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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月18日 06:39:01
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Ever since Alice fell down the rabbit hole in her white pinafore, aprons have been something of a fashion statement.自从爱丽丝(Alice)身穿白色围裙掉进兔子洞,围裙就变成了某种时尚宣言。That bib was her most identifiable accessory, a signpost of the seductive tension between traditional girlhood and rebellion, as embodied by the character herself.那件围裙是她最显眼的配饰,是传统的少女期和叛逆期之间诱人张力的标志,而这个人物正是这种张力的典型代表。This year is the 150th anniversary of the Lewis Carroll classic “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.” And as “The Alice Look,” a new exhibition at the Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood in London, illustrates, the fashion world has been obsessed by her style ever since the book was published.今年是刘易斯·卡罗尔(Lewis Carroll)的经典之作《爱丽丝漫游仙境》(Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland)出版150周年。就像伦敦的维多利亚与艾伯特童年物馆(Victoria and Albert Museum of Childhood)的新展览“爱丽丝造型”(The Alice Look)所展示的那样,自从那本书出版之后,时尚界就迷上了她的风格。Alice showed that an apron, like a handbag or a pair of shoes, is a highly efficient conduit of individual identity. It can transform a look and change an expectation.爱丽丝表明,围裙就像手袋或鞋子,能非常有效地传达个人身份。它能转变一种造型,改变一种期待。And not only on the catwalk, but also in the kitchen. No wonder we have appropriated the once-utilitarian chef’s apron as our own. It doesn’t just protect from sauce splatter, grease stains and beet juice; it also projects personality and aesthetic choice, no matter the skill level or the ambition.不仅在秀台上,而且在厨房里。难怪我们已把曾经仅具实用功能的大厨围裙挪作己用。它不仅能防止酱汁、油点和甜菜汁溅到身上,还能表现个性和审美,不管你的烹饪水平有多高或者野心有多大。This perhaps explains why, just as there are aprons in fashion (see the tough smithlike leather aprons and apron dresses in last February’s Fendi show and the cartoonish 1950s pinafore styles at Miu Miu), there are fashions in aprons.这也许能解释为什么,就像时尚界有围裙一样(比如去年2月芬迪[Fendi]时装秀上的强悍铁匠风格皮质围裙和连衫围裙以及Miu Miu的20世纪50年代卡通风格围裙),围裙也有自己的时尚。There are workmen’s aprons, which are the culinary equivalent of streetwear: hardy leather and denim or selvage numbers with grommets and pockets that telegraph a tough-chef look, the better to carve up a goat and roast its carcass. The model might be the Stanley amp; Sons leather lap apron (3), or the Search amp; Rescue split-leg apron (about 5). It’s expensive to look so hard-core.有些是男工围裙,相当于烹饪版的街头饰:结实的皮料粗布围裙,或者带有扣眼和口袋的织边围裙,传达出强悍大厨的感觉,最好是穿着它宰羊烘烤。这类围裙的典型代表是Stanley amp; Sons的长及大腿的皮质围裙(143美元)或者Search amp; Rescue的分腿围裙(约195美元)。它们看起来就是基本款围裙,所以价格显得有点贵。There are decorative sunny aprons, like the black-and-white check from MacKenzie-Childs () or the diner-stripe from Kate Spade (), the signifiers of the playful nature of the kitchen. These are good aprons for the sweet set, and for those who are fond of giving tradition a tweak.也有一些活泼的装饰性围裙,比如MacKenzie-Childs的黑白格围裙(78美元)或Kate Spade的餐馆条纹围裙(30美元),它们表达出厨房玩闹的一面。这些围裙非常适合甜蜜的场合或者那些喜欢稍微改变传统的人。(Note: There is a difference between the “fun” apron and the “funny” apron — you know, the ones with naked bodies superimposed on the wearer’s body, or other sort of faux trompe l’oeil prints. The latter is a joke item, like the novelty tie, and is best avoided lest the joke be on you.)(提示:“有趣”的围裙和“搞笑”的围裙是两回事。你知道,后者是把裸体图像通过透视叠加在穿着者身上。它们就像新奇领带,是用来搞笑的,所以最好不要穿,免得你自己变成笑柄。)And there are tailored, minimal versions that are the culinary equivalent of, say, a Céline bag, so understated that they demand a level of connoisseurship to be understood. Think of aprons like Hedley amp; Bennett’s color-blocked waist-tied styles (from , on sale) or the Marcy Butler Italian linen V-neck Carol (8) as a piece of tied-on sartorial semiology that reflects a fondness for both Scandinavia and the chemistry lab.还有那种精心裁剪的极简围裙,它们相当于烹饪版的赛琳(Céline)手袋,非常朴素,理解它们需要一定程度的鉴赏力。比如,Hedley amp; Bennett的腰部系带色块围裙(40美元起,特价)或者Marcy Butler的意大利亚麻V领卡罗尔围裙(118美元),后者是一种裁剪符号学,反映出对斯堪的纳维亚风格和化学实验室的双重喜爱。“Curiouser and curiouser,” as Alice might say? Not at all. You’d feel like a pretender in a chef’s toque or checkered pants, but in an apron of your own choice, you can feel like yourself. It’s simply a matter of taste. In more than one sense of the word.这是不是像爱丽丝说的,“越来越奇怪了”?完全不是。如果戴着厨师帽或穿着厨师方格裤,你会觉得自己有点装模作样,但是如果穿着你自己挑选的围裙,你会感觉更像自己。这只是品味问题。我指的是这个词的多重含义。 /201506/383361

The year’s notable fiction, poetry and nonfiction, selected by the editors of The New York Times Book Review.本年度值得关注的虚构文学、诗歌和非虚构作品,由《纽约时报》书评版编辑评选。FICTION amp; POETRY虚构与诗歌类ALL OUR NAMES. By Dinaw Mengestu. (Knopf, .95.) With great sadness and much hard truth, Mengestu’s novel looks at a relationship of shared dependencies between a Midwestern social worker and a bereft African immigrant.《我们所有的名字》(All Our Names)。迪瑙·曼格斯图(Dinaw Mengstu)著,克诺普夫出版社(Knopf),25.95美元。曼格斯图的小说带着深深的悲伤和艰难的真相,审视了一个美国中西部的社工与一个失去亲人的非洲移民之间相互依赖的关系。ALL THE BIRDS, SINGING. By Evie Wyld. (Pantheon, .95.) Wyld’s emotionally wrenching novel traces a solitary sheep farmer’s attempt to outrun her past on a remote British island.《所有的鸟儿,歌唱》(All the Birds, Singing)。伊维·韦尔德(Evie Wyld)著。万神殿出版社(Pantheon),24.95美元。韦尔德的小说充满痛苦情感,讲述了一个在偏僻的英国岛屿上隐居的牧羊女人如何试图走出过去。ALL THE LIGHT WE CANNOT SEE. By Anthony Doerr. (Scribner, .) The paths of a blind French girl and an orphaned German boy converge in this novel, set around the time of World War II.《我们看不到的所有光明》(All the Light We Cannot See),安东尼·多伊尔(Anthony Doerr)著。斯克里布纳出版社(Scribner),27美元。这部小说以“二战”为背景,一个失明法国女孩与一个德国孤儿的人生道路交汇在一起。AMERICAN INNOVATIONS. By Rivka Galchen. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) Most of these stories offer variations on a particular sort of woman: in her 30s, urban, emotionally adrift.《美国创新》(American Innovations)。里弗卡·格钦(Rivka Galchen)著。法拉,施特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社(Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux),24美元。书中的大部分短篇小说对30多岁、情感上茫然无措的都市女人做了各种描述。THE ASSASSINATION OF MARGARET THATCHER: Stories. By Hilary Mantel. (John Macrae/Holt, .) One has the sense that Mantel is working with some complex private material in these suavely stylish, vastly entertaining contemporary fables.《暗杀玛格丽特·撒切尔:短篇小说集》(The Assassination of Margaret Thatcher: Stories)。希拉里·曼特尔(Hilary Mantel)著。约翰·马克拉伊/霍尔特出版社(John Macrae/Holt),27美元。曼特尔用老练的独特风格创作了这些非常有趣的当代寓言,让人感觉她是在处理一些复杂的私密素材。THE BALLAD OF A SMALL PLAYER. By Lawrence Osborne. (Hogarth, .) In Osborne’s feverish novel, the playing is done on the gambling tables of Macau by a tortured embezzler on the run.《小角色之歌》(The Ballad of a Small Player)。劳伦斯·奥斯本(Lawrence Osborne)著。贺加斯出版社(Hogarth),25美元。这是奥斯本最狂热的小说,游戏在的赌桌上发生,主角是一个内心痛苦的在逃贪污犯。BARK: Stories. By Lorrie Moore. (Knopf, .95.) The uncrowded format of Moore’s first collection in 16 years allows each story the chance it deserves for leisurely appreciation, and lets the er savor just what makes her work unique.