旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻

武汉哪家医院治疗前列腺肥大知道报武汉治疗前列腺炎哪家比较好

来源:同城在线    发布时间:2019年10月21日 14:00:05    编辑:admin         

Where pricing is concerned, there’s Amazon, and then there’s everyone else.只要涉及定价问题,就一定有亚马逊(Amazon),和它搅起的满城风雨。From Stephen King to Disney, Warner Brothers to Bonnier publishing, the e-commerce giant has waged battle against countless parties this year, all in an attempt—at least, that’s how it appears—to have the final word on low prices.这家电子商务巨头今年已经向无数人发起挑战,从史蒂夫o金(Stephen King)到迪士尼(Disney),从华纳兄弟(Warner Brothers)到邦尼出版集团(Bonnier),其目的只有一个,就是掌控低价的最终话语权。Below, a tally of Amazon’s recent brouhahas.以下就是亚马逊最近的斗争史。Amazon vs. Bonnier亚马逊对阵邦尼集团Hachette isn’t the only book publisher to feel Amazon’s wrath. This week, more than 1,000 writers under the Sweden-based Bonnier Group (including noted Noble Prize winner Elfriede Jelinek) signed an open letter to Amazon accusing the company of manipulating its online recommendation lists, lying about the availability of books and delaying the shipment of customers’ orders, all as a way to negotiate bigger discounts with the Sweden-based publisher.阿歇特并不是唯一一家被亚马逊惹怒的图书出版公司。本周,瑞典传媒公司邦尼集团(Bonnier Group)旗下的1,000余名作者(其中还有著名的诺贝尔文学奖得主艾尔弗雷德o耶利内克)共同签署了一封公开信,指控亚马逊公司为操纵其网站的推荐榜单,谎报图书库存情况,以及拖延消费者的图书订单出货时间,而这一切都是为了向这家瑞典出版商索要更多的折扣。“Amazon’s customers have, until now, had the impression that these lists are not manipulated and they could trust Amazon,” s the letter. “Apparently that is not the case.”“目前为止,亚马逊的客户依然觉得这些推荐列表并没有受到人为操纵,也觉得可以信任亚马逊,”公开信中写道,“不过实情显然不是这样的。”The battle began in May when the authors first noticed delays in the availability of their works, prompting Bonnier to reveal that it was in the midst of negotiations with Amazon.这场明争暗斗开始于今年5月,当时这些作者们头一次注意到他们的作品被亚马逊推迟销售,这才促使邦尼集团对外披露正在与亚马逊进行谈判的事情。Status of negotiations: Ongoing谈判状态:进行中Amazon vs. Disney亚马逊对阵迪士尼Fans of Maleficent, the summer film starring Angelina Jolie, must look elsewhere to pre-order it on DVD, thanks to a spat between Amazon and the Walt Disney Co. over—you guessed it —pricing.安吉丽娜o朱莉主演的大片《沉睡魔咒》(Maleficent)在暑期热映,然而影迷们不得不寻找其他途径预购这部影片的DVD,原因同样也是因为亚马逊与迪斯尼公司间的纷争——你猜得没错,还是定价问题。Fallout from the companies#39; hard-nosed negotiations also extends to other popular titles, including big-budget superhero flicks Captain America: The Winter Soldier and Guardians of the Galaxy. (Conveniently, pre-orders for digital versions of the same films remain available via Amazon’s instant service.)这场谈判硬仗的不良影响还波及到了其他卖座大片,像是大制作的超级英雄大片《美国队长2:冬日战士》(Captain America: The Winter Soldier)以及《护卫队》(Guardians of the Galaxy)。(好在,这些影片的电子版仍可通过亚马逊的即时视频务进行预订。)“Amazon is looking to get a price break—we think—from all of the studios,” Wedbush Securities analyst Michael Pachter told Bloomberg TV in an interview earlier this August. “Disney is not budging, and Amazon is fighting back by saying, ‘Fine, your new movies aren’t going to show up as pre-orders on our site.’;“我们猜,亚马逊是希望从所有的影视工作室获得价格折扣,”韦德布什券(Wedbush Securities)分析师迈克尔o帕切在8月初接受彭财经(Bloomberg TV)的采访时分析道,“迪士尼不肯让步,亚马逊就回击说,‘行,那你们的新电影就别想在我们网站上接受预订了。’”Status of negotiations: Ongoing谈判状态:进行中Amazon vs. Warner Brothers亚马逊对阵华纳兄弟From mid-May to late June this year, Amazon removed the ability for customers to pre-order DVD versions of Warner Bros. titles such as The Lego Movie and 300: Rise of an Empire while the two companies hashed out a new distribution deal. The companies never formally announced a resolution—it#39;s a private matter, they say—but reports on June 24 indicated that they were close enough that customers could place pre-orders once again.