让人将冰水从他头顶泼下。Mr. Lauer said that he would donate money to the Hospice of Palm Beach County. He challenged Brian Williams, Martha Stewart and Howard Stern.劳尔表示,将捐款给棕榈滩县安养院(Hospice of Palm Beach County)。他向布莱恩·威廉姆斯(Brian Williams)、玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)和霍华德·斯特恩(Howard Stern)发出了挑战。In late July, Mr. Frates learned about the challenge from his friend Pat Quinn, a New Yorker who also has ALS, and wanted to turn the trend into a fund-raiser for the disease.7月底,弗雷迪斯从纽约的朋友帕特·奎因(Pat Quinn)那里了解到了这项挑战活动。奎因也是一名ALS患者。弗雷迪斯想把这个潮流转变成一项针对ALS的募捐。Mr. Frates nominated himself for the challenge. Instead of having ice water poured on his head — “ice water and ALS are a bad mix,” he said on his Facebook page — he posted a of himself bouncing his head to “Ice Ice Baby,” the 1989 hit song by the rapper Vanilla Ice. He challenged some friends, and the stunt sp quickly through Boston circles, then across the web until last week when a parade of boldfaced names joined in. (Last week, Mr. Frates again took the challenge, this time having ice dumped on his head at Boston Red Sox’s Fenway Park.)弗雷迪斯点名让自己接受该挑战。在弗雷迪斯上传的视频中,他没有让冰水从头顶淋下——他在Facebook上写道,原因是“ALS患者遇到冰水会有不好的后果”——而是跟着说唱歌手瓦尼拉·艾斯(Vanilla Ice)于1989年推出的热门歌曲《冰酷宝贝》(Ice Ice Baby)的节奏点头。他向一些朋友发出了挑战,这种做法很快便在波士顿多个圈子传开,后来又在网上迅速流传。一众名人上周也加入了进来。(上周,弗雷迪斯再度接受挑战。这一次,在波士顿红袜队[Boston Red Sox]的芬威球场[Fenway Park]里,他让人将冰水从自己的头顶浇下。)“Did we ever imagine the level of awareness or the money that is coming in? In our dreams we did,” said Mr. Frates’s mother, Nancy Frates.“我们以前想象过,人们对这种病的了解,会达到现在的程度吗?想过会有源源不断的捐款吗?想过,但是在梦里,”弗雷迪斯的母亲南茜·弗雷迪斯(Nancy Frates)说。There has been a backlash. Some have criticized the campaign for so-called slacktivism, where people will click and post online for social causes with little actual impact on the cause. “There are a lot of things wrong with the Ice Bucket Challenge, but the most annoying is that it’s basically narcissism masked as altruism,” said Arielle Pardes, a writer for Vice. On Slate, Will Oremus urged people to take the “no ice bucket challenge” and just donate the money.这场风潮也受到了非议。一些人批评,这场风潮只是“懒人公益行动”(slacktivism),人们只是为一项目标在网上点点按钮、发发帖子,但对这项事业本身并没有多少实际帮助。Vice的作者爱丽尔·帕尔戴斯(Arielle Pardes)说道,“冰桶挑战里有很多不妥当的地方,但是最令人反感的一点是,它基本上是把自恋包装成了利他行为。”在Slate网站上,威尔·奥尔穆斯(Will Oremus)敦促人们参加“不玩冰桶”的挑战,直接捐钱。Ms. Frates said that her son, the former captain of the Boston College baseball team, had been “living the life” when he called a family meeting in 2012. He revealed his illness and said that he did not want to whine, but would instead use the diagnosis as an opportunity to positively affect other people’s lives.南茜·弗雷迪斯说,她曾在波士顿学院(Boston College)棒球队当过队长的儿子,此前一直“过着充实的生活”,直到他在2012年召集了一次家庭会议。他袒露了自己的病情,但说自己不想抱怨,而是会把自己的诊断当做一个机会,努力为别人的生活带来积极的影响。The disease has progressed quickly in the past six months. Mr. Frates has lost the ability to move his arms and legs and now communicates through eye-gaze technology, his mother said. He was married last year to Julie Frates, whom he met eight months before he learned that he had ALS. They are expecting a baby in September.过去六个月里,病情发展很快。弗雷迪斯的母亲说,弗雷迪斯已经无法移动胳膊和腿,现在只能通过跟踪眼球运动的技术与人沟通。去年,弗雷迪斯与朱莉·弗雷迪斯(Julie Frates)结婚,两人是在他得知自己患有ALS的八个月前相识的。他们的孩子将于今年9月降生。In a last December, Mr. Frates said: “The story right now goes: You’ve got ALS, have it for a little while, a long while, but either way, the end is always the same. ALS always wins. So in order to rewrite the end of it, we need to raise awareness, money.”在去年12月的一段视频中,弗雷迪斯说:“现在的故事都是这样的:得了ALS,无论患病的时间是长是短,最后的结局都是一样的。ALS总会打败你。所以,为了改写故事的结局,我们需要提升公众的关注,也需要筹钱。” /201408/323329

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