《吠叫:短篇小说集》(Bark: Stories)。洛里·尔(Lorrie Moore)著。克诺普夫出版社,24.95美元。这是尔16年来的第一部小说选集,松散的版式令读者可以从容不迫地欣赏每个好故事,从中品味到她的独特之处。THE BLAZING WORLD. By Siri Hust#173;vedt. (Simon amp; Schuster, .) Hustvedt’s multifaceted novel is a portrait of a creative titan whose career and reputation have seemingly been blighted by the art establishment’s ingrained sexism.《燃灼的世界》(The Blazing World)。西里·哈斯特韦德特(Siri Hustvedt) 著。西蒙与舒斯特出版社(Simon amp; Schuster),26美元。哈斯特韦德特的小说具有多重层次,描述了一位创意大师的事业生涯与声誉如何被艺术界根深蒂固的男性至上主义所毁灭。THE BONE CLOCKS. By David Mitchell. (Random House, .) In this latest head-#173;spinning flight into other dimensions from the author of “Cloud Atlas,” all borders between pubby England and the machinations of the undead begin to blur.《骨钟》(The Bone Clocks)。大卫·米歇尔(David Mitchell) 著。兰登书屋出版社(Random House),30美元。《云图》(Cloud Atlas)作者的最新小说,它令人晕眩地在异空间飞行,熟悉的英格兰与亡灵的阴谋世界之间的界限开始模糊。THE BOOK OF STRANGE NEW THINGS. By Michel Faber. (Hogarth, .) Faber is a master of the weird; in his defiantly unclassifiable novel, a pastor from Earth is picked to satisfy an alien planet’s mysterious yen for religious instruction.《奇异新事之书》(The Book of Strange New Things)。米凯尔·法伯(Michel Faber) 著。贺加斯出版社,28美元。法伯是描写怪异事物的大师。在这部大胆而难以归类的小说中,一位来自地球的牧师被选中,满足外星对信仰教诲的神秘渴望。THE BOOK OF UNKNOWN AMERICANS. By Cristina Henríquez. (Knopf, .95.) Latino immigrant characters face the challenges of assimilation.《无名美国人之书》(The Book of Unknown Americans)。克里斯蒂娜·亨利奎兹(Cristina Henríquez) 著。克诺普夫出版社,24.95美元。书中的拉丁美裔移民面临被同化的挑战。BOY, SNOW, BIRD. By Helen Oyeyemi. (Riverhead, .95.) Taking “Snow White” as a cultural touchstone, Oyeyemi’s novel offers up a cautionary tale on post-race ideology, racial limbos and the politics of passing.《男孩,雪,鸟儿》(Boy, Snow, Bird)。海伦·奥伊尔耶米(Helen Oyeyemi) 著。里弗黑德出版社(Riverhead),27.95美元。奥伊尔耶米的小说把《白雪公主》作为文化标准,讲述了一个关于后种族意识形态、种族不稳定状态与有色人种获得主流认同政治的警示故事。A BRIEF HISTORY OF SEVEN KILLINGS. By Marlon James. (Riverhead, .95.) Revolving around the assassination attempt on Bob Marley in 1976, this mesmerizingly powerful novel addresses politics, class, race and violence in #173;Jamaica.《七次谋杀简史》(A Brief History of Seven Killings)。马龙·詹姆斯(Marlon James) 著。里弗黑德出版社,28.95美元。这本轻快有力的小说围绕着1976年针对鲍勃·马利的谋杀尝试进行,涉及牙买加的政治、阶级、种族与暴力。CAN’T AND WON’T. By Lydia Davis. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) In Davis’s stories, the mundane and the fathomless appear together on the same street, and calamity is always close at hand.《不能与不愿》(Can’t And Won’t)。莉迪亚·戴维斯(Lydia Davis) 著。法拉,施特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社,26美元。在戴维斯的短篇小说中,世俗与神秘出现在同一条街上,灾难永远近在咫尺。THE COLD SONG. By Linn Ullmann. Translated by Barbara J. Haveland. (Other Press, paper, .95.) Ullmann’s novel of a guilt-ridden Norwegian family is set in motion by a nanny’s murder.《寒冷的歌》(The Cold Song)。林恩·厄尔曼(Linn Ullmann) 著。芭芭拉·J·哈弗兰德(Barbara J. Haveland)翻译。其他出版社(Other Press),平装,15.95美元。额尔曼的小说讲述了一个充满负疚感的挪威家庭卷入保姆谋杀事件。COLORLESS TSUKURU TAZAKI AND HIS YEARS OF PILGRIME. By Haruki Murakami. Translated by Philip Gabriel. (Knopf, .95.) A novel of a man’s traumatic entrance into adulthood and the shadowy passages he must then #173;negotiate.《没有色的多崎作和他的巡礼之年》(Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage)。村上春树著。菲利普·加布里埃尔(Philip Gabriel)翻译。克诺普夫出版社,25.95美元。关于一个男人进入成年期的创伤回忆以及他必须穿越的充满阴影的旅程。DEPT. OF SPECULATION. By Jenny Offill. (Knopf, .95.) Building its story from fragments, observations, meditations and different points of view, Offill’s cannily paced second novel charts the course of a marriage.《猜测部门》(DEPT. of Speculation)。詹尼·奥菲尔(Jenny Offill) 著。克诺普夫出版社,22.95美元。这是奥菲尔的第二部小说,在碎片、观察、思索与不同观点之上精心构建起他的故事,描述一段婚姻的过程。THE DOG. By Joseph O’Neill. (Pantheon, .95.) In O’Neill’s disturbing, elegant novel, his first since “Netherland,” a lost and tormented New York lawyer recognizes more darkness within himself than in the iniquitous place he works, Dubai.《》(The Dog)。约瑟夫·奥尼尔(Joseph O’Neill) 著。万神殿出版社,25.95美元。这是奥尼尔继《荷兰》(Netherland)之后推出的最新小说,令人不安,简洁优美,讲述一个迷惘而痛苦的纽约律师在险恶不公的迪拜工作后,发现内心深处比外部环境还要阴暗。EUPHORIA. By Lily King. (Atlantic Monthly, .) King’s novel turns an episode in the life of Margaret Mead into a taut tale of competing egos and desires in a landscape of exotic menace.《欣快》(Euphoria)。莉莉·金(Lily King) 著。大西洋月刊出版社(Atlantic Monthly),25美元。金的小说把玛格丽特·米德(Margaret Mead)人生中的一段插曲变为一个发生在具有危险性的异国风情之中、令人紧张不安的故事,它关乎相互竞争的人格与欲望。EVERYTHING I NEVER TOLD YOU. By Celeste Ng. (Penguin Press, .95.) In this novel, a tragedy tears away at a mixed-race family in 1970s Ohio.《我永远不会告诉你的一切》(Everything I Never Told You)。塞莱斯特·吴(Celeste Ng) 著。企鹅出版社(Penguin Press),26.95美元。这部小说讲述在20世纪70年代的俄亥俄州,一场悲剧是如何撕裂一个种族混合的家庭。F. By Daniel Kehlmann. Translated by Carol Brown Janeway. (Pantheon, .95.) Deserted by their enigmatic father, three brothers struggle with life in Kehlmann’s sly tragicomedy.《F》。丹尼尔·凯尔曼恩(Daniel Kehlmann) 著。卡罗尔·布朗·简维(Carol Brown Janeway)翻译。万神殿出版社,25.95美元。在凯尔曼恩这部狡黠的悲喜剧中,三兄弟被神秘的父亲抛弃,之后挣扎求生。FAITHFUL AND VIRTUOUS NIGHT. By Louise Glück. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) The poet’s latest collection responds with high art and startling presence to the vantage offered by mortality.《忠诚善良的夜晚》(Faithful and Virtuous Night)。路易斯·格里克(Louise Glück) 著。法拉,斯特劳斯与格鲁克斯出版社,23美元。这是诗人最新的选集,是以至高艺术与惊人的风度对死亡所带来的有利地位的回应。FAMILY LIFE. By Akhil Sharma. (Norton, .95.) Sharma’s novel, deeply unnerving and tender at the core, charts a young man’s struggles to grow within a family shattered by tragedy and disoriented by its move from India.《家庭生活》(Family Life)。阿克希尔·沙玛(Akhil Sharma) 著。诺顿出版社(Norton),23.95美元。沙玛的小说深刻、令人不安,本质上却非常温柔。描述了一个年轻男人努力在一个受悲剧打击、迷失方向的印度移民家庭家庭中成长。FOURTH OF JULY CREEK. By Smith Henderson. (Ecco/HarperCollins, .99.) In Henderson’s impressive novel, an overburdened social worker becomes involved with a near-feral boy and his survivalist father in 1980 Montana.《7月4日河》(Fourth of July Creek)。史密斯·亨德森(Smith Henderson) 著。艾克/哈珀-科林斯出版社(Ecco/Harper-Collins),26.99美元。亨德森这本感人的小说发生在1980年的蒙大拿,一个不堪重负的社工认识了一个近乎野蛮的男孩和他信奉生存主义的父亲。A GIRL IS A HALF-FORMED THING. By Eimear McBride. (Coffee House Press, .) An Irish writer’s odd, energetic first novel.《女孩是半成品》(A Girl Is a Half-formed Thing)。埃米尔·麦克布莱德(Eimear McBride) 著。咖啡屋出版社(Coffee House Press),24美元。一位爱尔兰作家奇异而充满活力的处女小说。I PITY THE POOR IMMIGRANT. By Zachary Lazar. (Little, Brown, .) Lazar’s brilliant novel of spiritual discovery features Meyer Lansky, an American journalist and an Israeli poet’s murder.《我同情那可怜的移民》(I Pity the Poor Immigrant)。扎卡里·拉扎尔(Zachary Lazar) 著。利特尔,布朗出版社(Little, Brown),25美元。拉扎尔精的小说讲述心灵发现的故事,其中有美国记者梅耶尔·兰斯基(Meyer Lansky)与一位以色列诗人被谋杀的故事。THE LAUGHING MONSTERS. By Denis Johnson. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) Johnson’s cheerfully nihilistic novel about two scammers and rogue spies in Africa derives much of its situation from several of his early journalistic pieces.《大笑的怪物们》(The Laughing Monsters)。丹尼斯·约翰逊(Denis Johnson) 著。