今年5月中旬到6月下旬期间,亚马逊取消了客户预订华纳兄弟(Warner Bros)出品的电影DVD渠道,例如《乐高大电影》(The Lego Movie)和《300勇士:帝国崛起》(300: Rise of an Empire),但两家公司随即达成了新的经销协议。虽然他们从未正式宣布解决方案——公司的宣传口径称此为私密事件——但6月24日的报道表明,双方已经基本达成协议,客户又可以开始预订了。Shoppers noticed the interruption. “I#39;m definitely going elsewhere for this,” wrote an irked Amazon.com user by the name of John A. “I guess I can thank Amazon for steering me back towards brick and mortar stores—I#39;ve had mixed feelings about their demise.”有顾客留意到了此次预订务的中断。“我肯定会去别的地方买,”一位署名John A的亚马逊用户生气地写道,“我想我该感谢亚马逊让我回到了传统的实体店——对于传统书店的消亡,我心里本来就五味陈杂。” /201408/323617。

Each January, when the Consumer Electronics Show hits Las Vegas, TV makers claim their top sets to be the #39;world#39;s largest,#39; #39;world#39;s first, #39; and #39;world#39;s best.#39; This year, LG is making the first declaration of awesomeness with a triple threat: The company says it will debut a 77-inch OLED television that will boast the Ultra HD resolution -- 3,480 x 2,160 pixels -- and a curved screen.每年1月国际消费类电子产品展览会(Consumer Electronics Show, 简称:消费电子展)在盛大开幕时,电视生产商总会争相发布“全球最大”、“全球第一”、“全球最好”的产品。今年LG电子(LG Electronics Co.)首度带来一项“三项全能”的产品,称将发布一款大小77英寸、分辨率3,480 x 2,160超高清曲面OLED电视。This makes it the world#39;s largest OLED set, says LG, an important bragging point because OLED (organic light-emitting diode) technology promises unparalleled contrast and response time, not to mention the thinnest screens. Instead of requiring a separate light source to illuminate pixels, like LCD TVs, OLED pixels illuminate themselves when they receive electric current. OLED has long been the #39;next great thing#39; in the TV business -- and at the CES show -- but TVs based on the technology have been slow to hit the market.LG表示,这将是全球最大的一款OLED电视。这是一个极大的卖点,因为OLED(有机发光二极管)技术在对比度以及响应时间方面的优势无与伦比,更不要提其薄如蝉翼的面板厚度。与需要独立背光源的LCD电视不同,只要有电流通过,OLED屏幕的像素点就可以实现自发光。在电视业界以及消费电子展上,OLED很早就被誉为“下一代的革命性技术”,但基于该技术的电视产品面市脚步却很慢。As for that curved shape, TV makers argue that it offers a more immersive picture.至于曲面弧度造型,电视生产商称它可以实现更优良的可视角度,让用户享受到影院级别的视听感受。LG isn#39;t yet talking about how much it would sell such a display for -- if it ever brings the set to market -- it#39;ll cost enough to be found in more mansions than Best Buy showrooms.LG尚未宣布这款产品的售价,但是可以想像,如果最终上市的话,昂贵的价格肯定会让人们更多地在大厦公馆而不是百思买(Best Buy)的卖场看到它。While OLED has been shown off at CES for years now, no set has been this big, and it#39;s been rare to see even design prototypes with the Ultra HD resolution. At the 2013 CES, LG#39;s top OLED set was 55-inches, and only had the typical 1080p high-definition screen, and was priced at ,000 when it finally shipped. The company#39;s rival, Samsung, released its own 55-inch HDTV at the same price. At that show, Sony showed off an Ultra HD OLED, but its screen size measured just 56 inches, and it never came to market.虽然OLED电视早在几年前就出现在了消费电子展上,但如此大的尺寸还是头一回看到,这么高分辨率的原型产品也很少见。在2013年的消费电子展上,LG展出的是一款55英寸的OLED电视,分别率只是普通的1080p,最终的上市售价为1万美元。那届电子展上,LG的竞争对手三星(Samsung)发布了一款同样价格的55英寸HDTV电视。索尼(Sony)展示的是一款56英寸大小的超高清OLED电视,但后来没有上市。Alongside LG#39;s 77-incher will be smaller 55-inch and 65-inch curved OLED televisions, all capable of displaying in 3D TVs as well, LG said in a press release. The company plans to open OLED production plants in Brazil, Poland, China and Thailand. LG also said it#39;s opening a OLED plant in Mexico later this year to produce OLED sets for North America.LG在一份新闻稿中称,除77英寸的产品外,该公司还将发布55英寸和65英寸的曲面OLED电视,均可播放3D节目。该公司计划在巴西、波兰、中国和泰国开设OLED生产厂。