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退休后去哪里?澳洲最受青睐Australia ranks tops for retirementAustralia is the country most workers and retirees around the world would like to live in 20 years' time, an international survey found. Australia is the country most workers and retirees around the world would like to live in 20 years' time, an international survey found.However, most Australians are unaware of how they will fund their retirement, the poll concluded.The Retirement Scope survey conducted by French insurance giant AXA questioned workers from 26 countries, with two-thirds of Australian respondents unaware of the source of their retirement income or how much they would need.Australians ranked as more aware than people from France, Spain or Indonesia, but behind those in Malaysia where more than half of workers can "put their finger on their retirement income", Fairfax newspapers report.On the other hand, Australia's relaxed lifestyle and climate were its biggest attractions for retirees around the world, who voted it the most desirable place to retire to, although Australian respondents preferred New Zealand.Australia came out above the ed States and Switzerland.The survey of 15,000 people found the average income of Australian retirees was ,917 a month, while the cost of average household expenses is ,437 a month."The survey found that the average retirement age among Australians is 57 years of age, and that 'old' is at 80 years, giving Australians 23 'bonus years' in which to enjoy a healthy and active retirement," AXA general manager of sales and marketing Adrian Emery told Fairfax. (Agencies) 一项世界范围调查发现,澳大利亚是世界各地众多劳动者和退休人士最向往的晚年居住地。然而,多数澳大利亚人对于自己的退休金问题却一无所知。该项由法国保险业巨头AXA集团开展的“退休知多少”调查共对26个国家的劳动者进行了访问。调查发现,三分之二的澳大利亚受访者不知道他们的退休金来源以及自己究竟需要多少退休金。据《费尔费克斯》报业报道,澳洲人对于退休金问题的了解强于法国、西班牙和印度尼西亚人,但要逊色于马来西亚人。调查显示,超过一半的马来西亚受访者“对自己的退休金问题了如指掌”。另一方面,对于世界各地的退休人士来说,澳大利亚悠闲的生活方式和宜人的气候是最吸引他们的地方。然而,尽管澳洲被评为最令人向往的退休居住地,但澳大利亚本国人却更青睐新西兰。美国和瑞士位居澳大利亚之后。该项共有1.5万人参加的调查发现,澳洲人的退休金为平均每月1917澳元,家庭平均月开为1437澳元。AXA集团营销总监阿德里安#8226;埃默里在接受《费尔费克斯》报业的采访时说:“调查发现,澳洲人的平均退休年龄为57岁,而(多数人认为)80岁才是老年阶段的开始,所以澳洲人可享受23年拥有退休金、健康而有活力的退休生活。” /200801/25845Researchers from the Navy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and academia are studying causes and potential treatments of motion sickness, hoping to formulate better products for situations that range from the extreme (space!) to the mundane (road trip to Grandma#39;s, anyone?).美国海军、美国国家航空航天局(National Aeronautics and Space Administration,简称“NASA”)以及学术界的研究人员对晕动病的成因及潜在疗法进行了研究,希望能生产出适用于从极端情形(比如太空!)到普通情形(比如坐车去奶奶家,有没有人有此经历?)等各类情形的高效药品。There#39;s nothing quite like motion sickness to ruin summer travel, with symptoms including dizziness, headache, nausea and most unfortunately, vomiting. Some 25% to 40% of the population suffers from some degree of motion sickness, depending on the mode of transportation.再没什么事情能像晕动病一样毁掉你的夏日旅行了,它会让你出现头晕、头痛、恶心等症状,情况最糟糕时还会引发呕吐。根据交通方式的不同,大约有25%到40%的人在某种程度上受到晕动病的折磨。At Siena College, in Loudonville, N.Y., researchers have studied the effectiveness of ginger capsules, facial cooling and listening to music as a distraction for lessening symptoms and physiological responses to motion sickness.