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滕州做产前检查多少钱99爱问青岛乳腺疾病哪家医院看的好

2019年12月15日 21:30:07    日报  参与评论()人

青岛治疗妇科最好的医院是哪里青岛市市南区做人流医院有哪些Thanksgiving is almost here! It’s celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November every year (Nov 27 this year). Thanksgiving is about being thankful for the things you have, family reunion and lavish feasts. 21st Century’s Darnell Gardner Jr penned this tribute to the holiday.感恩节快到啦!在每年11月的第四个星期四(今年是11月27日),西方的小伙伴们都会和家人团聚,一起享用大餐,感激自己所拥有的一切。今天,就让我们跟随世纪君的同事Darnell Gardner Jr一起来看他家的感恩节是怎么过的!This Thursday, my family (minus one) will celebrate one of the US’ biggest holidays — Thanksgiving. For me, more than anything, Thanksgiving is about warmth.今天,我们全家人又要一起过(唯独缺了我)美国最大的节日之一——感恩节,对我而言,感恩节所带来的更多的是温馨。It’s about the warm feelings that are stirred up in your spirit when you see your extended family. It’s about the warmth of the holiday season, which serves as a buffer against the bitter cold weather that envelopes much of the US this time of year. It’s about the warmth of the burning logs flickering in the fireplace, and the warmth of that first bite of Thanksgiving dinner.它是你见到一大家子人之后心中荡漾出来的温暖感觉,它是整个假日季的一抹温存,它让每年这个时候侵袭美国许多地区的寒冷天气变得没那么冰冷;它也是壁炉里火光摇曳的温暖炭火,它是吃到第一口节日大餐时的阵阵暖意。The holiday, which has similar equivalents in countries and cultures across the globe, has been celebrated since the early days of the American colonies. According to lore, the first settlers celebrated Thanksgiving after a successful fall harvest. The cornerstone of their celebration was a giant feast, a tradition that continues to this day.全世界许多国家与文化都有与感恩节类似的节日。感恩节发源于早期的北美殖民地。据说,第一批来到美国的殖民者在一次丰硕的秋收之后开始庆祝感恩节。一顿丰盛的大餐是他们庆祝感恩节的重头戏,这一传统也延续至今。My mom prepares all of my favorite foods on Thanksgiving. The dinner table sits heavy under the weight of pans of moist turkey, gooey macaroni and cheese, savory dressing (similar to stuffing), tender candied yams, expertly spiced greens, and hot cornb. She spends all day cooking the meal, and sometimes the preparations even begin the day before the holiday. It’s a lot of work, and it’s a lot of food, and each year I’m amazed at how she manages to put everything together.每年的感恩节,我的妈妈都会准备我最爱吃的菜肴:桌子上满满当当地摆着多汁的火鸡,黏黏的通心粉和奶酪;可口的馅料,甜甜的山药入口即化;还有精心调制的蔬菜,以及热腾腾的玉米面包。妈妈一般要用一整天来制作这些佳肴,有时候甚至需要提前一天就开始准备。因为要做出这么多的菜肴工作量巨大。每年我都惊叹,难以想象她是如何完成这一切的。The first, most formal meal begins once all of the food is y. Everyone sits around the table, a prayer is offered, our glasses are filled with wine, and we dig in. While we eat, we go around the table and take turns saying what we’re thankful for this year. Talking is quite a challenge when your mouth is full of delicious food.所有的菜都上桌之后,正餐就要开始了:大家围桌而坐,杯中盛满了葡萄酒,祈祷之后就可以开吃。在吃饭的间隙,我们依次起身和家人分享自己今年应该感恩的事情。当你的嘴里塞满了食物时,说话确实是个不小的挑战。Once everyone has eaten their first meal, seconds, thirds and even fourths are offered on a first-come-first-served basis.当每个人吃完第一餐后,还可以加第二餐、第三餐甚至第四餐,谁需要就给先给谁上菜After we finish eating at our home, believe it or not, we sometimes go to my aunt’s house to continue eating and meeting with family. Football is another key element of Thanksgiving, and my aunt’s family loves the sport. After eating, the family crowds around the television to watch football players throw around the old pigskin. Usually at this point I retire to the basement to gorge myself on games and sweets with the younger members of the family.不管你信不信,我们在家里吃过饭之后,有时还会去我姑姑/姨妈家接着吃饭,见一见家里的亲戚。美式足球也是我们家感恩节的关键元素,因为我姑姑/姨妈一家都喜欢美式足球。吃过饭后,我们一大家子人就会挤在电视机前看球赛。这时候,我一般都会和家里的小辈们一起去地下室大打。By the end of the day, everyone is fat and happy. We’ve all eaten so much that we can hardly move. The smells of the holiday begin to fade, and our minds and hearts begin to set on Christmas, the next time we’ll have a chance to celebrate each other.美好的一天总是要过去的,当夜幕降临,兴高采烈的我们通常撑得动也动不了。感恩节的气氛渐渐散去,而我们的思绪已经飘向了圣诞节——下一个又能与家人欢庆的节日。 /201411/345146青岛市妇产科医院 滕州打掉孩子多少钱

