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2019年10月15日 18:01:15来源:国际新闻

  • When Nestlé’s Maggi noodles were declared one of India’s most trusted consumer brands last year, alongside Colgate, Dettol and Nokia, a Bangalore commenter on the Economic Times of India’s website retorted: “It is time that India and Indians wipe out all foreign brands from this list. It needs to make its mark in the world.”去年,雀Nestlé)旗下的美Maggi)面条同高露洁(Colgate)、滴Dettol)及诺基亚(Nokia)一起荣获印度最受信任的消费品牌时,班加罗尔的一名员在印度《经济时报Economic Times)网站上反驳道:“现在是印度和印度人民将所有外国品牌从这一榜单上清除的时候了。印度需要在世界上留下自己的标志。”By coincidence, what one minister dubbed the country’s “Inspector Rajwas about to take action. A food inspector plucked a Maggi packet from a shop in Uttar Pradesh in January, starting a farcical sequence of events that culminated in Nestlé incinerating 400m packets of innocent noodles. Only this week, after global sales were dented, has the brand returned to the shelves.巧合的是,印度一名部长所称的“检验员拉吉Inspector Raj)正打算采取行动。今月,一名食品检验员从北方邦(Uttar Pradesh)的一家商店拿走了一包美极面条,从此引发了一系列闹剧,最终导致雀巢销毁了4亿包其实没什么问题的面条。只是在最近(在美极面条全球销量下降后),该品牌才重新在印度上架。Narendra Modi, India’s reform-minded prime minister, is visiting the UK and Turkey this week, bearing his “Make in Indiaappeal to multinationals, backed by the easing of barriers to foreign direct investment. But the Maggi noodles case shows that national leaders may talk but tax authorities, food inspectors and local bureaucrats often do not listen.致力于改革的印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)最近对英国和土耳其进行访问,承诺减少针对外国直接投FDI)的壁垒,用“在印度制造Make in India)的口号吸引跨国公司。但美极面条事件表明,不管国家领导人说了什么,税务部门、食品检验机构及地方官僚体制常常当作耳旁风。In claiming on the basis of disputed evidence not backed up by other countriesfindings that Nestlé’s noodles contained too much lead, India’s main food inspection body blithely undermined Mr Modi’s welcome. It added to a growing realisation among multinationals that emerging markets are not the one way bet, full of eager customers, they once hoped. These are tricky territories in which it is easy to get entangled.声称雀巢生产的面条含铅量超标(基于有争议的据,而这些据并未得到其他国家检验结果的持)之举,意味着印度主要食品检验机构满不在乎地打破了莫迪的欢迎姿态。这进一步增强了跨国公司本已日益强烈的意识:新兴市场并不是他们曾经期望的单向押注,满是踊跃的消费者。这些是棘手的地方,外国企业很容易陷入麻烦。In a sense, they always knew it. Only the truly naive thought it would be as easy to move into China as into Cincinnati. But the risks appeared to be containable, especially when they were being lured by smiling politicians, and the rewards for leaping into the unknown great. In practice, there have been more pitfalls than some realised and lesser rewards.从某种意义上说,他们一直都知道这一点。只有真正幼稚的人才会认为进入中国像进入辛辛那提(Cincinnati)一样容易。但以往风险似乎可控,尤其是在他们受到笑脸相迎的政客吸引、而跃入未知所带来的回报巨大之时。但在现实中,他们遇到了比预想更多的陷阱、更少的回报。The economic climate does not help. China’s rate of growth has dropped and Brazil and Russia are expected to contract this year. Goldman Sachs has closed its Brics fund, dedicated to profiting from the potential of Brazil, Russia, India and China, due to underperformance. Foreign investors can no longer surf a wave of rapid growth.经济环境也不给力。中国经济增速已经下降,巴西、俄罗斯经济预计今年将出现萎缩。由于表现不佳,高盛(Goldman Sachs)已关闭了旗下的金砖国Brics)基金,后者旨在获益于巴西、俄罗斯、印度和中国的增长潜力。外国投资者再也无法搭上快速增长的顺风车。Meanwhile, the regulatory setbacks multiply. Nestle’s noodles imbroglio follows others for foreign multinationals in India, notably over tax. Vodafone won a victory in the Mumbai High Court last month over an effort by India’s tax authorities to raise its liabilities by hundreds of millions of dollars. The same court ruled last year in favour of Shell over a similar claim.