LG还表示今年晚些时候将在墨西哥开设一家OLED厂,生产的电视将面向北美销售。On top of the 77-inch OLED TV, LG will also exhibit a 105-inch curved Ultra HD television with a resolution of 5,120 x 2,160 pixels and feature a 21:9 aspect ratio, giving the insanely large display an extra-wide feel. While the 77-inch TV makes use of an OLED display, the 105-inch model is built with standard LCD technology. Samsung will have a 105-inch Ultra HD TV at CES, too, featuring the exact same 5,120 x 2,160 resolution.在本届消费电子展上,LG还将展出一款105英寸的曲面超高清电视,分别率5,120 x 2,160,屏幕比例21:9,给用户带来超大超宽的屏幕体验。这款产品没有采用OLED显示技术,而是使用了标准的LCD技术。三星也将展出一款105英寸的超高清电视产品,分辨率也同样达到5,120 x 2,160。 /201401/271947。

For a century or so, the shopping ritual at dealer showrooms for new and used vehicles hasn#39;t changed much, apart from more comfortable chairs and the addition of latte machines.一个世纪以来,在经销商的展厅里购买新车或二手车的程序基本上没有什么变化,只是多了一些舒的椅子和咖啡机什么的。But the Internet is unraveling the essence of new-car retailing, arming shoppers with more information than ever about features and prices, as well as expert reviews. Will shoppers soon be able to take the next step and order new cars online, like books, laptops and shoes?但互联网正在解构新车销售的本质,它让消费者了解到更多有关汽车性能和价格的信息,同时还有专家的评测与看法。那么,不久的将来,消费者是否会像买书、买鞋、买笔记本电脑一样,开始在网上订购汽车呢?The debate over Internet vehicle sales rages, since automakers see it as a way to slash distribution costs by hundreds, and perhaps a few thousand dollars per vehicle. Dealers are aghast: They have shielded their franchises in every state with legislation. Many view Internet sales as a means of undermining them. Dealers assert that ;cars aren#39;t books or shoes; and are best sold in person by their sales staff, a process that allows the shopper to test the vehicle, as well as explore financing and trade-ins.关于汽车能否在互联网上销售的争论已然十分激烈。汽车厂商们认为,网上卖车可以大幅降低渠道成本,光是卖一辆车的渠道成本就可减少几百、甚至几千美元。而经销商们则惊慌失措,他们已经在美国的各个州通过法律巩固了自己的经营权,许多经销商认为网上售车会对他们的业务造成严重损害。他们坚称“汽车不是书也不是鞋”,最好还是通过与销售员面对面沟通的方式来购车,因为消费者可以通过这个环节试驾车辆,同时办妥贷款和打折等有关的事宜。Tesla Motors (TSLA), the groundbreaking electric-vehicle manufacturer founded by Elon Musk, takes orders for its Model S sedan, which starts at , 000, on its website. The cars are delivered either at one of its 30 company-owned stores or can be drop-shipped to a buyer#39;s home. Tesla, clearly, is bucking law and tradition. ;In Texas, where the law precludes delivering directly to customers, we do so through third-parties, ; said Shanna Hendriks, a Tesla spokesperson. ;We#39;re not saying we#39;ll never have dealers; but that model doesn#39;t make sense for us now.由艾伦#8226;马斯科投资的电动汽车制造商特斯拉汽车公司(Tesla Motors)已经开始在官网上接受Model S的订单了,这款车型的起价为7万美元。这些车辆既可以运到这家公司拥有的30家商店里,也可以直接运到消费者的家门口。显然特斯拉并不怕挑战法律和传统。特斯拉公司的发言人莎娜#8226;亨德里克斯说:“德克萨斯州的法律禁止厂商把汽车直接运到消费者家里,所以我们是通过第三方这样做的。我们并不是说我们永远都不需要经销商,但就眼下来说,那种模式对我们没有意义。”Seth Berkowitz, president and chief operating officer of Edmunds.com, said ;the current franchise system makes it difficult to imagine a time when consumers can order new cars online completely separate from a specific showroom experience.; Berkowitz said Edmunds is offering a feature that would allow shoppers to know exactly what a specific car will cost before they come to the dealership.汽车网站Edmunds.com的总裁兼首席运营官塞斯#8226;伯克维茨指出:“在目前的特许经营体系下,很难想象一旦消费者完全脱离了经销商的展厅,转而在网上订购汽车会是什么情形。”伯克维茨表示,Edmunds.com打算提供一项新功能,告诉消费者一款车型在到达经销商展厅之前的成本是多少。Because the market for used cars isn#39;t protected by new-car franchise laws, it may provide a more promising opportunity for online vehicle sales. eBay Motors, a division of eBay (EBAY), offers thousands of vehicles online for sales between private parties. Many used-car dealers also use the digital platform and pay a listing fee.