法拉,斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社,25美元。约翰逊这本欢快的虚无主义小说讲述非洲的两个阴谋家兼无赖间谍的故事,大量环境描写来自他早期的新闻写作。LENA FINKLE’S MIC BARREL. Written and illustrated by Anya Ulinich. (Penguin, paper, .) Ulinich’s graphic novel traces the marital and romantic adventures of her immigrant heroine.《莉娜·芬克尔的魔法筒》(Lena Finkle’s Magic Barrel)。安雅·尤利尼奇(Anya Ulinich)创作并绘画。企鹅出版社,平装,17美元。尤利尼奇的绘本讲述她的移民女主角的婚姻和浪漫冒险。LET ME BE FRANK WITH YOU: A Frank Bascombe Book. By Richard Ford. (Ecco/Harper#173;Collins, .99.) In four linked stories, Ford’s aging Everyman surveys life after Hurricane Sandy batters New #173;Jersey.《让我对你老实说:弗兰克·巴斯康比之书》(Let Me Be Frank with You: A Frank Bascombe Book)。理查德·福特(Richard Ford) 著。艾克/哈珀-科林斯出版社,27.99美元。在书中四个相互关联的故事里,福特笔下痛苦的“普通人”研究经受桑迪飓风打击后的新泽西人的生活。LILA. By Marilynne Robinson. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) A young woman with a past of hardship and suffering makes a new start in Robinson’s fictional town of Gilead, Iowa.《莱拉》(Lila)。玛丽琳·罗宾逊(Marilynne Robinson) 著。法拉·斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社,26美元。一个有着痛苦、艰辛过去的女人,在罗宾逊笔下虚构的爱荷华小镇吉里德重新开始生活。LOVERS AT THE CHAMELEON CLUB, PARIS 1932. By Francine Prose. (Harper, .99.) Prose, a subtle psychologist, has created a genuinely evil character in Lou Villars, a cross-dressing French racecar driver and Nazi collaborator.《变色龙俱乐部的恋人,1932年巴黎》(Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932)。弗朗辛·普洛斯(Francine Prose) 著。哈珀出版社(Harper),26.99美元。普洛斯是一个敏感的心理学家,其笔下的卢·维拉斯是法国异装赛车手与纳粹合作者,是个极为邪恶的人物。THE MICIAN’S LAND. By Lev Grossman. (Viking, .95.) In the strong final installment of a trilogy, an exiled magician attempts a risky heist.《魔术师之国》(The Magician’s Land)。列弗·格劳斯曼(Lev Grossman) 著。维京出版社(Viking),27.95美元。这是三部曲中强有力的最后一部,讲述一个流亡的魔术师尝试危险的盗窃活动。THE MOOR’S ACCOUNT. By Laila La#173;lami. (Pantheon, .95.) Estebanico, the first black explorer of America, narrates this fictional memoir.《荒野报告》(The Moor’s Account)。莱拉·拉-雷米(Laila La-lami)著。万神殿出版社,26.95美元。美国的首位黑人探险家伊斯特巴尼克讲述这部虚构的回忆录。MOTHERLAND FATHERLAND HOMELANDSEXUALS. By Patricia Lockwood. (Penguin Poets, paper, .) Lockwood offers a collection at once angrier, and more fun, more attuned to our time and more bizarre, than most poetry can ever get.《母国,父国,祖国的性别》(Motherland Fatherland Homeland Sexuals)。帕特里西亚·洛克伍德(Patricia Lockwood)著。企鹅诗歌出版社(Penguin Poets),平装,20美元。洛克伍德带来这样一本诗集,与大多数诗集相比更加愤怒、更有趣,更切合我们的时代,也更加奇异。MY STRUGGLE. Book 3: Boyhood. By Karl Ove Knausgaard. Translated by Don Bartlett. #173;(Archipelago, .) The third installment of Knausgaard’s Proustian six-volume autobiographical novel.《我的奋斗,第三卷:童年》(My Struggle Book 3: Boyhood)。卡尔·奥维·克瑙斯加德(Karl Ove Knausgaard)著。堂·巴特莱特(Don Bartlett)翻译。群岛出版社(Archipelago),27美元。这是克瑙斯加德的普鲁斯特式六卷本自传体小说中的第三部。THE NARROW ROAD TO THE DEEP NORTH. By Richard Flanagan. (Knopf, .95.) A frail humanity survives the unspeakable in this novel of the Burma-#173;Thailand Railway of World War II.《通往深远北方的窄路》(The Narrow Road to the Deep North)。理查德·弗拉纳根(Richard Flanagan)著。克诺普夫出版社,26.95美元。在这部讲述“二战”期间修建缅甸-泰国铁路的小说中,脆弱的人性战胜了不可言说的苦难。NORA WEBSTER. By Colm Toibin. (Scribner, .) In Toibin’s luminous, elliptical novel, set in the late 1960s and early ’70s, an Irishwoman struggles toward independence after her husband’s unexpected death.《诺拉·韦伯斯特》(Nora Webster)。科尔姆·托宾(Colm Toibin)著。斯克里布纳出版社,27美元。托宾这部精而简洁的小说发生在20世纪60年代末70年代初,讲述一个爱尔兰女人在丈夫意外身亡后为独立而斗争的故事。PANIC IN A SUITCASE. By Yelena Akhtiorskaya. (Riverhead, .95.) As a Ukrainian family adapts to life in Brooklyn, old-country memories linger.《手提箱里的恐慌》(Panic in a Suitcase)。艾琳娜·艾克迪奥斯卡娅(Yelena Akhtiorskaya)著。里弗黑德出版社,27.95美元。一个乌克兰家庭适应布鲁克林生活,对祖国的回忆萦绕不去。THE PAYING GUESTS. By Sarah Waters. (Riverhead, .95.) Hard times, forbidden love, murder and justice are the themes of this nevertheless comic novel, set in London after World War I.《付费宾客》(The Paying Guests)。莎拉·沃特斯(Sarah Waters)著。里弗黑德出版社,28.95美元。艰苦的生活、禁忌之恋、谋杀与公正是这部小说的主题,不过它仍然是部喜剧,发生在“一战”后的伦敦。THE POETRY OF DEREK WALCOTT 1948-2013. Selected by Glyn Maxwell. (Farrar, Straus amp; Giroux, .) Stroke by patient stroke, the poems in this largehearted and essential selection from Walcott, now 84, are the work of a painterly hand.《德里克·沃尔科特诗集,1948-2013》(The Poetry of Derek Walcott 1948-2013)。格林·麦克斯维尔选编(Glyn Maxwell)。法拉、斯特劳斯与吉鲁科斯出版社,40美元。这部雄心勃勃、不可或缺的精选集来自现年84岁的沃尔科特,是由艺术家之手一笔一笔描绘的杰作。REDEPLOYMENT. By Phil Klay. (Penguin Press, .95.) Twelve stories by a former Marine who served in Iraq capture on an intimate scale the ways in which the war there evoked a unique array of emotion, predicament and heartbreak.《重新部署》(Redeployment)。菲尔·克雷(Phil Klay)著。企鹅出版社,26.95美元。这本书中收录了这位前海军陆战队员的12部短篇小说。它以亲密的方式描述了伊拉克战争是如何引发了一种情感、困境与痛苦的排列组合。REMEMBER ME LIKE THIS. By Bret Anthony Johnston. (Random House, .) In Johnston’s skillful and enthralling debut novel, a family is reunited after an abducted son comes home.《这样回忆我》(Remember Me Like This)。布莱特·安东尼·约翰斯坦(Bret Anthony Johnston)著。兰登书屋出版社,26美元。在约翰斯坦这本技巧娴熟而迷人的处女小说中,被诱拐的儿子回家与家人重聚。A REPLACEMENT LIFE. By Boris Fishman. (Harper, .99.) In Fishman’s bold, ambitious and wickedly smart first novel, a Soviet émigré writer in New York becomes disturbingly adept at forging applications for Holocaust reparations.《代替人生》(A Replacement Life)。鲍里斯·菲什曼(Boris Fishman)著。哈珀出版社,25.99美元。菲什曼这本大胆、充满野心而聪明顽皮的处女小说中,一位居住在纽约的苏联移民作家令人不安而娴熟地伪造纳粹大屠杀赔偿的申请书。SONG OF THE SHANK. By Jeffery Renard Allen. (Graywolf, paper, .) Allen’s masterly novel blends the personal story of the enslaved autistic piano prodigy Thomas Wiggins with the history of the Civil War and Reconstruction.《轮轴之歌》(Song of the Shank)。杰弗里·莱纳德·艾伦(Jeffery Renard Allen)著。格雷沃夫出版社(Graywolf),平装,18美元。艾伦精的小说将患有孤独症的钢琴神童托马斯·威金斯(Thomas Wiggins)的个人故事与南北战争及重建的历史融合起来。10:04. By Ben Lerner. (Faber amp; Faber, .) A Brooklyn-based narrator preoccupied with identity decides to help his best friend have a child in this frequently brilliant second novel.《10:04》。本·勒纳(Ben Lerner)著。法伯与法伯出版社(Faber amp; Faber),25美元。这是勒纳的第二本小说,精不断,书中来自布鲁克林的叙事者受身份认同困扰,决心帮助自己最好的朋友拥有一个孩子。THIRTY GIRLS. By Susan Minot. (Knopf, .95.) Minot’s novel approaches the atrocities wrought by a murderous African rebel army with candor yet without sensationalism.《30个女孩》(Thirty Girls)。苏珊·米诺特(Susan Minot)著。克诺普夫出版社,26.95美元。米诺特的小说写了一残忍的非洲反叛军队的暴行,文笔坦率,毫无煽情。 /201412/347008

  

