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2020年02月26日 11:45:01 | 作者:管资讯 | 来源:新华社
Science Hero: Jules Verne科学英雄:儒勒#8226;凡尔纳儒勒#8226;凡尔纳(Jules Verne,1828年2月8日-1905年3月24日),法国小说家、物学家,现代科幻小说的重要开创者之一。他一生写了六十多部大大小小的科幻小说,总题为《在已知和未知的世界漫游》。他以其大量著作和突出贡献,被誉为“科幻小说之父”。由于凡尔纳知识非常丰富,他小说作品的著述、描写多有科学根据,所以当时他小说的幻想,如今成为了有趣的预言。Thats right the time for the Science Hero Award, where we honor a particular man or woman from history who made a contribution to science. Todays Science Hero, though, wasnt a scientist at all, but a science fiction writer. In fact,he was one of the pioneers of the genre of science fiction.那正好是颁科学英雄奖的时间,我们以此纪念那些历史上为科学做出贡献的个人。然而今天的科学英雄根本不是科学家,而是一位科幻小说作者。事实上,他是该体裁的先驱之一。Jules Verne is our hero. Jules Verne was born in France in 1828 and originally studied to be a lawyer. But he was fascinated with the exploration of nature and the world. Also, he loved writing. In his writing he was able to bring scientific ideas to a general audience. If he were alive today hed probably be writing for us.儒勒#8226;凡尔纳是我们的英雄。他于1828年出生在法国,起初他是学习法律的。但他对探索自然和世界十分着迷,而且他喜欢写作。在他的作品中,他能将科学概念带给读者。如果他还活着,他很可能还在为我们创作。Jules Verne also wanted to challenge people to think about new things that science could bring them. His stories were full of fantastic machines, but they were always things that could in principle be constructed. Because of this combination of knowledge and imagination, he was able to anticipate many things that now actually exist.儒勒#8226;凡尔纳也想挑战人们去思考科学可能带给他们的新事物。他的故事中满是奇妙的机器,但都总是理论上可以创造出来的东西。由于知识和想象力的结合,他能预见很多现在确实存在的事物。For example, you may know that in his novel ;Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea,; Verne imagined an enclosed boat that could travel underwater—what we now call a submarine. But did you know that on board his submarine he put another imaginary device, the electric stove? Or that he was one of the first to suggest putting people inside a giant bullet and firing it at the moon? That’s not quite how we got there, but the principle is much the same.比如,在他的《海底两万里》中,你可能知道凡尔纳设想了一艘可以在海底穿梭的船——我们现在称之为潜水艇。但你知道在其潜水艇上,他放置了另一件想象的工具——电炉吗?或者说他是第一个建议把人放在巨型炮弹里,瞄准月球发射的人之一吗?我们并不是那样登上月球的,但理论上大致相同。Good science fiction is both fun to , and can lead to real science. Way to go, Jules!好的科幻小说既有趣,又能引导我们了解真科学。做得好,凡尔纳! /201208/194183Like Mercury, the Earth takes a beating from the suns violent temper.像水星一样,地球也需要承受太阳暴躁的脾气。Flares, sun storms and other solar hissy fits can cause electronic mayhem for the satellites that roam above our heads.火焰,太阳风暴以及其他太阳的暴脾气会导致我们头顶的卫星产生电子混乱。Fortunately, the earth is protected from its radiation by a magnetic shield, a kind of force field generated by our molten iron core.幸运的是,地球由于一种磁屏障而免受辐射,这是一种由于我们的熔铁芯而产生的磁场。Planetary magnetic fields are shield planets their surfaces and their atmospheres from charged particles that are always coming off the sun.行星磁场保护表面和大气层免受太阳发出的带电粒子影响。The auroras that light up our polar skies are evidence of our protective shields that work.点亮我们极地天空的极光明了我们的防护盾正有效的起作用。Without it, life would not exist here.没有它,生命将不会存在。Visit Mercury, and you will be visiting the only other planet in the inner solar system with a magnetic field.访问水星,你将拜访的是太阳系内部仅有磁场的另一个行星。But its very existence defies explanation.不过它的存在难以解释。Now the mystery there is that in order to have a magnetic field, you need to have a interior to the planet that is at least partially molten.