由于二手车市场不受新车特许经营法保护,因此这个领域对于在线卖车来说可能更有前景。比如eBay旗下的eBay Motors就在网络上发布了成千上万辆车型信息,方便私人进行二手车交易。很多二手车经销商也利用这个数码平台进行交易,而且还要付一定的展示费用。Carvana, a venture sponsored by DriveTime, one of the nation#39;s largest used-car operations, has begun selling late-model used premium and luxury models on its own website. Carvana operates for the time being only in Atlanta and its environs but hopes to expand nationwide. ;What we#39;ve learned from our early experience is that shoppers like our on-line tools and money-back guarantee, ; said Ernie Garcia Jr., Carvana#39;s chief executive officer. Barely in business for eight months, Carvana declines to specify how many vehicles it has sold, except to say that the rate is accelerating.Carvana是美国最大的二手车交易商之一DriveTime投资的一家公司,已经开始在自己的网上销售最新款的二手豪车和高端车型了。目前Carvana的业务还仅限于亚特兰大及周边地区,但它希望尽快将业务扩展到全美。公司CEO 小欧尼#8226;加西尼说:“我们从早期的经验中了解到,消费者喜欢我们的在线工具和金融担保。”目前这家公司的业务刚刚开展8个月,不过它没有透露已经售出了多少辆二手车,只是说销售速度正在加速。Garcia did say that the first hundred vehicles sold by Carvana reflect what he called a ;promising; trend of high satisfaction among buyers. Four buyers of the first hundred weren#39;t satisfied with their purchase and exercised their right to trade the vehicles they bought for another. Only one of the hundred demanded a refund.加西亚介绍,Carvana公司首批卖出的100辆二手车在客户中的满意度很高,预示了光明的前景。这100个客户中,只有4个人对他们购买的车辆不满意,而且行使了换车的权利,另外只有1名客户要求退车返款。Garcia said that sales of new and used vehicles at dealerships, in the conventional manner, reflect about ;, 000 a car; in sales, general and administrative cost. He regards that amount as margin that can and will eventually shrink as online attracts more vehicle shoppers.加西亚表示,在传统的销售方式下,无论是卖新车还是旧车,每辆的销售成本、一般成本与管理成本加起来,都高达2,000美元左右。他认为,随着网络售车的模式吸引更多的消费者,这部分金额最终会缩水,转化成利润。Jeff Jones, Internet director for Al Serra Auto Plaza, a new-car dealer in Grand Blanc, Michigan, said his company is cooperating in an on-line pilot program with General Motors (GM). Visitors to GM websites can ;build; a vehicle and equipment online -- the last step, the transaction, takes place at the dealership. ;It still takes a human element to make sure the customer is eligible for financing and to see if the customer is choosing the right vehicle for him or her, ; said Jones.密歇根州大布兰克市的Al Serra Auto Plaza汽车行的网络总监杰夫#8226;琼斯表示,他的公司正在与通用汽车公司(General Motors)合作进行一项试点项目。用户可以访问通用官网来在线“制造”一辆车及其相关配置,但最后一步、也就是交易的过程仍然在经销商的门店里进行。他说:“要确保购车者的确具有贷款的资格,以及他是否选择了适合他的车型,人的因素仍然是必要的。”New-vehicle sales online haven#39;t arrived, and perhaps may never. Yet that day feels as though it#39;s drawing closer, especially for consumers who will choose anything and everything -- including a spouse -- using keypad or mouse.新车的在线销售虽然还没有成为现实,而且说不定永远都将是纸上谈兵,但是给我们的感觉却是这一天已经离我们越来越近了。特别是有些消费者已经习惯了用鼠标和键盘挑选和购买一切东西,甚至包括挑选自己的人生伴侣。 /201308/253332。

At the Collider exhibition in London’s Science Museum there is a mock-up of an office corridor at Cern, the huge Geneva laboratory where the Higgs boson was unmasked. A poster on a door, featuring the photograph of a cat, proclaims: “Lost cat”. Then, underneath: “Please return dead and alive to Erwin Schr#246;dinger.”伦敦科学物馆(Science Museum)的对撞机展上有条走廊,是根据欧洲核子研究中心(Cern,位于日内瓦的一座大型实验室,曾发现希格斯玻色子)一条办公室走廊的原样复制过来的。走廊里有扇门上贴着一张海报,醒目地印了一只猫的照片,上书“寻猫启事”。这几个字下面写着:“请将这只既死又活的猫还给埃尔温#8226;薛定谔(Erwin Schr#246;dinger)。”