与此同时,监管方面带来的挫折不断增多。雀巢面条风波与在印度的其他外国跨国公司的遭遇如出一辙,特别是在税务方面。上月,沃达Vodafone)在孟买高等法院获得了胜诉,此前印度税务部门试图让该公司补缴数亿美元的税款。去年,孟买法院在一起类似的案件中做出了有利于壳Shell)的判决。Foreign multinationals can at least rely on the Mumbai court to be dispassionate. Its judges gave short shrift to the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) in August, describing its decision to ban nine varieties of Maggi noodles on the basis of flawed tests as in breach of natural justice.外资跨国公司至少可以信赖孟买法院作出公正判决月,该院法官未理会印度食品安全与标准局(FSSAI),称该局基于有缺陷的检测禁类美极面条出售的决定违反了自然公正原则。Other countries are equally testing. GlaxoSmithKlinewas fined 300m by a court in China last year after becoming a public example in its crackdown on bribery. Sifiso Dabengwa, chief executive of the South African mobile company MTN, which sells services across Africa and the Middle East, resigned on Monday after regulators in Nigeria fined the group .2bn.其他国家同样也很棘手。在成为中国打击贿赂的公开案例后,葛兰素史GlaxoSmithKline)被中国一家法院罚亿英镑。南非移动通信企业MTN(在非洲及中东各地提供务)首席执行官思费索达本古Sifiso Dabengwa)在尼日利亚监管机构对该集团罚2亿美元后最近宣布辞职。Foreign multinationals are not the sole targets of officious supervisors. Nor are they solely at risk in emerging economies, as European banks have found in the US. Several large Chinese state-owned enterprises and their senior executives have suffered badly from the country’s anti-corruption campaign. But foreigners present obvious targets when times are tough.外资跨国公司并非好管闲事的监管机构的唯一目标。他们也并非只在新兴经济体遭遇风险,欧洲的在美国也同样遭遇风险。几家大型中国国有企业及其高管在该国的反腐运动中遭受了严重冲击。但在艰难时期,外资企业更容易成为靶子。That puts a premium on fitting in, not merely by adapting the Big Mac to local culture and selling Chicken Maharaja Macs instead, but becoming part of the fabric of the economy. “You cannot afford to be regarded as the imperialist. You must show how you benefit the country,says Peter Williamson, a professor of international management at Cambridge university.这意味着必须付出额外代价“入境随俗”,不仅仅是让“巨无霸汉堡Big Mac)适应当地文化,转而销售“鸡肉大王汉堡Chicken Maharaja Macs),而且还要成为当地经济的一部分。“你承受不起被视为帝国主义者的后果。你必须展示自己如何让所在国家受益,”剑桥大Cambridge University)国际管理学教授彼得威廉森(Peter Williamson)说。But Nestlé did not do very much wrong, and certainly not enough to deserve a 20 per cent fall in its sales in India. Its mistake came after the fact rather than before, in failing to respond quickly and assertively enough to the accusations. By the time it hit back, the claim that its noodles were poisonous was all over social media. Nestlé was no arriviste trying to cram a global product down local throats. It has operated in India for 103 years and started manufacturing there in 1961. Maggi has been a popular brand since its launch in 1983 noodles that could be cooked in a few minutes, were cheap enough for most people and fitted with their busier lives.但雀巢并没有做错什么,肯定不至于让其在印度的销售额下降20%。雀巢的错误在于在事件发生后没能快速、自信地回应指控。等到雀巢作出反驳时,关于其面条有毒的传闻已经传遍了社交媒体。雀巢并不是试图让当地人接受某款全球产品的新来者。它已经在印度经营了103年,并且早在1961年就开始在印度生产。自1983年推出以来,美极一直是广受欢迎的品牌——这种几分钟即可煮熟的面条对大多数人来说足够便宜,而且适合他们的忙碌生活节奏。Nestlé India has been ed on the Mumbai exchange since 1968; it employs 7,000 people directly and another half a million indirectly; it takes milk and dairy supplies from 100,000 farmers in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan; it runs global research and development for noodles in India; and it has nine health laboratories. It is not, in other words, a stranger.雀巢印Nestlé India)968年就在孟买交易所挂牌上市;它直接雇用7000人,间接0万人提供就业;它从旁遮普Punjab)、哈里亚纳邦(Haryana)和拉贾斯坦邦(Rajasthan)0万户农民那里收购牛奶和乳制品;它在印度对面条进行全球研发,而且拥有9个健康实验室。换句话说,印度人对雀巢并不陌生。It is customary in such cases to ask what the big corporation should have done better and Nestlé will learn lessons, especially in how it communicates. But it was India’s fault rather than Nestle’s and the moral for growth economies is this: if the rewards for coming to your country have fallen, you must reduce the risks too.在此类事件中,人们往往会问,大公司怎样才能做得更好,雀巢将吸取教训,尤其是在沟通方面。但这是印度(而不是雀巢)的过错,该事件对增长型经济体的寓意是:如果你国的投资回报下降,那么你必须把风险也降低些。来 /201511/410723。
