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2019年08月21日 00:35:08

I thought I would start with a very brief我觉得我得从城市的历史history of cities.简单说起Settlements typically began人们聚井而居with people clustered around a well, and the size揭开了典型的定居生活of that settlement was roughly the distance you could walk而这种定居的范围,也不过是你头顶着一盆水with a pot of water on your head.所能走的距离罢了In fact, if you fly over Germany, for example,其实,假如你能从德国上空飞过and you look down and you see these hundreds往下看,你会看到数以百计的小村庄of little villages, theyre all about a mile apart.每个距离约一英里You needed easy access to the fields.这样你就到地里去就很方便了And for hundreds, even thousands of years,几百几千年以来the home was really the center of life.家就是生活的中心Life was very small for most people.所以对大多数人来说,生活范围其实很小It was the center of entertainment, of energy production,家是欢乐,动力of work, the center of health care.工作,和医疗的中心Thats where babies were born and people died.在那里,也有生老病死Then, with industrialization, everything started之后工业化的兴起,to become centralized.一切开始变得集中起来You had dirty factories that were moved那些污浊不堪的工厂to the outskirts of cities.都搬到了郊外Production was centralized in assembly plants.产品也都被集中到装配厂You had centralized energy production.我们还把能源生产也集中起来Learning took place in schools. Health care took place学校是学习用的in hospitals.医院是治病用的And then you had networks that developed.然后网络也发展起来了You had water, sewer networks that allowed for this供水管网,污水管网也使得kind of unchecked expansion.不断的扩张成为了可能You had separated functions, increasingly.慢慢地,我们把不同的职能给区分开来You had rail networks that connected residential,铁路网连接到了住宅区industrial, commercial areas. You had auto networks.工业区和商业区,汽车交通网也建立起来了In fact, the model was really, give everybody a car,事实上,这个模式就是,给每人一辆车build roads to everything, and give people a place to park把路给修起来,然后在人们停车的地方when they get there. It was not a very functional model.弄个车库,其实这并不是一个行得通的模式And we still live in that world,但我们依旧生活在这样的环境下and this is what we end up with.所以这就是我们所得到的So you have the sprawl of LA,所以就有了洛杉矶的扩展区the sprawl of Mexico City.墨西哥城的扩展区You have these unbelievable new cities in China在中国匪夷所思般崛起了各种新城市which you might call tower sprawl.也可以称为“雨后春笋”Theyre all building cities on the model that we invented他们都是基于我们在50年代或60年代发明的模式in the 50s and 60s, which is really obsolete, I would argue,在建城市,我觉得这样是跟不上时代的and there are hundreds and hundreds of new cities而此时此刻,不计其数的城市that are being planned all over the world.正在世界各地紧锣密鼓筹备兴建In China alone, 300 million people,单中国来说,3亿人口,some say 400 million people,有的说4亿will move to the city over the next 15 years.将会在接下来的15年里搬迁到城市里That means building the entire, the equivalent这就等同于要美国of the entire built infrastructure of the U.S. in 15 years.在15年内建造起整个国家基础设施Imagine that.想象一下And we should all care about this我们都应该关注一下whether you live in cities or not.不管你是否住在城里Cities will account for 90 percent of the population growth,城市主宰着90%的人口增长80 percent of the global CO2, 75 percent of energy use,全球80%的CO2,75%的能源消费but at the same time its where people want to be,同时,也是人们向往的地方increasingly.这情况与日剧增More than half the people now in the world live in cities,现在世界上一半以上的人口住在城市里and that will just continue to escalate.而且还会不断增加Cities are places of celebration, personal expression.城市是人们庆祝和表现的地方You have the flash mobs of pillow fights that a”城市里有枕头大战的快闪族——Ive been to a couple. Theyre quite fun. 我去过几次,还真有趣。You have”还有——Cities are where most of the wealth is created,城市是大部分财富的来源and particularly in the developing world,尤其是在发展中国家its where women find opportunities. Thats妇女也能拥有各种机遇,所以a lot of the reason why cities are growing very quickly.有很多原因可以解释为何城市发展如此快速Now theres some trends that will impact cities.但某些趋势会影响到城市First of all, work is becoming distributed and mobile.