The cat – a feline in a locked box that is both dead and alive until the box is opened – was a thought experiment devised by physicist Schr#246;dinger to expose the counterintuitive weirdness of quantum theory. The theory posits that an entity can exist simultaneously in any number of states until the point at which it is observed, whereupon it will “collapse” into one state – either purring or deceased in the case of the trapped tabby, which is incarcerated with a poison that either has or has not been released through radioactive decay.“薛定谔猫”(一只关在箱子里的既死又活的猫,只有打开箱子才能知道它的死活)是物理学家薛定谔设计的一个思想实验,用来展示量子力学那有违直觉的怪诞。该理论假设,一个实体可同时处于多种状态,直到它被观测到的那一刻为止,因为那时它会“坍缩”成明确态——就那只被囚禁的花猫而言,就是要么它还在哪儿打呼噜,要么已成一具猫的尸体:关猫的箱子里放有一只毒气瓶,里面的毒气或者未被或者已被基于放射性衰变机制的触发器释放出来。Geniuses have spotted that tapping into the quantum realm could release fantastic amounts of computing power. Where a classical bit must be either 0 or 1, a quantum bit, called a qubit, can be 0 or 1 – or, crucially, a mixture of both. Freed of this “either-or” constraint, even a modest quantum computer would vastly outpace the fastest supercomputer. Cracking the world’s toughest encryption software, which would take a supercomputer about 1m years, would be an hour’s work.天才们已经发现,进军量子领域能释放出极其庞大的计算能力。一个二进制位(bit)上的数字非“0”即“1”;而一个量子位(qubit)上的数字可是“0”可是“1”——关键的来了,还可既是“0”又是“1”。摆脱了这种“非此即彼”的限制后,即便是一台一般般的量子计算机也能完爆最快的超级计算机。破解全世界最强的加密软件,超级计算机需要约100万年,量子计算机只需要一个小时。Google and Nasa have jointly forked out a reported m on a prototype quantum computer from D-Wave Systems, the only commercial company selling them.D-Wave系统公司(D-Wave Systems)是唯一一家销售量子计算机的商业公司——据报道,谷歌(Google)和美国国家航空航天局(Nasa)已联合出资1000万美元购买该公司生产的一台量子计算机原型机。D-Wave’s financial backers include Amazon founder Jeff Bezos, Goldman Sachs and the Canadian government. The company can claim “coolness” in another way: since atoms need to be cooled right down in order for quantum effects to appear, D-Wave’s laboratory near Vancouver houses possibly the coldest place on Earth, just 0.02C above absolute zero (the point at which atoms stop moving).D-Wave的金主包括亚马逊(Amazon)创始人杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)、高盛(Goldman Sachs)以及加拿大政府。这是一家很“酷”的公司,这里的“酷”有着另一层含义:为了显现出量子效应,原子需要被大幅冷却,因此人们在D-Wave位于温哥华附近的实验室里可以找到大概是地球上最冷的地方,其温度仅比绝对零度(原子停止运动的温度)高0.02摄氏度。Where tech visionaries t, national governments follow. The UK will be spending #163;270m over the next five years to establish centres of excellence. As the world demands ever more powerful computers, and as conventional chips reach their physical limits, early investors hope Schr#246;dinger’s cat can be turned into a cash cow.科技先锋走向哪里,政府就跟向哪里。未来五年,英国将投资2.7亿英镑建立示范中心(centre of excellence)。既然世界需要更强大的计算机,而常规芯片又达物理极限,早期投资者们就寄望于薛定谔猫能变为摇钱树。There is only one problem: there is a simmering debate over whether D-Wave’s quantum computers are actually quantum at all. Scott Aaronson, a quantum computing expert at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, says that while there is evidence for small-scale quantum effects, there is no definitive evidence that D-Wave has achieved a fully fledged quantum computer. Neither, Mr Aaronson says, is it faster than classical computers.只有一个问题:围绕D-Wave的量子计算机是否真的实现了量子计算,即将爆发一场辩论。美国麻省理工学院(MIT)量子计算专家斯科特#8226;阿伦森(Scott Aaronson)说,虽然有据显示存在小规模量子效应,但没有确凿据明D-Wave已造出了完全成熟的量子计算机,而且D-Wave的计算机也不比常规计算机快。Now IBM researchers have waded in. Two weeks ago scientists from the IBM Thomas J#8201;Watson Research Center in New York, abetted by colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, posted a paper entitled: “How ‘Quantum’ is the D-Wave Machine?” By taking on the same fiendish computing challenge posed to the D-Wave, and showing they could churn out pretty similar results with a classical algorithm, they claimed it was impossible to say definitively whether the machine was truly quantum.