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  ARIES白羊Rams are fiery, impulsive and active, so to please the Aries in your life, try taking them on a date that is adventurous and fast-paced -- or short and sweet. Sports go over well, both playing and attending them. Spicy food or games of any sort will keep the Ram#39;s fires stoked. In the end, just keep in mind that people born under the Sign of Aries like physical challenges and are looking for a dating experience that will reflect that.羊儿热情冲动、积极活跃。因此要想取悦他们的话,你和他/她的约会一定要充满刺激,直截了当。一块去运动是不错的选择。另外,带他/她品尝辛辣的食物或是参与任何形式的游戏也很对羊儿的胃口哦。最后,一定要记住的是白羊座人喜欢能带来身体挑战乐趣的约会。TAURUS金牛Ready to spend some money? If you have a Taurus date, you#39;d better have a big pocket book or a rich imagination. Taureans like luxury, so do it up right -- expensive dinner, the theater, dessert and a foot massage might just earn you a permanent place on your Taurean#39;s calendar. If you don#39;t have the money, get creative- - make the experience feel rich, earthy and delicious.准备好花钱了吗?如果你想和牛儿约会,一定要有鼓鼓的钱包或是丰富的想像力喔。牛儿喜欢奢华的生活,因此,无论是价格不菲的晚餐、一部电影大片,还是餐后甜点和足底都会让她/他对你刮目相看。如果你没有经济实力的话,那就来点创意吧,一定要让对方觉得有意思才行。GEMINI双子The first step to keeping up with a Gemini date is to put on your running shoes. Ready for change, fast and furious? Gemini#39;s love variety and are the most curious Signs of the Zodiac. They want to be constantly stimulated mentally, yet they get bored quickly. So, take your Gemini out on an unusual date, or maybe a bunch of mini-dates, all in one night! Gemini#39;s enjoy literary events, intellectual events and unique experiences.和双子座约会的第一步是穿起你的跑鞋,赶紧大步追上这个善变的对象。因为双子座人是在整个黄道带里最富好奇心的星座。他们希望不断地得到精神刺激,但是很快又会厌倦。那么,和他/她的约会一定要与众不同,也许一个小型的烛光晚宴是个不错的选择。切记,双子座喜欢独特且有深度的约会。CANCER巨蟹Wait -- don#39;t take that Cancer date anywhere. Cancers are emotional, sensitive and somewhat domestic. This is your chance to get romantic and somewhat traditional, and have those efforts be truly appreciated. Don#39;t forget the rich fantasy life that the Crab in your life possesses -- put a little imagination into your efforts, whether that means more candles, incense and velvet table cloths, or perhaps a theme evening -- French food, movie and music.耐心等待吧,不要带蟹子去任何地方。巨蟹座人大都敏感多情,还有一点居家。如果你的约会兼具浪漫和传统的话,一定会让他/她很开心。不要忘了蟹子也爱做白日梦哦,那么在你的约会里加一点创意,比如多些蜡烛,熏香和天鹅绒的桌布都能给对方惊喜;邀请他/她去看电影和听音乐会也是不错的主意。LEO狮子To keep your Leo date happy, there had better be some drama in your evening. Your Leo date will love dressing up to the nines, and needs to have an engaging and social event to attend. Cultural events will be popular with the Lion in your life, as will gambling or anything exciting. The key to a successful date with a Leo is to make them feel like royalty.想让狮子开心的话,最好带他/她去看晚场的话剧。狮子座人喜欢把自己打扮地光鲜亮丽,这样可以在赴约时显得美丽动人。涉及文化或是任何令他/她感到兴奋的事都可以成为你与狮子座人约会的内容。与他/她成功约会的关键在于一定要让对方有居高临下的感觉。VIRGO处女The key to romancing a Virgo is simple elegance -- take your date out for a tasteful, stylish evening. But don#39;t be too spendy -- your Virgo will be embarrassed by splashy shows of money, and will be more impressed by value rather than amount. Also keep in mind that Virgo rules the house of health, so a date with physical activity (especially outdoors) will be a hit. Virgos also love animals, so a date that puts your Virgo in contact with them (like a trip to the zoo!) will earn you a smile.与处女约会的关键是要体现优雅-独特风格的晚宴最有可能俘获对方的芳心。但是不要太奢侈,处女座不喜欢随意挥霍钱财的人,他/她更容易被价值而不是数量所打动。还要记住的是,处女座人身处“健康宫”,因此与他/她的约会最好能涉及身体锻练(尤其是户外运动)。处女座人还很喜欢动物,带他们去动物园肯定也是不错的选择。LIBRA天秤Libra rules the House of Partnership, which means they tend to be socially inclined and more interested in other people than themselves. Your Libra will need you to have as much fun on your date as they are! Something social would be successful with a Libra date. Beauty and sensuality are important to Libras, so this is definitely the person for whom you want to bring flowers to the door.天秤座身处“友情宫”,这意味着他们很愿意结交朋友,并且往往对别人比自己的事情更有兴趣。你得想尽办法让秤子高兴。多一些社交活动肯定能让他/她满意。天秤座人天生爱扮靓,因此要是看到你手捧鲜花站在他/她家门口等待约会的话,肯定乐开了花。SCORPIO天蝎Mystery is the name of Scorpio#39;s game, so suspenseful games, movies or theater will be your ticket to a wonderful evening. In fact, holding one of those dinner mystery nights might be the perfect evening -- your Scorpio could act like someone else, figure out the mystery and spend some quality time with you -- all at once! Scorpios are also quite passionate, so don#39;t be stingy with affection when you are having a good time.蝎子喜欢神秘的事物。因此,晚上约他们去看一场充满悬疑的电影一定是件很美妙的事。实际上,与蝎子共享一个神秘的晚宴也是好的选择。天蝎座人充满热情,与他/她在一起时千万不要吝啬自己的感情哦。SITTARIUS射手How to make your Sagittarius happy? Spontaneous trips to somewhere unusual -- the beach, the desert, you name it. They also love physical activity in the outdoors, so asking them to go hiking or camping will make you get noticed and appreciated.怎样让射手座开心呢?带他/她去海滩、沙漠这样与众不同的地方旅行吧。他们也很喜欢户外运动,和你一起去郊游和野营一定让他们兴奋不已。CAPRICORN羯Capricorns can be conventional, but who said conventional couldn#39;t be fun? Your classic date will go over well with the Capricorn in your life, so relax -- flowers, dinner and a movie would make a perfect and comfortable evening. Whatever you do, the goat in your life will appreciate an experience that feels affluent but doesn#39;t cost a lot of money. Capricorns also enjoy a little one-on-one competition, so playing tennis or golf together might be just the ticket to romance after the game.羯座比较传统,但谁说传统的人就不能享受快乐呢?送鲜花、赴晚宴和看电影,这些浪漫的约会方式都很适用。无论你做什么,羯座人会为你精心的安排感到开心,但不要花太多的钱。羯座还喜欢一对一的方式,打网球或是高尔夫都是不错的选择喔。AQUARIUS水瓶Taking an Aquarius out could be the easiest or hardest dating experience of your life. Aquarians like anything different, new, technological or progressive. If you are feeling up for it, take your Aquarius on an adventure date -- windsurfing, hang-gliding or spelunking. Get creative, and don#39;t shy away from something intellectual -- your Aquarius will love you for it.与瓶子约会可能是你生命中最难也可能是最容易的事。瓶子喜欢新鲜、技术含量高的稀奇事情。如果你想讨好他/她,冒险刺激的约会是少不了的-可以尝试帆板运动、攀岩或山洞探险。只要是有创意,最好再带上点高科技的玩意肯定会让瓶子爱死你的。PISCES双鱼Pisceans are interested in everything that isn#39;t quite real. Any date that involves the arts, from painting together to attending the theater, will make your Pisces smile. Romance will be appreciated by this Sign, so try a beach picnic with wine and cheese or high-tea in a garden. Whatever you do, put a little magic into your date -- creating the right mood will romance your Pisces more than any money you spend.鱼儿对任何不太真实的东西充满了兴趣。任何涉及艺术,如画画和欣赏戏剧这样的活动都能得鱼儿嫣然一笑。这个星座的人喜欢浪漫,因此带上美酒和奶酪去海滩野餐一定会让他/她倍受感动。无论你做什么,在你的约会里加一点小小的创意也会让鱼儿开心不已。要知道在鱼儿看来,心灵的契合比物质上的宽裕更重要。 /201507/385800