首先,工作遵循分配模式而且不再一成不变The office building is basically obsolete办公大楼基本淘汰了for doing private work.私人的工作The home, once again, because of distributed computation --由于有了分布式通信和分布式计算communication, is becoming a center of life,家,再一次成为了生活的中心so its a center of production and learning and shopping家成为了生产,学习,购物,还有医疗and health care and all of these things that we used还有那些我们认为to think of as taking place outside of the home.都是在家外发生的一切的中心And increasingly, everything that people buy,渐渐地,所有人们买的东西every consumer product, in one way or another,所有的消费品,通过不同的方式can be personalized.都能够实现个性化And thats a very important trend to think about.这是值得关注的一个重要趋势So this is my image of the city of the future.这就是我想象中的未来城市In that its a place for people, you know.图中那里就是人们可以待的地方Maybe not the way people dress, but --人们的衣着可能不会是这样,但You know, the question now is, how can we have all要知道,现在的问题是,我们要如何the good things that we identify with cities对于城市带给我们的产物without all the bad things?做到取其精华去其糟粕呢?This is Bangalore. It took me a couple of hours这儿是班加罗尔,在去年的时候to get a few miles in Bangalore last year.我花了好几小时才在班加罗尔移动了几英里So with cities, you also have congestion and pollution所以在城市里,有拥挤和污染and disease and all these negative things.有疾病还有很多负面的东西How can we have the good stuff without the bad?怎样取其精华去其糟粕呢?So we went back and started looking at the great cities我们暂且回头看看那么比较不错的城市吧that evolved before the cars.在有了汽车之前的状态Paris was a series of these little villages巴黎就是由好些小村庄that came together, and you still see that structure today.合并而成的,这种分布结构你今天还可以看得出来The 20 arrondissements of Paris巴黎的20个区are these little neighborhoods.就像20个小邻居Most of what people need in life can be大多数人们的生活所需within a five- or 10-minute walk.或许就在5到10分钟的步行范围里And if you look at the data, when you have that kind如果你去看那些数据,当你建立了of a structure, you get a very even distribution这种结构后,巴黎的商店of the shops and the physicians and the pharmacies内科医生,药房,还有咖啡厅and the cafes in Paris.都会很平均地分布在城市中And then you look at cities that evolved after之后你再看那些拥有了汽车后的城市the automobile, and its not that kind of a pattern.他们就完全不是这个模式了Theres very little thats within a five minute walk像匹兹堡,大部分地方of most areas of places like Pittsburgh.很少再有几步之遥的生活了Not to pick on Pittsburgh, but most American cities不单是匹兹堡,大部分美国的城市really have evolved this way.都演变成这个样了201504/370536云南闭壳乌龟好养吗价格收藏推荐But then in the apartment across the hall from this cow shed lives a newly married couple in what locals describe as one of the nicest apartments in the area.不过从这个牛棚穿过楼道的这个公寓住着一对新婚的夫妻,这里被当地人形容为当地最好的一座公寓之一。The attention to this detail astonished me,公寓里对细节的注意使我震惊,and as the owner of the home so proudly led me around this apartment,并且当公寓的主人很自豪地让我在这个公寓里随便走动时,from floor to ceiling, every part was decorated.从地板到屋顶,这里的每处都经过装点。But if it werent for the strangely familiar stomach-churning odor that constantly passes through the apartment,但假如不是那让人无法忍受的持续穿过公寓的让人恶心的气味,it would be easy to forget that you are standing next to a cow shed and on top of a landfill.你会非常容易忘记你正站在牛棚的隔壁和垃圾清理厂的上方。What moved me the most was that despite these seemingly inhospitable conditions,让我感动的是除了那些看上去不宜居的条件,I was welcomed with open arms into a home that was made with love, care,and unreserved passion.我被非常热情地邀请进入一个充满爱,关怀和没有保留热情的家。Lets move across the map to China,让我们跨越来到中国,to an area called Shanxi, Henan and Gansu.来到一个叫陕西,河南和甘肃的区域。In a region famous for the soft, porous Loess Plateau soil,一个以柔软松散的黄土高原黄沙而闻名的地区,there lived until recently an estimated 40 million people in these houses underground.最新估计那里有四千万人住在地下的房屋里。These dwellings are called the yaodongs.这种住宅称为窑洞。Through this architecture by subtraction,通过这种往下建的建筑方式,these yaodongs are built literally inside of the soil.这些窑洞真的是建在土地下面。