关于用生姜胶囊、冷敷脸部以及通过听音乐分散注意力来缓解晕动病的症状及其引发的生理反应的效果,纽约州劳顿维尔(Loudonville)锡耶纳学院(Siena College)的研究人员也进行了研究。NASA and the Navy are collaborating with pharmaceutical company Epiomed Therapeutics, of Irvine, Calif., to develop a nasal spray containing scopolamine, a drug currently used in a prescription-only patch for those prone to seasickness. Researchers say the drug#39;s strong possible side effects, such as drowsiness and dry mouth, would be significantly reduced with a nasal spray.NASA、美国海军与加州尔湾(Irvine)的制药公司Epiomed Therapeutics展开合作,研制了一种含莨菪硷的鼻喷雾剂。目前莨菪硷被用于一种仅能凭处方购买的治疗易晕船患者的贴片中。研究人员称该药物可能具有使人困倦和口干等强烈的副作用,而使用鼻喷雾剂方式可大幅减轻这些副作用。Part of the difficulty with devising treatments is that experts don#39;t know exactly what causes motion sickness. The prevailing belief is it is caused by a sensory mismatch between the visual and vestibular systems. The vestibular system, which is part of the inner ear, monitors movement and helps control balance.制定出晕动症疗法并不容易,部分原因是由于专家们并未确切了解它的成因。人们普遍认为它是由视觉系统与前庭系统感觉上的不一致所引发的。前庭系统属于内耳的一部分,它监测身体的移动并帮助控制身体的平衡。In other words, our inner ear tells our brain that we are moving, but our eyes tell us we aren#39;t, or vice versa. #39;When one of these is telling you you#39;re in motion and the other one is telling you you#39;re sitting, the brain gets confused with the mixed signals, and it causes this sense of sickness,#39; says Abinash Virk, director of the travel and tropical medicine clinic at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.换句话说,当我们的内耳发出信号,告诉大脑我们正在移动时,我们的眼睛却告诉说我们并没有移动,反之亦然。明尼苏达州罗切斯特(Rochester)梅约医院(Mayo Clinic)旅行医学与热带医学门诊部的主任阿比纳什#8226;沃尔克(Abinash Virk)说:“当其中一方告诉你说你正身处运动中,而另一方却告诉你说你正坐着,大脑就会被这些混杂不一的信号搞糊涂,这就会引发恶心感。”What remain unknown are the reasons why the mismatch causes some individuals to react adversely. One long-standing theory is that the reactions are triggered by the brain#39;s false identification of a toxin in the body, with nausea and vomiting a protective response to get rid of it.而眼下依然未知的是,为什么感觉不一致会导致某些人产生不良反应。一个由来已久的说法是,这些反应产生的原因是大脑对身体中的一种毒素做出错误辨认,从而以恶心和呕吐作为消除毒素的保护性反应。Another theory is that body sway, or the change in a person#39;s movements over short time intervals, can explain a propensity to get motion sickness. In Tom Stoffregen#39;s lab at the University of Minnesota, the kinesiology professor measures each subject#39;s body sway over a short period. He has found that individuals who are more susceptible have a more-erratic sway during and even before they are exposed to any stimulation.另一种解释是,身体的晃动或是身体在短暂时间间隔内的移动变化是人们易于患晕动病的原因。汤姆#8226;施托夫雷根(Tom Stoffregen)是明尼苏达大学(University of Minnesota)的运动机能学教授,他在自己的实验室中测算了每名受试者在一小段时间内的身体晃动情况。他发现,更容易得晕动病的人在受刺激期间的身体晃动较不稳定,甚至在受到刺激之前就会如此。Dr. Stoffregen uses a force plate, a glorified bathroom scale with pressure sensors, to take measurements of body movement as often as 200 times a second. He studies people both in a lab simulator and on ships.施托夫雷根使用了一块测力板和一台带压力传感器的体重秤,以每秒多达200次的速率测算身体的动作。他在实验室的模拟装置中以及轮船上进行了他的研究。In a forthcoming study to be published in the online journal PLOS ONE, Dr. Stoffregen tested the body sway of 35 cruise passengers aboard a ship in the Caribbean before departure. Passengers then reported the intensity of their seasickness. He found a link: Those who reported getting more sea sickness had more body sway at the dock.他在加勒比海一艘游轮上测试了船上35名游客在出发前的身体晃动情况,这些游客后来报告了他们的晕船程度。他发现其中存在关联:那些报告自己晕船程度较重的人,他们在码头时的身体晃动频率就比较高。该项研究即将发表于《公共科学图书馆#8226;综合》(PLOS ONE)杂志的网络版。 /201307/247398