  • Barack Obama has urged the leaders of Japan and 10 other Pacific Rim economies to help him overcome the few remaining “logjamsin the way of creating a vast regional trade bloc.美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)敦促日本以及其他10个太平洋沿岸经济体的领导人帮助他克剩余的几个阻碍创建庞大区域性贸易集团的“僵局”。After last week’s midterm election losses, the US president assured a meeting in Beijing of leaders involved in negotiations over a Trans-Pacific Partnership that he expected trade to be one area of bipartisan co-operation with the new Republican-controlled Congress.在上周中期选举失利之后,奥巴马向在北京参与《跨太平洋伙伴关系协定Trans-Pacific Partnership, TPP)谈判的各国领导人保,贸易将是他与由共和党控制的新一届国会展开两党合作的一个领域。Following years of negotiations, momentum was building towards a final agreement on the TPP, he said, and leaders needed to help “break some of the remaining logjams “It’s up to all of us to see if we can finalise a deal that’s both ambitious and comprehensive,Mr Obama said. “This has the potential to be a historic agreement.”奥巴马表示,经过多年谈判后,TPP达成最终协议的势头日渐累积,各国领导人有必要帮助“打破一些余下的僵局”。他表示:“我们能否敲定一项既雄心勃勃又全面的协定取决于我们大家。它很有可能成为一项历史性的协定。”The TPP pointedly does not include China and is openly described by members of the Obama administration as a strategic response to the rise of China and other emerging economies.TPP令人瞩目地不包括中国。奥巴马政府官员公开表示,TPP是针对中国和其他新兴经济体崛起的战略回应。Mr Obama’s comments yesterday came after a weekend in which the US saw off an attempt by China to accelerate negotiations over a broader Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific, viewed by many as a potential rival to the TPP.奥巴马昨日发表上述言论前,美国在周末顶住了中国的企图——中国希望加快有关创建更为包容的亚太自由贸易Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific)的谈判,许多人认为亚太自由贸易区是TPP的潜在竞争对手。With their Chinese hostssensitivities in mind, the US and other TPP countries have gone out of their way to play down the possibility of any big breakthroughs in Beijing. The US has also been creeping closer to an agreement with China aimed at ending an impasse in negotiations at the World Trade Organisation over updating global tariffs on IT goods.考虑到东道主中国的敏感,美国和其他TPP参与国特意淡化在北京取得重大突破的可能性。美国也在一直悄悄推进与中国达成协议,以便结束世贸组WTO)中围绕更新IT产品全球关税的谈判僵局。But in a statement issued at the end of the meeting, leaders made clear they were intent on closing a deal over the TPP soon. “With the end coming into focus, we have instructed our ministers and negotiators to make concluding this agreement a top priority,they said.但在会议结束后发表的声明中,各国领导人明确表示,他们打算在不久之后达成TPP协议。他们表示:“鉴于终点在望,我们已指示各自的部长级官员和谈判代表把达成这一协定列为第一要务。”The biggest obstacle facing the TPP has been the slow bilateral negotiations between the US and Japan over opening their respective agricultural and auto sectors to greater competition. Negotiators on both sides, however, say those discussions are nearing a conclusion.TPP迄今面临的最大障碍是美日在各自开放农业和汽车行业、加大竞争方面的谈判进展缓慢。然而,两国谈判代表均表示,谈判接近尾声。Trade ministers from the 12 countries also indicated they had made “substantial progressin other key areas. These included rules on intellectual property, new rules of origin, guidelines for state-owned enterprises and “enforceableenvironmental and labour standards.12个国家的贸易部长们还暗示,他们在其他关键领域取得了“重大进展”。