In these villages, you see an entirely altered landscape,在这些村子里,你可以看到完全改变了的地貌,and hidden behind these mounds of dirt are these square, rectangular houses which sit seven meters below the ground.而在这些土丘背后藏着的是广场,长方形的房子坐落在地下7米的地方。201601/424474宁国市花龟亚达伯拉象龟金头闭壳龟黑颈乌龟金钱龟大头乌龟价格怎么养Over the past seven years, Ive been following my fascination with the built environment,在过去的七年里,我一直在追随着我对建筑环境的兴趣,and for those of you who know me, you would say that this obsession has led me to live out of a suitcase 365 days a year.并且对你们当中了解我的人,你们会说这种痴迷使我一年365天提着行李生活。Being constantly on the move means that sometimes I am able to catch lifes most unpredictable moments,一直四处奔波意味着有时我可以抓住生活中最不可预测的时刻,like here in New York the day after the Sandy storm hit the city.比如在纽约这里在桑迪飓风袭击城市后的一天。Just over three years ago,正好在三年前,I was for the first time in Caracas, Venezuela,我第一次来到委内瑞拉的加拉加斯,and while flying over the city, I was just amazed by the extent to which the slums reach into every corner of the city,当飞机飞过城市上方时,我很惊讶于这里的贫民窟已经遍布了城市的每个角落,a place where nearly 70 percent of the population lives in slums,一个百分之七十的居民生活在贫民窟里的地方,draped literally all over the mountains.贫民窟满山遍野的搭建着。During a conversation with local architects Urban-Think Tank,在和当地的城市设计智库的谈话中,I learned about the Torre David,我了解到托雷·大卫,a 45-story office building which sits right in the center of Caracas.一个45层高的办公楼,坐落在加拉加斯的中心。The building was under construction until the collapse of the Venezuelan economy and the death of the developer in the early 90s.这个高楼一直在施工,直到90年代初委内瑞拉经济大崩盘并且设计者去世。About eight years ago, people started moving into the abandoned tower and began to build their homes right in between every column of this unfinished tower.大概八年前,人们开始搬进被废弃的大楼里并开始在这个未完工的大楼的每个间隙里搭建他们自己的房子。201601/422265Everyone in my family went here to Michigan: my brother, my Mom, my Dad—all of them.我们家的所有成员都毕业于密歇根大学:我哥哥、我妈妈和爸爸——我们全家。My Dad actually got the quantity discount :he got all three and a half of his degrees here.我的父亲在学位数量上可能要打个折:他从密歇根大学拿到了三个半学位。His Ph.D. was in Communication Science because they thought Computers were just a passing fad, when he earned it 44 years ago.他的士学位是通信科学,而当时人们认为计算机只是一时热门,他是在44年前获得的士学位。He and Mom made a big sacrifice for that degree.他与我母亲为此做出了巨大的牺牲。They argued at times over pennies, while raising my newborn brother.在抚养我刚出生的哥哥时,他们经常因为缺钱而争吵。Mom typed my Dad’s dissertation by hand.母亲自己用手敲出了父亲的论文。Kind of ironic for a Communication Science dissertation.这对于一篇通讯论文来说具有讽刺意义。This velvet hood Im wearing, this was my Dad’s.今天我戴的这顶天鹅绒帽是我父亲的。And this diploma that I have here just like the one youre about to get, that was my Dad’s.这张毕业书,和你们即将拿的一样,也是我父亲的。And my underwear... oh never mind.我的内衣也是的...好了,大家别介意。My father’s father worked in the Chevy plant in Flint, Michigan.我的祖父在密歇根州弗林特的雪佛兰汽车工厂工作,He was an assembly line worker.他是装配线上的一名工人。He drove his two children here to Ann Arbor, and told them: That is where you’re going to college.他曾开车把两个孩子送到安娜堡这儿,并告诉他们:这是你们今后要上的大学。I know it sounds funny now.我知道现在听起来很好笑。Both of his kids actually did graduate from Michigan.他的两个孩子也的确从密歇根大学毕业。That was the American dream.这就是“美国梦”。His daughter, Beverly, also with us today.他的女儿,贝芙丽,几天也在场。My Grandpa used to carry an “Alley Oop’ hammer--a heavy iron pipe with a big hunk of lead melted on the end.我的祖父经常扛着一个大铁锤,实际上是一根末端有大铅块、很重的铁管The works made them during the sit-down strikes to protect themselves.那时工人们静坐罢工时常会用它来自卫。When I was growing up,当我再大一些的时候,we used that hammer whenever we needed to pound a stake or something into the yard.一遇到砸树桩一类动土的活儿,我们就会用那个大铁锤。It is wonderful that most people dont need to carry a heavy blunt object for protection anymore.现在大多数人不再需要扛着笨重的大家伙来保护自己了,这很好。But just in case, I brought it with me.但为了以防万一,我把它带来了。201308/252025鱼台县花龟亚达伯拉象龟金头闭壳龟黑颈乌龟金钱龟大头乌龟价格怎么养