现在,IBM的研究人员也参与进来。近日,纽约IBM托马斯#8226;J#8226;沃森研究中心(Thomas J#8201;Watson Research Center)的科学家在美国加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)同僚的怂恿下,发布了一篇名为《D-Wave的机器到底有多‘量子’?》(How #39;Quantum#39; is the D-Wave Machine?)的文章。通过挑战D-Wave挑战过的一个极其棘手的计算难题,并用经典算法生成出与D-Wave极为相似的结果,这些科学家主张,不可能明确认定D-Wave的机器到底属不属于量子计算机。Geordie Rose, D-Wave’s pugilistic founder who is also a former Canadian wrestling champion, defended his machine and accused his detractors of cherry-picking data. On his Hack the Multiverse blog, he wrote: “When I saw how trivially wrong [the paper] was, it was like opening a Christmas present and getting socks.” Ouch.作为前加拿大摔跤冠军,D-Wave创始人乔迪#8226;罗斯(Geordie Rose)的好斗之风不改。他为自己的机器进行了辩护,并指责他的批评者挑选持他们主张的数据。他在自己的“侵入多重宇宙”(Hack the Multiverse)客上写道:“当我看到(那篇文章)错得多么没有价值时,感觉就像拆开圣诞礼物后看到里面是袜子。”哎哟,好辛辣!For all the delicious backbiting and ego-baiting and megamoney gambles, quantum computing really does look like the natural next step in computational problem-solving, even if it can only crack a limited class of problems. In these early days of the revolution, we may have to take it on faith that the quantum computers around today are the real deal.虽然这些背后中伤、瞄准别人自负心理展开的求关注行为以及一掷千金的豪赌让人看得津津有味,但量子计算看上去确实像是计算求解问题领域的必然发展方向,尽管它只能破解有限类别的问题。处于这场革命早期阶段的我们,或许不得不相信目前出现的量子计算机是名副其实的。Still, there is a pleasing irony to the uncertainty. Central to quantum theory is Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which states that we can never measure every property of a particle to the utmost precision. The universe places fundamental limits on our ability to know: just as the fate of Schr#246;dinger’s famous cat remains a mystery to anyone outside the box, so, perhaps, does the truth about today’s quantum computers.不过,这种不确定性也带着一丝有意思的反讽意味。量子理论的核心是海森堡(Heisenberg)的不确定性原理(uncertainty principle),即我们永远无法极为精准地测量出一个粒子的每一项属性。宇宙对我们的求知能力设置了根本性的限制:正如薛定谔那只著名的猫的命运对箱子外的人来说仍是个谜题一样,与今日量子计算机有关的真相也有待时间来揭晓。 /201403/281248。

People like lists of things. They#39;re everywhere on the internet. You name any subject matter you can think of, odds are there#39;s a list about it. Nowhere is safe. Even here, on the Guardian Science section, one of the most popular articles in recent months is a list. But why are lists so popular? Well, here are 10 astonishing facts about lists that may help explain it.一份典型的清单,它的样式对于这个客的作者来说再熟悉不过了。 人们喜欢把事情列在清单上。清单在互联网上无处不在。任何你能够想到的事情,可能都有与之相关的清单,无一例外。甚至是在《卫报》的科学版块,最近几个月最热门的的一篇文章也是一份清单(译文在此)。但是,清单为何如此流行?下面十项关于清单的惊人事实或许有助于解释这一现象。1. People will tend to remember the first thing on a list一、人们更容易记住清单上的第一件事Lists are commonly used as tools for assessing people#39;s memory. Word lists are a typical tool for testing someone#39;s ability to remember and recall items, and can be designed and adapted to analyse a wide variety of human memory abilities. One of the things uncovered by this sort of research is the primacy effect, meaning people are more likely to remember the first thing they are presented with, due to the way attention works and the demands of memory formation. So when you try to tell someone about this list, you may end up saying ;The first thing on the list was that you#39;re more likely to remember the first thing on the list;.清单通常是被用来评估人们记忆的工具。单词表就是用以测试记忆和回想条目能力的典型工具,它可以被设计并适合于分析人类记忆能力的多样性。这类研究所发现的事实之一就是“首因效应”,也就是说,由于注意力的工作方式以及记忆形成的需要,人们更容易记住摆在他们面前的第一样事物。