现在神秘的就是为了形成一种磁场,而你需要在行星内部至少有一部分熔融。Mercury, one of the smallest planets, would have been expected to be really frozen all the way through.水星,最小的行星之一,曾经被期望从里到外都是一颗冰冻星球。注:听力文本来源于普特201204/177464In these days of dieting and weight watching, most people would love to be able to tighten their belt after losing a few kilograms. In times when food and jobs were scarce, however, tightening ones belt was a sign that times were getting worse, and there was simply not enough food to put on the table.在节食和减肥的日子里,大多数人会因为能够在减去几公斤后收紧腰带而感到高兴。然而,在工作难找和食品匮乏的时代,收紧自己的腰带则代表着生活的日趋艰难——这是因为餐桌上根本就没有足够的食物。As time passed, this physical act of actually tightening ones belt became a symbolic statement, and hence an idiom. This means that today, you can use this expression even if you never wear a belt at all. Now, ;tightening ones belt; simply means that the next few weeks or months or years are going to be more difficult, and we may have to work harder to get less.随着时间的流逝,这样一个“勒紧腰带”的行为变成了象征性的表达方式,并因此成了一个成语。也就是说,如今即使你从来不系腰带,你也可以使用这种表达方式。现在,“勒紧腰带”这种表达方式意味着在未来数周、数月或数年你的生活会更加困难,而且你可能需要干得更多但享受得却更少。注:本文译文属原创,,。201205/180841

Finance and Economics;Olympionomics;The dismal dash;Which economist will win themedal-prediction gold?财经;奥运经济学;令人沮丧的百米冲刺;哪位经济学家能够成为“奖牌预测大赛”的冠军呢?Athletic prowess is not all that is being tested at this years Olympic games. There will also be teams of econometricians battling it out to predict how many medals will be won by the host nation.今年的伦敦奥运会比的已经不仅仅是运动员高超的技艺。还有计量经济学家们组成的各代表队将在“场上”进行激烈地角逐,争夺“预测东道主英国奖牌数量”大赛的冠军。Over the years economists have deployed all sorts of mental gymnastics in their search for a model that can reliably forecast Olympic winners. Initial expectations that medal tallies would be closely correlated with the population and per-capita wealth of a country were soon dashed. The models leapt over the hurdle of statistical significance only when a third variable was added—how many medals the country won last time—but this did not add much by way of explanation.在过去的几年里,经济学家们使出浑身解数,想要找到一种能够预测奥运会奖牌数量的可靠模型。一开始,他们认为一个国家在奥运会上所获奖牌的数量可能和这个国家的人口以及人均收入有紧密联系。但这样的想法很快就被排除了。而那些可以不需要考虑显著性差异的预测模型只有当加入第三个变量(即这个国家在上一届奥运会中获得了多少奖牌)时才能够成立。但换句话说,这样的变量也起不了太大的作用。Apart from the persistence of good (or bad) performance from one Olympiadto the next, the dismal scientists hopped, skipped and jumped to two otherstatistically significant results. First, there was a“Soviet effect”, whereby the planned economies of the former communist bloc tended to outperform, presumably due to forcing talented youngsters to specialise and pumping them full of steroids . This effect began to fall with the Berlin Wall.除了考虑到运动员在前后两届奥运会中能够持续发挥良好(或者差劲),这些“神情沮丧”的科学家们煞费苦心地找到了其他两种具有显著性差异的结果。首先,有这样一种“前苏联效应”,而且曾经以计划经济体制为指导的社会主义阵营国家正是凭借着这样的一种效应才在奥运赛场上表现得异常出色。有人猜测,这些社会主义国家强迫那些富有才华的年轻运动员们专攻竞技比赛,并给他们大量用类固醇药物。但是这样的效应随着柏林墙的倒塌也开始日渐步入下风。Second, the host nation tends to win more medals than it does at any other time. Why it does so is unclear, as is the exact size of the “host effect”—which is why, for economists, predicting how many medals Britain will bag is the equivalent of winning the 100-metre dash. Emily Williams, the torchbearer for the Tuck School of Business team that won the medal-forecasting gold last time with 95% accuracy, tips Britains athletes to win 62 medals (25 of them gold), up from 47 four years earlier in Beijing. That would be a record haul for Britain, and place it fourth overall, behind America (103), China (94,down from 100 when it hosted), and Russia (67).