I now know why I gained more than 30 pounds in my early 20s: I was lonely. I had left my beloved alma mater upstate for graduate school and a job in the Upper Midwest. I knew no one and felt like a fish out of water.现在我知道,在自己20岁出头时,为什么会猛增了30多磅体重了:我当时太孤独了。我告别了北方我深爱着的母校,来到美国上中西部边读研究生边工作。在那儿我举目无亲,感觉像是一条离开水的鱼。I filled my lonely nights and days with — you guessed it — food. Anything I could get my hands on, especially candy, cookies and ice cream. Food filled the hole in my soul, at least temporarily.在许多个黑夜和白天,我用吃东西来填充寂寞——估计你猜也猜得到。任何触手可及的东西我都会吃,尤其是糖果、曲奇和冰激淋。食物填满了我灵魂的空洞,至少暂时如此。No matter how hard I tried, I could not rein in my out-of-control eating until I returned to New York and my family, and began dating my future husband.不管我怎样努力,都没法摆脱业已失控的暴食,直到我回到纽约,回到家人身边,开始跟我未来的丈夫约会,这一切才停止。Loneliness, says John T. Cacioppo, an award-winning psychologist at the University of Chicago, undermines people’s ability to self-regulate. In one experiment he cites, participants made to feel socially disconnected ate many more cookies than those made to feel socially accepted. In a real-life study of middle-aged and older adults in the Chicago area, Dr. Cacioppo and colleagues found that those who scored high on the U.C.L.A. Loneliness Scale, a widely used psychological assessment, ate substantially more fatty foods than those who scored low. “Is it any wonder that we turn to ice cream or other fatty foods when we’re sitting at home feeling all alone in the world?” Dr. Cacioppo said in his well-documented book, “Loneliness, ” written with William Patrick. “We want to soothe the pain we feel by mainlining sugar and fat content to the pleasure centers of the brain, and absent of self-control, we go right at it.”据芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)获奖无数的心理学家约翰·T·卡奇奥波(John T. Cacioppo)说,孤独感会影响人们的自我调节能力。他援引了一项试验:感觉自己与社会脱节的参试者,相比觉得受社会接纳的参试者,所吃的饼干要更多。卡奇奥波曾和同事们在芝加哥地区做过一项研究,参加试验的是中老年人,他们发现那些在加州大学洛杉矶分校孤独感量表(UCLA Loneliness Scale,一项广为使用的心理学量表)中得分较高的人,比起得分低者,所吃的高脂食物要多得多。卡奇奥波与威廉·派特里克(William Patrick)合著有内容翔实的著作——《孤独感》,在书中他写道:“坐在家中,感觉自己与世隔绝,在这种时候狂吃冰激淋或其他高脂食物,这有什么好奇怪的?我们希望通过将糖和脂肪注入大脑的愉悦中枢来纾解心中的苦闷,在此时我们毫无自制力,直接将手伸向食物。”He explained that lonely individuals tend to do whatever they can to make themselves feel better, if only for the moment. They may overeat, drink too much, smoke, speed or engage in indiscriminate sex.他继续解释说,只要能让自己好受点,孤独的人们可以做出任何事情,哪怕只会感到片刻慰藉。他们也许会暴食、酗酒、抽烟、飙车,或者滥交。A review of research published in 1988 found that “social isolation is on a par with high blood pressure, obesity, lack of exercise or smoking as a risk factor for illness and early death, ” Dr. Cacioppo wrote.回顾1988年发表的一篇研究,卡奇奥波发现,“与世隔绝的感觉,与高血压、肥胖、缺乏运动、吸烟一样,构成了致病或早死的危险因素。”Even without indulging in unwholesome behaviors, Dr. Cacioppo and others have shown that loneliness can impair health by raising levels of stress hormones and increasing inflammation. The damage can be widesp, affecting every bodily system and brain function.