  After an 83-year-old widow and amateur painter tried her hand at restoring a nearly century-old fresco of Jesus crowned with thorns in her local church here, she faced nothing but scorn and ridicule.西班牙尔哈——一位83岁的寡妇和业余画家试图修复本地教堂一幅拥有将近百年历史的荆冠基督壁画,其后面临了种种讥笑和奚落。News of the earnest, if utterly failed, restoration in 2012 rocketed around the globe on Twitter and Facebook — the image likened variously to a monkey or hedgehog, and superimposed in memes and parodies on the “Mona Lisa” and a Campbell’s soup can.2012年,她的修复成果通过Twitter和Facebook飞速传遍全球——这项工作充满热情,不过却是完全失败的,人们把她修复的图像比作猴子和刺猬,还把它与《蒙娜丽莎》或者坎贝尔(Campbell)汤罐头的图案恶搞到一起。But these days, people in this village of medieval palaces and winding lanes in northeast Spain are giving the artist, Cecilia Giménez, and her work a miraculous reassessment.尔哈位于西班牙东北部,拥有中世纪的大厦和蜿蜒小路,如今,它对这位艺术家塞西莉亚·西门尼斯(Cecilia Giménez)和她的作品给予了奇迹般的重新评估。Grief has turned to gratitude for divine intervention — the blessing of free publicity — that has made Borja, a town of just 5,000, a magnet for thousands of curious tourists eager to see her handiwork, resurrecting the local economy.悲伤的情绪变成了对天赐恩典的感激——由于免费宣传的效应,只有5000人口的尔哈小镇吸引了成千上万想看她作品的好奇游客,从而振兴了当地经济。Nearby vineyards are squabbling over rights to splash the image on their wine labels. Her smudgy rendering is now held up as a profound pop art icon.附近的葡萄园主们正在争夺把她的作品印上酒标的权利,吵得不可开交。她那拙劣的修复画作如今成了涵义深远的流行艺术符号。Mrs. Giménez — known, Madonna-like, simply as Cecilia — is celebrated each year by residents on Aug. 25, the day of her transfiguration. A comic opera is in the works in the ed States, the story of how a woman ruined a fresco and saved a town.人们都只用西门尼斯女士的名字塞西莉亚来称呼她——就像圣母一样。如今,每年8月25日她都会接受居民的庆贺,这一天也是她“变容”(暗指基督的登山变容——译注)的日子。目前,一部关于她的喜剧歌剧正在美国筹备上演,讲述一个女人如何毁掉了一幅壁画,却拯救了一座小镇。“For me, it’s a story of faith,” said Andrew Flack, the opera’s librettist who traveled to Borja for research on the production, which is still in the works. “It’s a miracle how it has boosted tourism.”“我觉得这是一个关于信念的故事,”歌剧的剧本作者安德鲁·弗拉克(Andrew Flack)说,他曾到尔哈为这部歌剧进行研究,歌剧目前在筹备过程中。“它推动了旅游业,这是一个奇迹。”“Why are people coming to see it if it is such a terrible work of art?” he added. “It’s a pilgrimage of sorts, driven by the media into a phenomenon. God works in mysterious ways. Your disaster could be my miracle.”“如果它是一件糟糕的艺术品,人们又为什么来看它?”他补充。“这在某种程度上是一种朝圣,被媒体推动,成为一种现象。上帝以各种奇迹般的方式起作用。灾难也可以化为奇迹。”Since the makeover, the image has attracted more than 150,000 tourists from around the world — Japan, Brazil, the ed States — to the gothic 16th century Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mercy on a mountain overlooking Borja.自从这次修复工作完成后,这幅壁画吸引了全世界超过15万名游客——有的来自日本、巴西和美国——他们登上这座可以俯瞰尔哈的山峰,参观这所16世纪哥特式仁慈圣母圣所。Visitors pay one euro, or about .25, to study the fresco, encased on a flaking wall behind a clear, bolted cover worthy of the Louvre’s Mona Lisa.参观者们付一欧元(约合1.25美元),便可参观这幅壁画,它绘在一面斑驳的墙壁上,其待遇同卢浮宫的《蒙娜丽莎》一样,被带有螺栓,清澈透亮的罩子罩着。The church’s original “Ecce Homo” (“Behold the Man”) portrait of a mournful Jesus dated to the 1930s, when Elías Garcia Martínez, a Zaragoza art professor, painted it on the church wall.这幅壁画名为《看这个人》(Ecce Homo,彼拉多将戴荆冠的耶稣交给众人时所说的话——译注),描绘了悲哀的耶稣形象,其历史可以追溯到20世纪30年代,作者是萨拉戈萨的艺术教授伊利亚斯·加西亚·马丁内斯(Elías Garcia Martínez),他在教堂墙壁上绘下了这幅图案。Borja residents did not much notice the painting because the church is dominated by a gilded 18th century baroque altar. But over the years, it bothered Mrs. Giménez to see the bottom third of the fresco vanish, crumbling in the humidity of the dank church.尔哈的居民们起先并没怎么注意到这幅壁画,因为这座教堂的主要部分是一座镀金的18世纪巴洛克式圣坛。但是多年来,西门尼斯女士却注意到壁画的底部三分之一由于教堂的阴冷潮湿而消失,损坏了。Today, in her home in Borja — in a living room lined with landscapes she has painted — Mrs. Giménez recounted that she spent her summers in an apartment by the church.西门尼斯位于尔哈家中的起居室内装点着她亲手绘制的风景画,她在家中接受采访,回忆自己曾经在教堂旁边的公寓里度过的那些夏日时光。She said she touched up the portrait repeatedly over the years — with the knowledge of the parish priest and the caretakers, a family that has lived there for generations.她说,自己多年来一直在对那副壁画进行润色,教区教士和教堂看管者们都知道这件事,那些看管者是一个世代居住在教堂的家庭。But eventually, she said, it required major work, which was abruptly halted after someone complained after the first stage of her brushwork. The story appeared in a local newspaper, then all over the world.她说,最后壁画需要进行大修,然而当她完成了绘画的第一阶段,有人抱怨她的画技,修缮工作也就戛然而止。这个故事先是被刊登在当地报纸上,之后传遍了世界。In the beginning, after the news broke, her relatives said she cried and refused to eat.这则新闻刚开始爆出来的时候,亲属们说她大哭,拒绝进食。“I felt devastated,” Mrs. Giménez said. “They said it was a crazy, old woman who destroyed a portrait that was worth a lot of money.”“我觉得自己完蛋了,”西门尼斯说,“他们说这太疯狂,一个老太太毁了一幅值钱的名画。”Today her celebrity has grown. She hands out prizes for a competition of young artists, who paint their own “Ecce Homo” portraits. Children, she said, come by her apartment near the medieval arch of San Francisco and cry: “Look, Cecilia. That’s Cecilia!”如今,她的名气日渐增长。她拿出奖金资助一个青年艺术家竞赛,让他们画出自己的《看这个人》油画。她说,孩子们来到她位于圣弗朗西斯科中世纪拱门附近的寓所旁边,叫着:“看啊,塞西莉亚,是塞西莉亚!”Meanwhile, the longtime parish priest, who insisted that he did not formally authorize the touch-up, has been exiled to Zaragoza.与此同时,在此地任职甚久,并坚称自己没有正式授权西门尼斯修缮壁画的教区牧师如今已被逐出萨拉戈萨。In an unrelated case, he has been accused of embezzling 168,000 euros in church funds in a criminal investigation that alleges he was the target of an extortion plot by a Roma clan. In recent months, the judge in charge of the case appealed to the pope to intercede, with the Vatican conducting its own civil investigation.在一桩与此无关的案件中,他被指控贪污了16.8万欧元教堂资金,刑事罪案调查称他被一个罗马黑帮敲诈勒索。在最近几个月里,此案法官诉诸教皇出面斡旋,梵蒂冈也就此案展开了自己的民事调查。This Christmas, the image of her “Ecce Homo” is stamped on the town’s lottery tickets. The portrait also plays a bit part in a popular Spanish movie, with a couple of thieves trying to steal it.今年圣诞节,西门尼斯的《看这个人》图像将印在镇子的票上。它还出现在一部流行的西班牙电影里,片中有几个贼想来偷窃它。“I can’t explain the reaction. I went to see ‘Ecce Homo’ myself, and still I don’t understand it,” said Borja’s mayor, Miguel Arilla, from his art-filled office.“我没法解释这种反应,回过头去重新看着《看这个人》,我还是没法理解,”尔哈的市长米格尔·阿利拉(Miguel Arilla)在充满艺术气息的办公室接受采访时说。In the economic crisis of the last six years, 300 jobs vanished, he said, but with the tourism boom, restaurants remained stable. Local museums, he added, also benefited. The nearby Museum of Colegiata, housed in a 16th century Renaissance mansion, experienced a rise in annual visits to 70,000 from 7,000 for its religious, medieval art.他说,过去六年间,受经济危机影响,镇上丧失了300个工作机会,但随着旅游业的增长,餐饮业一直很稳定。他还说,本地的物馆也在盈利。附近的克莱吉亚塔物馆坐落在一栋16世纪的文艺复兴建筑之中,展览中世纪宗教艺术,年度参观人次从7000人增长到了七万人。But fame has also provoked bickering. The grandchildren of the original artist ceded any share of their rights to benefit a hospital foundation that manages the church, the mayor said.但是名声也引发了争议。市长说,《看这个人》原作者的孙辈们把原本他们从壁画中获益的份额全部捐献给了管理这座教堂的一个医疗基金会。But, he said, the great-grandchildren sent a letter through a Valencia lawyer seeking to erase the portrait entirely because the work “damages the honor of the family.”但是,他说,这位艺术家的重孙辈们通过一位巴伦西亚律师写来一封信,要求彻底清除这幅经修缮的壁画,因为它“有损家族荣誉”。The city aly commissioned a professional study that concluded it was impossible to restore the piece.尔哈市曾委任专家进行研究,结论是这幅壁画已经无法恢复原状。As president of the hospital foundation, Mr. Arilla is also involved in final negotiations to sell the rights for the exact image to the Aragonesas winery in neighboring Magallón.阿利拉亦是这个医疗基金会的董事长,他正在参与一项最终谈判,把这幅画的使用权卖给附近马加利翁的阿拉冈尼萨斯葡萄酒厂。The winery moved within hours after the news of the failed restoration broke to secure rights to the image, according to Fernando Cura, commercial director for Aragonesas winery. “The opportunity is that suddenly there is this news that marks this region on the map for the entire world,” he said.这家葡萄酒厂的商业主管费南多·库拉(Fernando Cura)说,酒厂听说这则新闻之后几小时内就行动起来,想获得这幅画像的使用权。