所以,当你试图告诉别人本文中的清单时,你最后可以说,“清单上的第一件事是,你更容易记住清单上的第一件事。”2. The human brain may automatically structure information in list form (although it may not)二、人类大脑可能会自动将信息以清单形式加以组织(也可能不是这样)Much research has been conducted into how humans store and structure their knowledge and thoughts. Collins and Quillan in 1969 proposed theirHierarchical Network model, where concepts and categories are stored at a certain level in the brain/mind and the properties of these are listed ;below; (metaphorically). However, this view has met with some criticism, mainly based on how human memory or knowledge is rarely shown to be so rigidly organised. Still, it shows how fundamental lists may be.许多研究都意在揭示人类是如何存储和组织其知识和想法的。柯林斯和奎利安在1969年提出了他们的层级网络模型,根据这个模型,概念和范畴储存在大脑/观念中的特定层面上,而它们的具体内容则列在下面(比喻说法)。然而,这一观点受到了一些批评,其理由主要是人类的记忆或知识很少表明是如此严格的被组织起来的。但是,这还是表明了清单可能有多么重要。3. Lists take advantage of a limited attention span三、清单利用了有限的注意力持续时间There is an increasingly common view that internet use shortens a person#39;s attention span. While a lot of this is Greenfield-esque paranoia about new technology, evidence suggests our visual attention is attracted to novelty, and on the internet novelty is always only a click away. There is data to suggest that this is how internet use works, and much of the web is dedicated to exploiting this. Rather than paragraphs of narrative, pushing the limits of a typical attention span, lists offer novelty every few lines, and thus are more likely to avoid the ded TL:DR response.一个日益普遍的看法是,互联网的使用缩短了人们的注意力持续时间。当网络用户中的很多人展现出格林菲尔德式的对新技术的狂热时,有据表明我们的视觉注意力会被新奇事物所吸引,而在互联网上,新鲜玩意总是随着鼠标点击一闪而过。有数据显示网络使用是如何工作的,而许多网站都致力于利用这一点。不同于挑战典型的注意力持续时间的大段的叙述,清单用寥寥数行展示新奇事物,因此它能更加容易的避免令人担忧的“太长而不愿读”的用户反应。4. You probably won#39;t remember all the things on a typical list四、你可能不会记得一份典型清单上的所有东西A lot of lists are lists of 10, or some multiple thereof, given that the majority of humans have grown up using the decimal system. However, short-term memory, or ;working memory; as it#39;s known to psychologists, has an average capacity of 7 (+/-2). This means you can hold an average of 7 ;things; in your short term memory. These can be letters, words, or even sentences, as long as they count as one ;thing;. This is the limit of your short term memory. These things can be transferred to the long term memory if you rehearse or encounter them enough, but this means that if you try to remember everything on this list to tell someone about later, you#39;ll be unable to recall 3 items on average. This bit might be one of them, which would be ironic.许多清单都列出十项事情,或是十的倍数,因为大多数人类已经进化到使用十进制。然而,如心理学家所知,短时记忆或“工作记忆”的平均存储能力是7(+/-2)。这就意味着,在短时记忆中,你可以平均记住七项“东西”。它们可能是字母、单词、甚至是句子,只要能算作是一样“东西”。这是你短时记忆的极限。如果你重述或看到它们的次数足够多,这些东西就可以转化成长期记忆,但是这意味着,如果你试图记住本文列出的所有东西以便转述给别人,平均算起来,有三样东西你可能想不起来。这一段可能就是其中之一,真是有够讽刺的。5. People are very good at grouping random things together, so lists can be about anything五、人们非常擅长把随机事物组合在一起,所以任何东西都可以登上清单Probability theories of category formation demonstrate that we tend to lump very different things together in the same category, (e.g. Football and Chess have very few features in common, but both would be considered a type of game). This tendency to group things together despite their differences mean lists with a nominal subject matter can include things that wander off topic quite bizarrely, like a list of scientific facts about the human body including a discussion of atomic structure.类别形成的概率理论表明,我们倾向于把不同的东西堆在同一个类别之下(例如足球和国际象棋鲜有相同特征,但是两者都可以看成是游戏类型)。