卡奇奥波和其他研究者发现,孤独的人们就算不会沉缅于不健康的行为,但孤独仍会导致人体的压力激素水平上升,加剧炎症反应,进而影响健康。它可以对身体产生各种伤害,影响身体的各个系统和大脑功能。Lisa Jaremka, a postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, reported in January at the annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology that people who are lonely have higher levels of antibodies to certain herpes viruses, indicating more activated viruses in their systems. In another study, she found higher levels of inflammation-inducing substances in the blood of lonely people.俄亥俄大学(Ohio State University)士后丽莎·雅雷姆卡(Lisa Jaremka)在1月份的人格和社会心理学协会年会上做了一份报告,指出孤独的人对某些疱疹病毒可产生较高水平的抗体,这意味着他们体内含有更多活性病毒。她在另一项研究中发现,孤独的人血液中含有的致炎因子浓度较高。Chronic inflammation has been linked to heart disease, arthritis, Type 2 diabetes and even suicide attempts, Dr. Jaremka noted. People who are lonely also react more strongly to negative events and perceive daily life as being more stressful, which can depress the immune system.雅雷姆卡士指出,慢性炎症与心脏病、关节炎、II型糖尿病,甚至自杀企图有关。孤独的人在应对负面事态时,也易于做出更激烈的反应,并且认为日常生活压力重重,而这会抑制免疫系统。Loneliness can even influence how genes are expressed, Dr. Cacioppo has found. Loneliness predicted changes in DNA transcription that in turn dampened the body’s ability to shut off the inflammatory response, he reported. A study by Dr. Carla M. Perissinotto and colleagues at the University of California, San Francisco, assessed loneliness among 1, 604 older adults and followed them for six years. Those who were lonely were more likely to develop difficulties performing activities of daily living like bathing and dressing, using their arms and shoulders, climbing stairs and walking. Loneliness was also associated with an increased risk of death during the study period.卡奇奥波发现,孤独感甚至会影响基因表达。他指出,孤独感会预示DNA转录的变化,而这反过来会抑制机体关闭炎症反应的能力。加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)的卡拉·M·佩里西诺托(Carla M. Perissinotto)和同事们对1604名老年人的孤独感进行了评估,随访持续了六年。那些孤独的老人更有可能难以进行日常活动,比如洗澡和穿衣,使用胳膊和肩膀,爬楼梯和步行。在研究期间,孤独感与死亡危险上升也有联系。It’s not surprising that loneliness has also been linked to cognitive decline. A Dutch study published last year in The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery amp;Psychiatry found that participants who reported feeling lonely — regardless of how many friends and family surrounded them — were more likely to develop dementia than those who lived on their own but were not lonely.不出人们所料:孤独感与认知功能减退也有联系。《神经病学、神经外科学与精神病学杂志》(The Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery amp;Psychiatry)去年刊登了荷兰的一项研究,研究发现感到孤独的参试者——不管他们身边事实上有多少亲友陪伴——相比虽然一个人生活,但并不觉得孤独的人,更有可能患痴呆症。The nearly 2, 200 participants, ages 65 to 86, were followed for three years and had shown no signs of dementia at the study’s start. About half lived alone, and 20 percent reported feeling lonely. After adjusting for other factors that are linked to cognitive decline, like age, feeling lonely was linked to a 64 percent increase in the risk of developing dementia, according to Tjalling Jan Holwerda of the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam.阿姆斯特丹自由大学(VU University)医学中心的特亚林·简·赫尔威达(Tjalling Jan Holwerda)介绍说,这项研究调查了近2200名年纪在65岁到86岁间的老人,随访三年,在研究起始阶段所有人都未出现痴呆症症状。其中约半数独居,20%的人表示感到孤独。在排除了其他与认知功能减退有关的因素,比如年龄后,研究发现感到孤独,可使患痴呆症风险增加64%。