这些进展包括知识产权规则、新的原产地规则、国有企业指引以及“可执行的”环境和劳工标准。The TPP discussions have accelerated over the past six months in large part because US negotiators and their counterparts recognise that if a deal is not done by early next year it is likely to run up against presidential politics and the 2016 election in the US. Mr Obama’s trade agenda, blocked by Democrats in Congress for much of this year, also appears to face an easier political path at home after the midterm losses.TPP谈判之所以在过去6个月加速,在很大程度上是因为美国和其他国家的谈判代表认识到,如果到明年年初还没有达成协议,它就可能遭遇总统政治016年美国大选。在中期选举失利之后,奥巴马的贸易议程在国内的政治道路似乎也变得容易了一些——在今年大部分时间,这些贸易议程遭到国会中的民主党人的阻扰。Senior Republicans last week said they were willing to work with the president on trade and nominated giving him all-important “fast-trackauthority to conclude trade agreements as a priority.资深共和党人上周表示,他们愿意与奥巴马在贸易领域合作,并提到给予他至关重要的“快车道”谈判授权,以求从快缔结贸易协定。来 /201411/341753。
  • The ed Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported Wednesday that the amount of opium produced in Afghanistan during the current year dropped by 48 percent.联合国毒品与犯罪问题办公室星期三说,阿富汗今年的鸦片产量下降8%;We have 3,300 tones of opium production this year as compared to 6,400 tones last year,; UNODC regional representative, Andrey Avetisyan, told reporters in Kabul while releasing the findings of the group’s latest Afghan opium survey.该机构的地区代表安德雷·阿维蒂斯安星期三在喀布尔公布最新调查结果说,阿富汗今年的鸦片产量为3,300吨,而去年为6,400吨。The UNODC attributed the dramatic drop to better cooperation between enforcement agencies and Afghan policy makers. The reductions are significant following years of a steady increase in the cultivation and production of opium in the country.联合国认为阿富汗执法机构和政策制定者之间的良好合作促成了减产。从阿富汗鸦片种植和生产多年稳定增长来看,此次减产的幅度是相当大的。Avetisyan added that opium cultivation in 2015 also went down by 19 percent across the country, however it increased in northern Afghanistan because of the deterioration of security in some places.阿维蒂斯安说阿富汗各地的鸦片种植2015年已减少9%,但在北部一些安全恶化的地区有所增加。Helmand remains the biggest poppy producing province, but recorded a 16 percent drop since last year.阿富汗的赫尔曼德省目前仍是阿富汗最大的罂粟生产地,但去年以来当地产量减少了16%。来 /201510/404406。
  • A court in the Chinese capital Beijing has commuted the suspended death sentence of Gu Kailai, wife of disgraced former Politburo member Bo Xilai, to life in prison. The court said Gu showed repentance and ;did not commit any crimes; in jail.中国北京市最高法院依法作出裁定,将罪犯薄谷开来(名誉扫地的前政治局委员薄熙来的妻子)死刑缓期二年执行的刑罚减为无期徒刑。该法院表示,谷开来在死刑缓期二年刑期间,有悔改表现,并“无任何故意犯罪记录。”Gu was sentenced in 2012 for murdering British businessman Neil Heywood. Her husband was jailed for life in 2013 for corruption and abuse of power. The cases were Chinas biggest political scandal in years.谷开来因谋杀英国商人尼尔·伍德012年被判处死刑。她的丈夫因腐败和滥用职权,2013年被判入狱。薄熙来的案件是中国多年来最大的政治丑闻。The statement was dated 11 December but released only on Monday. It added that she had ;obeyed discipline;, and ;completed labour tasks in a timely manner;. As a result she was ;eligible for the legal conditions for a commutation;.121日北京市高级人民法院已经作出了裁定,但直到周一24日)才对外宣布。在公示中还说,谷开来“遵守纪律”,并“按时完成劳动任务”。所以她“有资格获得减刑的法律条件”。Gus case sparked the series of events which brought down her high-flying husband. Bo Xilai was removed as Communist Party boss of the important metropolis of Chongqing in south-western China, and from the Politburo, which makes key party decisions, in 2012.谷开来的案件像一个导火线,引起了一系列事件,并把她青云直上的丈夫薄熙来拉下了马012年,薄熙来被免去中国西南部重要中心城市重庆市市委书记的职务,并停止担任制定党的重要决策的中央政治局委员。来 /201512/416458。
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