青岛市治疗妇科好的医院青岛齐鲁医院做人流 Some artists work in charcoal, others watercolor and some use ... foam?有的艺术家用炭笔、有的用水,还有些用……泡沫? Melannie Aquino works at the Elite Audio Coffee Bar in downtown San Francisco. Like many baristas, she began experimenting with latte art to mix up the grind of pulling shots all day long。美兰纳·阿坤诺在圣弗朗西斯科商业区的精英音频咖吧工作。和大部分咖啡师一样,她开始研究拿铁艺术,整天研究拿铁拉花艺术、混合研磨咖啡粉、沏上一杯杯咖啡。;It was pretty primitive, but the customer loved it so much that their reaction stuck with me. After that I was hooked,; Aquino wrote in a post on Medium this week。““很简单、很老式,但顾客们非常喜欢,我忘不了他们的反馈。自此以后我就迷上了,”本周阿坤诺在Medium平台发的帖中这么写道。Espresso-outlined bears turned into animals before Aquino set her sights on the bespectacled creatures known as Minions that are sweeping the nation. The yellow ;box office superstars; have been featured in three films -- most recently the eponymously named ;Minions; -- and have been taking social media by storm。阿坤诺之前用浓咖啡作出小熊的轮廓,后来才把目光转向那戴副眼镜、风靡全国的小黄人。票房明星小黄人在三部电影中担当主演,最近同名电影《小黄人》风靡各大社交媒体。;They’re such expressive characters and it’s fun to bring them to life with each drink,; Aquino wrote. ;People kept coming back for them!;“小黄人是表现力超强的角色,让每杯饮品唤起他们的活力,着实有意思”,阿坤诺写道,“回头客都冲着小黄人来”。 /201507/386992青岛那个医院做人流好点

山东省青岛七院妇产科建卡要多少钱China#39;s Ancient Clothing中国的古代装China#39;s traditional clothing is characterized as magnificent, as shown in ceremonies and court, and grand and exerts immense influence on the neighboring countries. An outstanding characteristic of traditional Chinese clothing is not only an external expression of elegance,but also an internal symbolism. Each and every piece of traditional clothing communicates a sense of vitality of its own intrinsically. Such a perfect combination of external form with internal symbolism of clothing is clearly exemplified in the pair of fighting pheasant feathers used in head wear originating in the battle wear of the Warring States period(475一221 ).Two feathers of a ho bird(a type pheasant good at fighting)were inserted into the helmet wom by warriors of this period to symbolize a bold and warlike spirit.中国传统衣着的特点是华丽。中国的传统衣着的一大显著特点就在于它不仅表现出外在的典雅,而且还具有内在的象征意义。每一件传统装都传递出其自身所具有的内在活力感。从人们所佩带的一副难鸡羽毛中,就可以体现出这种饰的外在形式与内在象征的完美结合。这起源于战国时代(前475一前221年)战斗时的习俗。因为在当时如果将两片凤鸟(这是一种非常擅长战斗的难鸟)的羽毛插在武士所佩戴的头盔上的话,便可以以此来象征大无畏的尚武精神。According to archaeological findings,18 000-year-old artifacts such as bone sewing needles and stone beads and shells with holes bored in them attest to the existence of ornamentation and of sewing early in ancient Chinese civilization. Variety in clothing was roughly established by the era of the Yellaw Emperor and the Emperors Yao and Shun(about 4 500 years ago).Remains of woven silk and hemp articles and ancient ceramic figures further demonstrate the sophistication and refinement of clothing in the Shang Dynasty( 16th to I 1 th century ).根据考古学的发现,18 000年前的文化遗迹中有诸如骨针和穿孔的石珠和贝壳,它们都明了在中国古代文明很早的时候装饰和缝纫就已经存在了。而到了黄帝和尧舜时代(大约距今4 500年前),装的品种已经初具规模。丝麻织物的残片和古代的陶俑进一步表明商代(公元前16至公元前11世纪)装的精密程度和优雅程度。The three main types of traditional Chinese clothing are the pien-fu,the ch#39;ang-p#39;ao,and the shen-i. The plan-fu is an ancient two-piece ceremonial costume of a tunic-like top extending to the knees and a skirt or trousers extending to the ankles. The ch#39;ang-p#39;ao is a one-piece garment extending from the shoulders all the way to the heels. The shen-i is a cross between the pies and the ch#39;angp#39;ao;on the one hand,it consists of a tunic and a skirt or trousers like the pierfu, on the other hand,the tunic and the skirt are sewed together and essentially one piece like the ch#39;ang-p#39;ao. Consequently, the shen-i was the most widely worn of the three types. Typical of these three types of clothing were wide and voluminous sleeves and a very loose fit. Tunic and trousers or tunic and skirt,utilized a very small number of stitches for the amount of cloth used. So because of their relatively plain design and structure,embroidered edgings,decorated bands,draped cloth or silks,patterns on the shoulders,and sashes were often added as ornaments. Variety in designs came to be one of the unique features of traditional Chinese dress.