“我们面临的机遇是,突然之间这则新闻就让这个地区为整个世界所知。”But four hours later, the Ruberte Brothers winery also tried to register the mark, provoking a legal struggle.但是四小时后,鲁伯特兄弟酒厂也试图注册这一商标,从而引发了法律诉讼。To settle it, Susana Ruberte said her company commissioned an original work by Mrs. Giménez for their special label that finally allowed her to create her own version of “Ecce Homo,” demonstrating that she could actually paint.苏珊娜·鲁伯特(Susanna Rubert)说,最终解决方案是,她的公司委托西门尼斯绘制一幅原创作品,作为该公司的特别酒标,这样,西门尼斯最终可以绘制自己版本的《看这个人》,展示真正由她自己绘制的图案。José M. Baya, the owner of La Bóveda, in Borja’s market plaza, freely credits her artistry for helping his business flourish.维达餐馆位于尔哈的购物中心,餐馆主人何塞·M·巴亚(José M. Baya)认为正是西门尼斯的艺术才华令自己生意兴隆。His restaurant in an old stone cellar attracts high-spending tourists, including, he said, a Japanese film crew that ordered the entire two-page to sample dishes like rabbit and morcilla.他的饭馆坐落在一个古老的石头地下室里,吸引高消费的游客,他说,曾有一个日本电影摄制组把两页菜单上的菜全点了,包括兔肉和西班牙血肠之类。“The impact of ‘Ecce Homo’ has been really great for businesses,” said Mr. Baya, who fared well enough to open a second restaurant. “Sadly, everyone heads to look at a painting that, frankly, is ugly.”“《看那个人》真的为商业带来了很大影响,”巴亚说,现在他的生意已经非常成功,足以再开一家分店。“可悲的是,所有人都去看那副画,但实话说,它真的很丑。” /201412/350212An expert group recommended on Tuesday that the Food and Drug Administration approve a powerful new drug to protect against heart attacks. If approved, it would be the first in a major new class of medicines in a generation that significantly lower levels of cholesterol, the leading cause of heart disease.周二,一批专家建议美国食品与药品(Food and Drug Administration,简称FDA)批准一种预防心肌梗死的强效新药。如果获得批准,该药物将成为一个新的重要药物类别中,最近二三十年获批的首例药物。此类药物能大幅降低胆固醇水平,而胆固醇是心脏病的主要诱因。Dr. Joshua W. Knowles, a Stanford cardiologist, called the medicines “a triumph of the modern genetic revolution.”斯坦福大学(Stanford)的心脏病学专家约书亚·W·诺尔斯(Joshua W. Knowles)士称,这些药物是“现代基因革命的一次胜利”。The idea for such drugs arose from genetic studies about a decade ago and has tantalized cardiologists ever since. Early results of clinical trials raised hopes that the therapies would be critical new additions to the treatment arsenal for those at risk of heart disease, the biggest killer of Americans.研制这类药物的想法来自于约10年前的基因研究成果,此后一直令心脏病学专家可望而不可即。初步的临床试验结果带来了希望,这些疗法可能为心脏病高危人群的治疗方法提供新的重要补充。心脏病是美国人的头号杀手。People who have taken them have seen their LDL cholesterol, the so-called bad cholesterol, plunge to remarkably low levels. But definitive evidence of the drugs’ effectiveness in reducing heart attacks and deaths will only come after large clinical trials are completed in 2017.用这些药物的人已经发现体内的低密度脂蛋白(LDL)胆固醇显著下降,LDL胆固醇也就是所谓的“坏胆固醇”。不过,这种药物降低心梗和死亡风险的确凿据,要到2017年大规模临床试验完成后才可能出现。The panel, in a 13 to 3 vote, recommended the approval of Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals’ drug, alirocumab. On Wednesday, the committee will turn to Amgen’s drug, evolocumab. The F.D.A. usually follows the recommendations of its advisory panels, but not always. The agency says that if it approves the drugs based on their effects on cholesterol, the approval will not be rescinded even if trials now underway fail to show the drugs reduce the risk of heart attacks and deaths.这个专家委员会以13比3的投票结果,建议批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)和瑞泽恩制药公司(Regeneron Pharmaceuticals)的药物alirocumab。周三,这个委员会将开始评估美国安进公司(Amgen)的药物evolocumab。FDA通常会听取咨询委员会的建议,但也并非总是如此。该机构表示,如果根据它们降低胆固醇的效果而批准了这些药物,那么即使目前进行的试验无法明它们能降低心脏病和死亡风险,批准的决定也不会被撤销。Once a drug is approved doctors can prescribe it to patients other than those for whom it was intended, although insurers generally will not pay.一旦某种药物获得批准,医生就可以向该药物目标人群之外的其他患者开出该药物的处方,不过保险公司一般不会买单。The drugs are injected every two weeks or once a month, depending on the formulation. The companies are asking that they be approved for use in three groups: patients with high levels of LDL cholesterol who cannot lower it enough with statins, the mainstay drug for cholesterol lowering first introduced in the late 1980s; people at very high risk because they have aly had a heart attack or have diabetes and cannot get their levels low enough with statins; and people with high levels of LDL who cannot tolerate statins. Doctors often aim for LDL levels of 70 for people at high risk.这种药物需要每两周或每个月注射一次,取决于具体的处方。这些企业正在要求批准三种人使用该药物:LDL胆固醇水平较高、且用他汀类药物(主流的降胆固醇药物,上世纪80年代末推出)无法充分降低其水平的患者;已经患有心梗或糖尿病、且无法用他汀类药物充分降低胆固醇水平的高危人群;LDL胆固醇水平较高且无法耐受他汀类药物的的人群。医生通常认为,LDL胆固醇水平达到70即为高危人群。The problem for the expert group was to decide if there was enough evidence to approve the Sanofi drug without waiting for results from the large clinical trials. Those who voted no said drugs should not be approved until clinical trials establish their efficacy, and voiced the worry that people participating in the trials would drop out once the drugs were approved so they could be sure to get the medicine, not a placebo.专家组面临的问题是,在不等待大型临床试验的结果的情况下,判断目前是否有足够的据持批准赛诺菲(Sanofi)。投反对票的人认为,除非临床试验实了其功效,否则任何药物都不应该被批准。他们还表达了这样的担忧,即一旦药物被批准,参加临床试验的人们就会退出试验,因为这样他们就能够确保自己用的是药物本身,而不是安慰剂。“We need clinical outcomes,” said Dr. Peter Wilson of Emory University.“我们需要临床结果,”埃默里大学(Emory University)的皮特·威尔森(Peter Wilson)士说。Some on the panel felt comfortable recommending approval only for a narrow group of people with a genetic condition, heterozygousfamilial hypercholesterolemia, who cannot control their cholesterol with statins alone. Others favored allowing use of the drug by the much larger group of people at high risk of heart disease for whom statins are insufficient.委员会的一些成员认为,只可以批准存在基因缺陷的一小批患者用这些药物,即杂合子型家族性高胆固醇血症患者。这类人无法单独依靠他汀类药物控制胆固醇。还有一些成员持把药物的适用范围扩大到一个大得多的群体,即他汀类药物已经无法满足其需求的心脏病高危人群。The group’s chairman, Dr. Robert J. Smith of Brown University, argued for broader availability of the drugs. He said he sees patients in his own practice with out of control cholesterol who are at very high risk because, for example, they have aly had a heart attack. Two years is a long time for them to wait for clinical trial findings. “I am unwilling to subject patients to that wait,” Dr. Smith said.委员会主席、布朗大学(Brown University)的罗伯特·J·史密斯(Robert J. Smith)士呼吁在更大范围内提供这种药物。他说,自己在行医过程中看到,一些胆固醇水平失控的患者处境十分危险,原因是他们可能已经患过心梗。为了临床试验结果再等待两年对他们来说太漫长了。“我不愿意让病人就这么等着,”史密斯士说。The companies and many independent cardiologists say they have reason to believe the drugs will perform as expected. Lowering LDL cholesterol has generally been found to protect against heart disease. And, they say, the drugs were designed to mimic mutations in a gene, PCSK9, that protects people from getting heart disease, even if they smoke or have high blood pressure.这些企业和许多独立心脏病学专家称,他们有理由相信这些药物会产生预期的效果。降低LDL胆固醇被普遍认为能预防心脏病。此外,他们还说,这些药物模仿了PCSK9基因突变,这种基因能防止人们罹患心脏病,哪怕他们吸烟或有高血压。