明光市花龟亚达伯拉象龟金头闭壳龟黑颈乌龟金钱龟大头乌龟价格怎么养马来闭壳龟买一只多少钱We need to ensure that these wetlands and forests我们必须保护这些湿地和森林that are our best and greatest and most critical它是对抗全球暖化最佳、最有利defense against global warming are protected,最重要的防线and we are not releasing that carbon bomb into the atmosphere.我们不能将这枚碳弹释放到大气中And we need to all gather together我们必须团结一致and say no to the tar sands.向油砂说不And we can do that. There is a huge network我们可以做到这一点,遍布全球的all over the world fighting to stop this project.庞大网络社群正致力于制止这项计划And I quite simply think that this is not我认为这不仅是something that should be decided just in Canada.加拿大本身该做的决定Everyone in this room, everyone across Canada,在座每位听众,每位加拿大国民everyone listening to this presentation has a role to play每位聆听这场演讲的人都该贡献心力and, I think, a responsibility.我认为这是一项责任Because what we do here因为我们的所作所为is going to change our history,将改变人类历史its going to color our possibility to survive,为人类生存的可能性带来希望and for our children to survive为下一代的生存带来希望and have a rich future.使他们拥有美好未来We have an incredible gift in the boreal,北方森林提供了an incredible opportunity to preserve不可思议的恩赐和机会,保存了our best defense against global warming,对抗全球暖化的最佳防御工具but we could let that slip away.但我们或许会让它消失无踪The tar sands could threaten沥青砂可能造成的威胁not just a large section of the boreal.不仅是北方森林大部分区域It compromises the life and the health也将危及一些of some of our most underprivileged and vulnerable people,弱势者的生命和健康the Aboriginal communities that have so much to teach us.危及对人类贡献良多的原住民小区It could destroy the Athabasca Delta,沥青砂将摧毁阿萨帕斯卡尔三角洲the largest and possibly greatest freshwater delta in the planet.它或许是世上最大、最壮观的淡水三角洲It could destroy the Great Bear Rainforest,它将摧毁大熊雨林-the largest temperate rainforest in the world.世上最大的温带雨林And it could have huge impacts它可能对on the future of the agricultural heartland of North America.北美农业腹地的未来造成巨大影响I hope that you will all, if youve been moved by this presentation,我希望在座各位,如果这场演讲令你动容join with the growing international community请加入逐渐壮大的国际社群行列to get Canada to step up to its responsibilities,督促加拿大尽一己之责to convince Canada to go back to being a climate change champion说加拿大再次成为对抗气候变化的斗士instead of a climate change villain,而非导致气候变化的罪魁祸首and to say no to the tar sands,向沥青砂说不and yes to a clean energy future for all.迎向拥有洁净能源的未来Thank you so much.十分感谢201410/331450南通市马来食螺龟云南闭壳龟马来西亚巨龟豹斑象龟黄额盒龟价格怎么养Restoration calls, however, not for changes in ethics alone. This nation is asking for action, and action now.但是,复兴不仅仅只要改变伦理观念。这个国家要求行动起来,现在就行动起来。Our greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we take it wisely and courageously. It can be accomplished in part by direct recruiting by the government itself, treating the task as we would treat the emergency of a war, but at the same time, through this employment, accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our great natural resources.我们最大、最基本的任务是让人民投入工作。只要我信行之以智慧和勇气,这个问题就可以解决。这可以部分由政府直接征募完成,就象对待临战的紧要关头一样,但同时,在有了人手的情况下,我们还急需能刺激并重组巨大自然资源的工程。Hand in hand with that, we must frankly recognize the overbalance of population in our industrial centers and by engaging on a national scale in a redistribution in an effort to provide better use of the land for those best fitted for the land.我们齐心协力,但必须坦白地承认工业中心的人口失衡,我们必须在全国范围内重新分配,使土地在最适合的人手中发表挥更大作用。Yes,the task can be helped by definite efforts to raise the value of the agricultural product and with this the power to purchase the output of our cities. It can be helped by preventing realistically, the tragedy of the growing losses through fore closures of our small homes and our farms.是的,明确地为提高农产品价值并以此购买城市产品所做的努力,会有助于任务的完成。避免许多小家庭业、农场业被取消赎取抵押品的权利的悲剧也有助于任务的完成。 /201305/238814聂荣县印度棱背龟佛罗里达红肚龟黄腿象龟中部锦龟安南龟海龟扁头长颈龟价格怎么养

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