无视不同而将东西组合在一起的倾向意味着,有着一个名义上主题的清单可能包括一些风马牛不相及的东西,比如关于人类身体的科学事实的清单里却包括了关于原子结构的讨论。6. Popular things can be listed六、流行事物可以被列入清单Lists are very popular, so logically lists about popular things would be more popular again. Bacon, sexy ladies, funny cats and tweets, all of these regularly end up on lists. You may say this point isn#39;t scientific in any way, but I include it as evidence for the above point. Which means it is scientific in a very tenuous way.清单非常流行,所以从逻辑上讲,关于流行事物的清单会更加流行。火腿、性感女郎、有趣喵星人以及推特。通常情况下,所有这些东西最后都会排上清单。你可能会觉得这一论点根本不科学,但我把它作为上一个论点的据。这意味着,它是科学的,以一种相当微妙的方式。7. Lists fit the way humans tend to 七、清单适合人类倾向于进行阅读的方式It has been demonstrated many times, in scientific studies and Martin Robbins#39; blog, that the way people things on the internet follows anF-shaped pattern. While this is detrimental to blogs and articles with continuous prose, this is obviously beneficial for lists of things, as the er is ing in a pattern that largely follows a list structure.通过科学研究和马丁?罗宾的客已经论多次的是,人们在网上看东西的方式遵循着一种F型模式。这一模式不利于登载系列散文的客和文章,却显然有利于清单,因为读者阅读的模式很大程度上遵循了清单的结构。8. There are many popular types of list, not just on the internet八、有许多受欢迎的清单类型,并不只是在网上Lists predate the internet by some considerable margin, and aren#39;t necessarily constrained or dependent on it. Examples include shopping lists, bucket lists, guest lists and hit lists. These lists are invariably detached from the subject matter in some way; nobody ever buys a shopping list, bucket lists rarely feature buckets, a guest list is rarely seen inside a party/club, and there are no records of someone being killed with an actual hit list. Contrastingly, Craigslist was created by someone called Craig. To date, there is no evidence of a popular list of all the angles at which a ship may list, suggesting that list formats are incompatible.清单在很大程度上先于互联网,并且不受制于或依赖于它。例子包括购物单、愿望单(bucket lists)、宾客单和暗杀名单(hit lists)。这些清单总是以某种方式脱离主题;从未有人买过购物单,愿望单和“桶(bucket)”没有关系,宾客单在聚会或俱乐部里基本见不到,也没有关于暗杀名单上的某人被害的记录。相反,一个名叫克雷格(Craig)的人创办了克雷格清单网站(Craigslist,美国免费分类广告网站——译注)。迄今为止,尚无据表明存在一个可以包罗万象的流行清单,这说明清单样式是不兼容的。9. Some entries on a list are likely to be just padding九、清单上的某些条目似乎只是打酱油的As mentioned, a list of 10 things, or a multiple thereof. This will inevitably lead to someone preparing a list and including things that shouldn#39;t really be in it in order to make it 10 items in length. This makes it look ;proper;. See the point before this one for a demonstration of this happening.如上文所述,大部分人使用十进制。绝大多数清单除了在标题里使用“惊人的”、“令人震惊的”或“ 不可思议”等等词汇(听上去让人印象深刻,但在技术上无法反驳)之外,还会列出十项或者是十的倍数项的事物。这就不可避免的使得某些人在制作清单时,为了凑出十个条目而列出一些并不该出现的事物。这让清单看上去是“合适的”。本文第八条就可以明这一点。10. People will tend to remember the last thing on a list十、人们倾向于记住清单上的最后一件事Lists are commonly used as tools for assessing people#39;s memory. Word lists are a typical tool for testing someone#39;s ability to remember and recall items, and can be designed and adapted to analyse a wide variety of human memory abilities. One of the things uncovered by this sort of research is the recency effect, meaning people are more likely to remember the last thing they are presented with, due to the way attention works and the demands of memory formation. So when you try to tell someone about this list, you may end up saying ;The last thing on the list was that you#39;re more likely to remember the last thing on the list;.清单通常是被用来评估人们记忆的工具。单词表就是用以测试记忆和回想条目能力的典型工具,它可以被设计并适合于分析人类记忆能力的多样性。这类研究所发现的事实之一就是“近因效应”,也就是说,由于注意力的工作方式以及记忆形成的需要,人们更容易记住摆在他们面前的最后一样事物。所以,当你试图告诉别人本文中的清单时,你最后可以说,“清单上的最后一件事是,你更容易记住清单上的最后一件事。” /201303/229907。