But the drugs have caused trepidation among insurers and others who would have to pay the bills because the drugs are certain to be expensive — perhaps ,000 a year — and millions of people are likely to qualify to take them if they are approved for the broader group. Sanofi estimates that 11 million Americans might qualify. Amgen puts the number at eight million.不过,这些药物已经引发了一些恐慌,比如必须为它们买单的保险公司和其他人,以及该药物获准适用于更大群体的话,上百万名可能有资格用这些药物的患者。因为这些药物注定昂贵,也许每年要花1万美元。赛诺菲估计,可能有1100万美国人有资格接受该药物。安进公司认为这个数字是800万。So far, it looks like just about everyone who takes the new drugs responds. LDL cholesterol levels plunge by 40 to 65 percent, even if the starting level was achieved with a statin.迄今为止,似乎每一名使用了新药的患者都见到了疗效。LDL胆固醇水平下降了40%到65%,即使他们之前一直在用他汀类药物来控制胆固醇。Safety studies so far have found the drugs seem to have no more side effects than a placebo but the large clinical trials are needed to get more substantial information.目前的安全性研究表明,这些药物的副作用似乎和安慰剂差不多,不过,在大型的临床实验之后才能获得更多实质性的信息。Meanwhile, pharmaceutical companies see the tantalizing prospect of multibillion dollar blockbuster drugs, and are racing to get them to market as rapidly as possible. Sanofi bought an F.D.A.-backed voucher for .5 million that gave them an expedited review. The company says the F.D.A. agreed to decide whether to approve their drug by July 24. Amgen, which did not pay, expects an answer by Aug. 27, the company says. Pfizer also has a drug in this new class but it is further behind in development.与此同时,制药公司已经看到了价值数十亿美元的重磅药物的诱人前景,它们正在竞相以最快的速度将其投放市场。赛诺菲以6750万美元的价格购买了FDA的批文,可以获得快速审核。该公司表示,FDA同意在7月24日之前做出是否批准该药物的决定。安进公司没有花这笔钱,该公司表示,预计将在8月27日之前得到。辉瑞公司(Pfizer)也有一款这种类型的药物,但研发进度要更慢。Then there is the question of cost. The new drugs, like many new cancer drugs, are monoclonal antibodies, produced from living cells at great expense. The companies will not say what they plan to charge. But Dr. William Shrank, chief scientific officer at CVS Health, estimates they will cost ,000 to ,000 a year.还有成本的问题。这些新药就像许多新型抗癌药物一样,是单克隆抗体,它们是以高昂的成本用活体细胞制造的。这些公司不愿透露药品未来的定价。但CVS健康公司(CVS Health)的首席科学官威廉·史兰克(William Shrank)估计,用这种药物一年将需要7000至1.2万美元。If drugs were restricted to those with dangerously high cholesterol levels who cannot get their LDL low enough with statins, the cost would be billion, he estimated. If people who are intolerant to statins are included, that would add another billion. If people with a history of heart disease are included, the bill for the drugs rises another 0 billion.他估计,如果药物仅限于那些胆固醇水平过高且无法利用他汀类药物降低胆固醇水平的人,总成本将达到160亿美元。如果包括无法耐受他汀类药物的人,成本将增加200亿美元。算上有心脏病史的人,成本将再升高1500亿美元。“Managed pharmacy care, indeed the health care system, has never seen a challenge like this to our resilience in absorbing costs,” Dr. Shrank wrote in Health Affairs.史兰克在健康事务(Health Affairs)网站上写道:“保健药学管理体系吸收成本的能力,实际上整个卫生体系吸收成本的能力,都没有遇到过这样的严峻挑战。” /201506/380294

  In 2012 it was rumored that a Taiwanese teen died after gaming for 40 consecutive hours. Death by ;Diablo 3;? As it turns out, the tabloids may have gotten one thing right about that story -- apparently when you sit for extended periods of time, the Grim Reaper sits beside you.2012年有传闻称台湾一位青少年在连续打了40个小时的网络游戏《暗黑破坏神III》后猝死。少年是否真的死于网游,我们无从得知,但有一点是显而易见的,长时间保持坐姿会损害我们的健康,死神也会离你越来越近。When you indulge in just 30 minutes of TV watching -- not even close to 40 hours at a time -- you burn about one calorie per minute (that#39;s the estimate for a person weighing 155 pounds) -- and that#39;s not much; in comparison it#39;s only about a third of the calories that would be used if that time were spent walking, and pretty close to the amount burned during a 30-minute nap (about 23 calories). While the amount of calories burned may seem pretty similar between the two activities, sleep is important for good health and memory, and sitting, well, as it turns out it may be hurting you.如果坐着看电视30分钟,一个体重155磅的成年人大约每分钟消耗1卡路里的热量,相当于走路所消耗热量的三分之一,小睡30分钟大约消耗23卡路里,与看电视消耗的热量相近。但是,睡觉有助于人体健康和增强,坐着却会损害人体健康。Think about how often you sit during the day; at the desk at the office, in meetings, in class, at home in front of the TV or game console -- and don#39;t forget about all the time spent sitting in your car or during your daily commute. All those hours add up, and in recent years it#39;s estimated we spend nearly eight hours sitting every day on average -- and some research suggests we actually may be sitting as much as 15 hours every day. Considering we need about eight hours of sleep every night, that leaves some of us with only about an hour on our feet. Excessive sitting, more than two hours a day, is referred to as #39;sitting disease#39; among health professionals, and is associated with some major -- and perhaps surprising -- health problems, as well as an overall shorter life expectancy.回想一下,每天我们有多少时间是坐在书桌旁、办公室、会议室、教室、在家里看电视玩游戏,再算上在车里或是其它交通工具上坐着的时间。据估计,把近几年所有这些时间累积起来,平均每天有8小时是坐着的,还有研究显示,实际上我们每天坐着的时间长达15个小时。如果每天睡觉8小时,就只剩下1小时是站立的。专家认为,每天保持坐姿超过2个小时就是“久坐症”,这可能引发一些严重的健康问题,甚至会折寿。10.It#39;s Ruining Your Posture10.健康隐患Poor posture is a headache -- literally. And a shoulder ache. And a neck ache. And we can#39;t overlook the back problems associated with a sedentary lifestyle. You might be sitting too much, and during all the time spent seated, you might be sitting the wrong way. Sitting improperly not only causes tight muscles and muscle pain, it also increases your risk of developing an inflexible spine and herniated lumbar disks, as well as conditions such as kyphosis, which is a rounded or hunched upper back, and lordosis, which is a swayback.毫不夸张地说,不良坐姿会引起头痛、肩膀和脖子酸痛。我们要重视久坐引起的各种背部问题。你可能所有的时间都在坐着,或者坐姿错误。错误的坐姿不仅会使肌肉长期处于紧张状态导致酸痛,还会增加罹患脊椎僵硬和腰椎间盘疾病、驼背和脊柱前弯症的风险。So if slouching and slumping don#39;t meet the gold standard of sitting, what does? Good posture means your body is well-aligned, and well-aligned means your weight is evenly distributed, your shoulders are aligned over your hips, hips over knees -- you get the idea. It#39;s pretty much the opposite of slumping over your desk.低头和趴在桌子上的坐姿都达不到黄金坐姿的标准,那么什么样的才是达标的坐姿呢?身体平衡,体重分布均匀,臀部均衡承受背部及肩膀的重量,膝盖均衡承受臀部的重量。这与趴在桌子上的情况完全相反。9.Muscle Atrophy9.肌肉萎缩When you sit more frequently than you exercise, your muscles weaken – and quickly. A sedentary lifestyle causes what#39;s called disuse atrophy (that#39;s opposed to muscle atrophy due to neurogenic causes, such as muscular dystrophy). Basically, that means when you don#39;t use your muscles you lose your muscles. Muscle fibers lose their flexibility and become stiff, they lose bulk and mass, and they gain fat storage instead of turning those fats into muscle energy.当你经常性坐着不运动,肌肉就会迅速退化。久坐会引起废用性肌萎缩(这不同于由于神经引起的肌肉萎缩,比如肌肉营养不良)。肌肉得不到锻炼基本上就会导致肌肉退化。肌肉纤维灵活性降低,变得僵硬,重量和体积都会减少,同时脂肪会在体内存积起来,无法转换为肌肉。Additionally, when you#39;re in a sitting position you#39;re basically training your muscles to be better-suited for sitting. Your glutes and your leg muscles, for example, shorten compared to if you spent similar time standing -- and that means aches, pains and balance issues. Sitting weakens the muscles you use for posture and the abdominal, pelvic and spinal muscle groups, as well.