This is not proof that loneliness causes dementia; the reverse could be true. People whose cognitive abilities begin declining may withdraw from others, the authors suggested. On the other hand, loneliness may result in “a lack of sensory and cognitive stimulation, ” which in turn reduces levels of nerve growth factors in the brain and may contribute to dementia.这并不能明孤独可导致痴呆,但反之可以成立。研究作者发现,认知功能开始减退的人可能会渐渐淡出社交生活。另一方面,孤独感可能导致“知觉和认知刺激缺失”,降低大脑中的神经生长分子水平,进而导致痴呆症发作。The Dutch study, among others, suggests that how people perceive their situation may have a stronger impact on health than whether they live alone and lack social connections. Divorced people have reported feeling lonelier in a bad marriage than they do being single. And people who live alone may still have a large network of friends and family that helps to keep loneliness at bay.荷兰进行的这项研究和其他调查显示,相比独居和缺乏社交纽带,人们对个人境遇的感知可能会对健康产生更剧烈的影响。离异人群表示,身处不幸的婚姻中,比独身更让他们感到孤苦。而独居的人或许拥有着一个庞大的亲友团,帮助他们击退孤独感。But according to Dr. Cacioppo, having many friends and family members around does not guarantee immunity from loneliness if the relationships are missing a strong emotional connection. The quality of these relationships — how meaningful they are to the individual — counts more than numbers in predicting loneliness, his studies and others have shown.但卡西普奥认为,如果社交关系缺乏强有力的情感联系,就算有众多亲友在侧,也无法担保人们能对孤独感刀不入。他和其他人的研究发现,社交关系的质量——也就是它对个体的意义有多么重大——比起数量,更能有效地揭示人们的孤独感。People are fundamentally social beings who require meaningful connections with others to maximize health and well-being. Dr. Cacioppo suggests reaching out to others with “random acts of kindness”: doing something that helps them physically or emotionally, maybe something as simple as complimenting a stranger’s outfit, leaving behind the change in a coffee machine, or helping an old person carry groceries or cross the street.人类本质上是社交生物,需要通过与他人建立有意义的联系来最大限度地取得健康与幸福感。卡西普奥建议大家可以做“随机的友善举动”,向他人递去橄榄枝:做些可以在身体或情感上有益他人的事情,哪怕只是易如反掌的小事,比如恭维一个陌生人的穿着,用完公用咖啡机后换上新滤纸,帮老人提购物袋或过马路。Next, try seeking out social activities that help others while fostering social contacts, like volunteering in a soup kitchen, ing to the blind or assisting in a classroom. Such actions can result in what Dr. Cacioppo calls the “helper’s high, ” establish new friendships and counter a feeling of aloneness.接下来,可以尝试参与帮助别人的社会活动,同时缔结社交联系,比如去施粥场做义工,给盲人读书,或去学校帮忙。这些行动可产生卡西奥波所谓的“帮助者高潮”,认识新朋友,同时抵御孤独感的侵袭。“What’s required, ” he wrote, “is to step outside the pain of our own situation long enough to ‘feed’ others. Real change begins with doing.” You won’t know whether what you do will result in a genuine connection to another person unless you try.“你需要做的,”他写道,“是从你个人身处的痛苦中走出来,去‘哺育’他人。真正的改变要从行动开始。”只有开始尝试,你才会知道自己做的事情是否能让你和别人建立真正的感情。While I have always been outgoing, since my husband’s death I’ve tried even harder to connect with people in ways that make us all feel good. For example, on learning that an acquaintance at the Y needed pants from a store I was going to pass, I offered to get them for her, an exchange that enriched us both.我一直为人外向,自丈夫去世后,我更努力地与别人交往,好让大家都觉得高兴。比方说,听说在基督教青年会(YMCA)的一位熟人想去一家商店取裤子,而我刚好要打那儿路过,于是我主动帮她取了,这桩小事让我俩都得到了快乐。 /201306/242396

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