其次,东道主国家似乎比以往任何时候都能够赢得更多的奖牌。不过其中的原因并不清楚,这就好比经济学家们并不知道“主场效应”具体能发挥多大的作用一样。因此,对他们来说,预测出英国今年能够包揽奖牌的数量就相当于赢得了这项百米冲刺的冠军一样。来自达特茅斯塔克商学院的艾米莉·威廉姆斯(Emily Williams),在北京奥运会召开时,带领她的团队以95%的准确率赢得了这块“奖牌数量预测大赛”的金牌。她指出,这次英国以四年前的47块为基础,总共将赢得62枚奖牌(其中包括25枚金牌)。而这样的数字也将使英国创下纪录,进入奖牌排行榜第四位,紧随美国(103枚),中国(94枚,比北京奥运会时的100枚有所下降)和俄罗斯(67枚)其后。By contrast, PricewaterhouseCoopers thinks Britain will win 54 medals, and Daniel Johnson of Colorado College, another veteran forecaster, actually thinks Britain will win fewer medals at home than it did four years ago in Beijing(down by two to 45). The new comer to the field is Kevin Daly, an economist at Goldman Sachs, who calculates that on average the host nation of an Olympics wins 54% more medals than usual. Taking Britains 47 last time as “usual”, that would translate into a whopping 72 medals in London. We shall soon find out which, if any, of these dismal scientists is on the right track.与之相反的是,普华永道的经济学家们认为英国今年将赢得54块奖牌;同时,来自科罗拉多学院的老牌预测行家丹尼尔·强生(Daniel Johnson)实际上也认为英国今年将比四年前拿得奖牌少一些(比四年前减少两枚,即45枚奖牌)。不过,来自高盛(Goldman Sachs)的新手,经济学家凯文·戴利(Kevin Daly)计算出:一般情况下,奥运会的东道主国家比往常获得的奖牌数量要多54%。就拿四年前的“47”块奖牌作为往常量,而经过运算后就得出今年伦敦奥运会英国将获得惊人的72枚奖牌。当然,不久我们就能知道这些经济学家中谁预测的结果最准(如果有人预测准确的话)。 /201302/226119

Obituary;Nora Ephron and Lonesome George讣告;诺拉·艾芙伦与孤独乔治 Nora Ephron, observer of sexual behaviour, died on June 26th, aged 71. Lonesome George, habitual abstainer, died on June 24th, aged perhaps 100性行为观察家诺拉·艾芙伦,6月26日逝世,享年71岁。习惯性禁欲者孤独乔治,6月24日去世,可能已是百岁高龄。 THE first story Nora Ephron had to write for the New York Post—the one that made the guys on the city desk fall around laughing, got her the job, and launched her on a career of witty, wise writing on surviving modern life—was about a pair of hooded seals at the Coney Island aquarium. They were not only not mating, as they were supposed to, but also refusing to have anything to do with each other.诺拉·艾芙伦为纽约邮报写的第一篇报道是不得以为之,这篇关于科尼岛水族馆冠海豹两口子的文章让编辑部的那帮伙计笑得满地打滚,也让她得到了工作,以风趣而睿智的笔触描写当代生活的职业生涯由此展开。那两只冠海豹本该交配而不成,非但如此,而且根本不想和彼此有一毛钱关系。Lonesome George could relate to that. Though he was probably the last surviving example of the giant Galápagos tortoise Chelonoidis nigra abingdonii, he too refused to perform. Scientists, tourists, journalists, conservationists and the government of Ecuador all waited for two decades for him to mate successfully or, indeed, get it on at all. He wasnt playing. In 1993 two females of a slightly different subspecies were put into his corral. He ignored them. When at last he decided to do his duty, in 2008 and occasionally later, the eggs failed to hatch. Clearly, he was a slow burner. Possibly he was gay. He refused to be turned on even when a female Swiss zoology graduate, smeared with tortoise hormones, gave him manual stimulation for four months.孤独乔治可能与此有点关系。尽管他极可能是世上最后一只加拉帕戈斯象龟平塔岛亚种,他仍然拒绝交配。任凭一帮科学家、观光客、媒体人、环保者以及厄瓜多尔政府等了二十年,为了看他成功交配或者只是雄起一下,他就是不给力。1993年,两只略有差异的亚种雌象龟被带到了他的围栏中。他对她们视而不见。2008年和稍后偶然几次,他终于决定要完成他的使命,但是雌龟产的蛋也没能成功孵化。很明显,他是个慢热型选手。也许,他是个基佬。即使是一位瑞士动物学女大学生抹上龟类的性激素,给他做了四个月的人工刺激,他还是拒绝有所反应。 