另外,当你坐着的时候,肌肉也会向更适合坐姿的方向发展。比如同样的时间内,坐着时臀部和腿部的肌肉要比站立时的肌肉更短,这也就意味着肌肉会出现酸痛和平衡问题。久坐会使肌肉弱化,尤其是腹部、骨盆和脊柱的肌肉群。8.It Weakens Your Bones8.伤害骨骼As many as half of adult Americans are affected by bone loss. Ten million live with osteoporosis, and even more -- about 43 million more -- have lost enough bone mass that they#39;re at a high risk of developing osteoporosis, according to the National Osteoporosis Foundation. To strengthen your bones and prevent osteoporosis, you need to stand up. Bones need to support your weight -- or some weight -- regularly in order to stay strong; otherwise they lose their density and become brittle and weak.几乎近一半的美国成年人都会骨质流失。根据美国国家骨质疏松症基金会(the National Osteoporosis Foundation,NOF)的数据显示,美国有一千万人患有骨质疏松,更严重的是,四千三百多万人流失了应需的骨量,他们都是患骨质疏松的高发人群。为了强健骨骼并预防骨质疏松,你需要站起来了!骨头需要撑全部或是部分的体重来保持强壮,否则会丧失密度而变得脆弱。Daily walking will help you make strides against osteoporosis, as well as both weight-bearing exercises and resistance training. Exercises that put a little pressure on those bones keep bone loss at bay (and it#39;ll also build muscles and keep you flexible, too).每天散步、进行负重运动或抗阻力训练可以帮助你远离骨质疏松。锻炼对骨骼施加一定的压力,以此来防止骨质流失(锻炼也可以强健肌肉,让你的身体更加灵活)。翻译:郑静 /201507/384712

  

  One of the biggest job stresses is having to fight with competitors and coworkers for clients, commissions, and recognition。最大的工作压力之一是要和竞争对手与同事为了客户、佣金和别人的认可抢的你死我活。Rather than focusing on your own work, highly competitive fields force you to be constantly aware of what everyone else is doing。竞争激烈的行业迫使你总是关注其他人在做什么,而不是专注于自己的工作。 /201506/379607

  CANCER and ARIES:巨蟹-白羊:This is not a very good combination for you. The Ram#39;s lack of tact and hot temper is just too devastating for your sensitive and insecure nature.白羊座的人并不衬你。缺乏经验且冲动鲁莽的白羊座人很难与敏感且需要安全感的你合拍。CANCER and TAURUS:巨蟹-金牛:The Bull is one of your best partners. You are both homebodies who appreciate good food, good quality and thrift. You can keep each other quite happy. Truly an enduring relationship.牛儿是不错的选择哦。你俩都是喜欢吃喝、讲究生活品质的居家一族。你们能快乐地生活在一起,一定还能白头偕老。CANCER and GEMINI:巨蟹-双子:The Twins play too many mind games for your soft and innocent approach to life. Gemini#39;s flirtatious free-spirited nature is just too hurtful for you to have to deal with.双子座的人对待感情太随性,他们轻佻的态度很可能会给多愁善敏的你造成极大的伤害。CANCER and CANCER:巨蟹-巨蟹:Together you are far too negative for this union to work. Emotional problems will exist throughout the entire relationship. Neither one of you has the ability to see the positive side to the relationship.你俩要是一对就没法工作了。情绪化将是这对组合遇到的最大的麻烦。另外,双方都没有能力用积极的方式引导关系正常维系下去。CANCER and LEO:巨蟹-狮子:The Lion needs to be the center of attention; therefore, you will often feel quite neglected in this relationship. You have a tendency to nag, and that will drive a Leo mate on to greener pastures.狮子座的人常常以自我为中心,这是你最不能忍受的地方;而巨蟹座的你也过于唠叨,狮子又怎么受得了呢?CANCER and VIRGO:巨蟹-处女:This partnership lacks excitement, to say the least. However, that doesn#39;t usually matter to either you or your mate. Security and the home are much more important to both you and the practical Virgoan.这对组合缺少刺激,不过也不是什么大不了的事。安全感和归属感对你和处女座来说才是最重要的。CANCER and LIBRA:巨蟹-天秤:Your mood swings are far too upsetting for the Scales. Libra needs harmony and a variety of entertainment, which really isn#39;t your style or your intent. You create melodrama at an emotional level and would prefer to stay at home where it#39;s safe and secure.你和天秤座很不搭调哦。他/她喜欢步调一致,热衷各类活动,这可和你的生活方式完全不同;巨蟹座的你宁愿待在家里,享受安静惬意的小日子。CANCER and SCORPIO:巨蟹-天蝎:You are both too possessive. That can and usually does lead to problems at some time. As long as you deal with these issues promptly, you can have a happy, satisfying and loving union.人们的占有欲都太强烈,有时可能因此而产生矛盾。只要你及时处理好这一问题,你们会是这个世上最幸福、快乐、甜蜜的组合。CANCER and SITTARIUS:巨蟹-射手:You don#39;t like to take risks, and Sagittarians thrive on chance. This is not your best bet for a lasting union but it is one that often attracts you.你不喜欢冒险,偏偏这是射手座最钟意的。不敢保这对搭档能维持很久,不过射手座的人往往很吸引你。CANCER and CAPRICORN:巨蟹-羯:Polar opposites, Usually there is a lot of chemistry, but the Goat does not usually have the time to show you enough affection. If you can put up with their workaholic ways you can rest assured that you will be well-taken care of financially.南辕北辙的组合。虽然你们在一起会产生强烈的“化学效应”,不过羊儿根本没有时间和你谈情说爱。如果你能忍受对方是个工作狂,那么请放心,他/她一定能在经济上给你最大的满足。CANCER and AQUARIUS:巨蟹-水瓶:You are far too sensitive for the Water-bearer#39;s aloofness. Aquarians cannot tolerate your need to cling to them.你很难理解水瓶座人的超然态度;水瓶座人也不能忍受你强加在他/她身上的压力。CANCER and PISCES:巨蟹-双鱼:You and the Fish are probably the two most sensitive signs of the zodiac. Although you can comprehend one another, you can also play emotional games and hurt each other. This connection can work if you communicate openly and honestly.你和鱼儿是黄道带里最敏感的2个星座。尽管你们能彼此理解,有时还是会因感情用事伤害到对方。只要你们敞开心扉、坦诚相待,这对组合还是不错的哦。 /201507/387564

  Men and women might wax lyrical about looking for someone who is kind, sensitive and funny. But a new study shows that when it comes to finding partners, the ded cliché seems to be true。无论男女都有可能诗意地幻想自己的另一半是一个善良、敏感而幽默的人。但一项最新研究发现:当人们在真正寻找另一半时,现实似乎又一次验了那些可怕的陈词滥调。A study published in the Journal of Evolution and Human behaviour shows what really matters to men is looks - while women want a man with a booming bank balance.The study asked hundreds of young men and women what mattered when choosing a partner. The categories were attractiveness, wealth, ambition, kindness and intelligence。在《进化与人类行为》上刊登的一则调查研究显示:男人择偶的关键是外表,而对于女人来说则更想要一个有钱人。这次调查面对几百个年轻男女发起,询问他们哪些因素可能影响他们对伴侣的选择,结果包括了以下几类:吸引力、财富、事业心、善良和聪明。And results shows men were overwhelmingly swayed by an attractive face and body, while women were hooked on wealth and ambition。调查结果显示,压倒性数量的男人都会被漂亮的脸蛋和身材所吸引,而对于女人来说她们则更关注男人的金钱和事业心。Professor Gad Saad, who co-authored the study with Tripat Gill, said the research seems to highlight how evolution has led us to this #39;irrational#39; decision-making。嘉德·萨阿德教授和特里帕特·吉尔合作完成此项研究,称这一研究正反映了自然演化是如何引领我们做出这种看似“荒谬”的决定的。Mr Saad said: #39;Choosing someone who might be a poor provider or an unloving father would have serious consequences for a woman and for her offspring.#39;萨阿德教授说:“选择一个穷困潦倒的人来养家糊口或者一个缺乏爱心的父亲,势必会对这个女人和她的孩子的生活造成严重的影响。”The survey, carried out at Concordia University in Montral, Quebec, Canada, gave overall descriptions of potential partners, along with positive and negative descriptions。本次调查在加拿大魁北克省蒙特利尔市的肯高迪亚大学进行,调查的内容是对你所期待的伴侣进行全面的描述,包括正面和负面双重描述。It showed that an attractive body and an attractive face were seen as more important to men, while earning potential and ambition were more important to women. Both said kindness and intelligence were equally important to both。调查显示长相和身材迷人对于男人择偶似乎更为重要,而对女人而言她们更在乎男人的收入潜力和事业心。然而无论男女都认为善良、聪明和以上两点同等重要。 /201507/386958

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