At which stage Ms Ephron might have asked, couldnt he at least have faked it? Women did that all the time. The most famous scene of her highly successful screenwriting career—which included “Sleepless in Seattle”, “Youve Got Mail” and “Julie and Julia”—was the one in “When Harry Met Sally” (1989) in which Sally faked an orgasm over lunch at a deli on New Yorks Lower East Side.# After she had reared, moaned, gasped and shouted “Yes!” for what seemed like five minutes, the elderly lady at a nearby table told the waiter: “Ill have what shes having.”艾也许会问,这是在哪个阶段,他就不能假装有点兴趣吗?女人总是这么做。她的编剧作品包括《西雅图夜未眠》《电子情书》以及《茱莉和朱丽叶》,杰出的编剧生涯中最为人熟知的一个桥段是在《当哈利碰上莎莉》(1989)中的一幕, 莎莉在纽约下东区一家餐馆里午餐时表演了一场假扮高潮。莎莉身体起起伏伏,呻吟频频,娇喘连连,更是忘情高喊“Yes!”,持续了大概五分钟,旁桌的老女人叫来侍应生:“我要点她正在吃的菜。” George couldnt. But then he didnt have the advantage of living, like Ms Ephron, in Manhattan, where something was almost bound to happen to you if you simply stepped outside, and if it didnt happen you could pick up the phone and order it. He was living in a volcanic field on Santa Cruz island 500 miles off the coast of Ecuador, where you couldnt find a decent bagel if you tried: in fact, a place a lot like Washington.乔治不这么做。但是那时他不像艾,有住在曼哈顿的便利,只要你走出去,有些事几乎是必定要发生,即便是没有发生,你也可以拿起电话订购。他过去是住在距离厄瓜多尔海岸500英里的圣克鲁斯岛上的火山区,事实上,那里就像是华盛顿,你怎么找也找不到像样的百吉饼。 Besides, he was no looker. Ms Ephron, though striking and svelte all her life, worried in the niggling way of women that her breasts were too small, her neck too crêpy (“I Feel Bad About My Neck” was the title of one book), her skin dry and her purse just wrong. George, whose neck was three feet of scrag and whose skin would have made several dozen purses, all thick, dry leather, didnt care two hoots. His one concession to fashion was a shell in taupe. Ms Ephron preferred black; but taupe, especially on a couch, didnt show the dirt.另外,他面容并不俊俏。虽然艾一生模样俊秀、身材苗条,但她也以女人特有的琐碎,为她的胸太小、脖子皮肤太松弛太多皱纹(她的一本书便叫做《我的脖子让我感觉糟糕》)、她的皮肤太干以及钱包样式不对而焦虑。乔治的脖子三英尺长,他的皮可以做成几十个厚重的干革钱包,他对此毫不在乎。对于时尚,他做出了一次让步,就是他灰褐色的壳。艾偏好黑色,但是灰褐色不显脏,特别是用在沙发上。201207/190428

Science and technology科学技术Mimicry模仿The first sparrowhawk of spring春天第一只雀鹰To obtain better access to warbler nests, cuckoos mimic raptors为了更好地抢占莺的巢穴,杜鹃通常会模仿成猛禽的样子THE resemblance between cuckoos and sparrowhawks has been a cause of comment since ancient times.杜鹃和雀鹰之间的相似性自古以来就是引发的原因。As the photographs above show, the two birds are similar in size, shape and plumage,正如上面的照片显示的两只鸟,它们在大小,形状和羽毛上都很相似,and both have a conspicuous pattern of bars on their breasts—a pattern found on many species of hawk,二者的胸前都有突出的条纹—许多鹰类都有这种类型的条纹,but not on the cuckoos relatives.但杜鹃的亲戚中却没有。Until now, though, no one has thought to take that observation any further, and test whether the one is truly mimicking the other.虽然现在还没有人对此进行更深入的观察,并实杜鹃是否真的在模仿对方。Cuckoos would have good reason to do so,杜鹃有很好的理由去模仿鹰,since the warblers and other small birds in whose nests they lay their eggs are understandably frightened of hawks,由于莺和其它的小型鸟类在它们的巢中产卵,自然这些小型鸟类就很害怕鹰,并且对鹰敬而远之。and give them a wide berth. Such leeway would make it easier for a female cuckoo to lay where she chose.这样的空当就给了雌杜鹃自由选择巢穴产卵的机会。Nick Davies and Justin Welbergen, a pair of ornithologists at Cambridge University, have now corrected that omission.尼克·戴维斯贾斯汀·韦伯尔根是剑桥大学的鸟类学专家,它们现在补充了这种遗漏。They have tested the idea that cuckoos mimic hawks—or, at least, that warblers think cuckoos look hawklike.它们已经实了杜鹃会模仿鹰—或者说,至少在莺看来,杜鹃非常像鹰。As they report in the latest edition of Behavioral Ecology, they have found that it is true, but only up to a point.就像它们在最新一期的Behavioral Ecology上报道的那样,它们已经发现这是正确的,但至少在某种程度上可以这么讲。To carry out their test, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen put stuffed birds near reed-warbler nests,为了进行它们的测试,戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士将几种鸟类标本放到了莺的芦苇巢附近,to observe the nestholders reactions.用来观察这些巢主人的反应。They used three species: sparrowhawks, cuckoos.他们用了三种鸟类:雀鹰,杜鹃,还有鸽子。The breast of each stuffed bird was adorned with a piece of white silk.每种鸟类的胸前都用一块白色的丝绸装饰。Some pieces of silk were left plain.一些丝绸偏左放置。Others had bars drawn on them with a felt-tip pen.其它条纹则用记号笔画制而成。Once the stuffed birds were in place, the two researchers recorded the reactions of the nestholders.一旦将这些鸟类标本放置好,这两位研究人员就记录巢主人的反应。In particular, they measured how closely the nestholders were willing to approach the stuffed intruder,他们会专门评估这些巢主人对于不速之客的接近程度,and also how noisily the intruder was mobbed, in an attempt to drive it away.以及围攻入侵者并试图将其赶走的激烈场景。The barring, they found, was crucial.他们发现了一个非常关键的例外。Though the warblers could clearly tell the difference between the species,虽然莺类可以很清楚地分辨出这些鸟类的不同,in the cases of all three types of stuffed bird those decorated with stripes were approached more cautiously and mobbed less than those without stripes.对于那些装饰了条纹的三种鸟类标本,它们更谨慎地接触,并且围攻那些没有条纹的鸟类。Hawk-like stripes do, then, provoke what is, from a cuckoos point of view, the desired reaction:从杜鹃的角度来看,鹰状条纹所起的主要作用就是它所希望看到的:less of the sort of behaviour that is likely to interfere with her egg-laying mission.如果缺乏这种行为会则会影响到杜鹃的产卵任务。Not perfect mimicry, but good enough to be useful.虽然这种模仿不甚高明,但已经足够用了。Probably, Dr Davies and Dr Welbergen have caught cuckoo and warbler in the middle of an evolutionary arms race.也许戴维斯士和韦伯尔根士已经注意到了杜鹃和莺正处于一个进化的军备竞赛中。Come back in 10,000 years and cuckoos and sparrowhawks may be indistinguishable.回到10000年前,杜鹃和雀鹰或许就难以分辨了。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201304/233256

Take two nails and scrape them together vigorously. Now touch the place you were scraping. Itrsquo;s hot! Let them cool and try it again. Itrsquo;s hot again! You could do this all day and the nails would never stop growing hot. If heat were a liquid, there would have to be an infinite amount of it even in a tiny nail. Whatrsquo;s the better answer? Heat is a measure of kinetic energy. Kinetic energy means the amount of motion the molecules in the nail have, or how much they jostle against each other. The hot spoon heats your hand not because something invisible is being poured in, but because the fast-jostling molecules of the spoon hit the molecules in your hand and start them jostling too. In the case of the nails, all thatrsquo;s needed to produce more heat is to start jostling those molecules again after theyrsquo;ve calmed down. You wonrsquo;t ever run out of heat.以两个钉子和他们一起大力刮。现在触摸的地方,你被刮。它的热!让他们冷静,并再次尝试。它的热了!您可以这样做,整天和指甲永远不会停止增长热点。如果热的液体,它是一个无限量,即使在一个微小的指甲。什么更好的吗?热是一种动能的措施。动能手段的运动量在指甲的分子,或有多少,他们对彼此争抢。热勺加热你的手不会因为看不见的东西正在浇筑,但由于勺子快速冲撞分子的分子打在你的手,开始他们过于拥挤。在指甲的情况下,所有的需要产生更多的热量是开始再次冲撞这些分子后,他们已经平静下来。你永远不会用完的热量。201201/169529

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