传统的中国装可以分为弃、长袍以及深衣三种。弃是一种分为上衣和下裳的古代装束,它的上衣类似于束腰外衣并且长至膝盖,而其下裳则为裙子或裤子并长至脚躁。长袍则是由肩部到脚踵的单件外衣。深衣则是介于弃和长袍两者之间的另一种装,它一方面由束腰上衣和裙子或裤子组成,这一点和弃很像;而另一方面束腰_r_衣和裙子缝合在一起;实际上就像长袍一样是单件外衣。因此,深衣是这三种装中使用最广泛的一种。这三种装的典型特征就是宽大的袖子和宽松的腰身。无论是采用束腰外衣和裤子组合还是束腰外衣和裙子组合,它们相对于所使用的布料量而言都尽可能少地使用针脚数量。由于它们的设计和结构相对比较朴素,因此它们经常绣上花边、饰以镶边、辅以褶皱布料或丝料、肩部加上图案花样、并配上腰带。这些不同的式样便成为中国传统装的一个特殊之处。Darker colors were favored over lighter ones in traditional Chinese clothing,so the main color of ceremonial clothing tended to be dark while bright,elaborate tapestry designs actented. Lighter colored clothing was worn more frequently by the common people for everyday life and around the house use. The Chinese associate certain colors with specific seasons:green represents spring,red symbolizes summer, white represents autumn,and black symbolizes winter. The Chinese are said to have a fully developed system of matching,coordinating,and contrasting colors in apparel.中国的传统装对暗色调的偏好程度要大于亮色调,因此礼的主色调往往采用暗色调,然后辅之以精巧的亮色调织锦式样。普通百姓平常生活和在家附近则通常穿亮色调的装。中国人将某些色与特定的季节联系在一起:绿色代表春天,红色代表夏天,白色代表秋天,而黑色则代表冬天。据说,中国人已经拥有一整套对装颜色进行搭配、协调和对比的方法了。China#39;s Modern Clothing中国的近代装After the 1911 Revolution,the garments changed greatly,and the dresses and the official cap were eliminated. Particularly,hair plaits were cut off, but chi-pao(one-piece mandarin robe)still exist. The Blue Short Gown of schoolgirls was the main style,and it gradually became popular.自从1911年辛亥革命以来,外套便产生了巨大的变化,同时装和官员所戴的帽子均被废除。尤其是剪掉了辫子,但是旗袍(单件式满清官袍)依然保留了下来。女学生所穿的蓝色短袍成为主流款式,并且这逐渐流行起来。The government specified the system of formal dresses of men and women in the first year of the Republic of China. Men had dress suits and routine suits. Dress suits included day suit and evening suit,which were all made of black cloth,trousers and cravats. Routine suits included Western style and Chinese style(e. g. long gown and mandarin jacket).The formal dress of women had collars and was long to the knees with buttons down the front. Skirts were decorated with cartouches in the front and back,both sides were sewn with pleats,and both ends had patterns of knots.在中华民国元年,当时政府规定了男子和女子的正式着装制度。男子可以穿着礼和常。礼又包括午和晚礼,两者均包括黑色衣、裤子以及领结。常则包括西式和中式两种(即长袍和马褂)。妇女所穿着的正式装则带领子而且长至膝盖,并在前侧下方缀有纽扣。裙子上配有装饰镜板,同时两侧均缝有褶皱,两端则采用打结式样。Along with the emergence of cinema,film stars became eminent figures gradually. Shanghai City became the base camp of women#39;s wear in China. The garments of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong became one of the branches of Shanghai City garments随着电影院的兴起,电影明星也逐渐成为显赫的人物。上海市成为中国妇女饰的大本营。广东省和香港的外衣则成为海派外衣的一。Changes of Men#39;s and Women#39;s Costume男子和妇女装的变迁Men wore western-style clothes and Sun Yat-sen#39;s uniform(Chinese tunic suit ) . These two styles of clothes were foreign styles,and most officials and intel lectuals more usually wore them. White garments were worn in the summer, but black or dark garments were worn in other seasons. The style with a mandarin jacket over a long gown was still one of the common dressing styles. The student#39;s clothing with erect collar .three pockets and seven buttons were mainly the uniform and women included a jacket and trousers or covered with a ramie skirt(long or short small skirt fastened on body ).男子穿着西式装和中山装。这两种风格的装均为西式装,大多数官员和知识分子通常都穿着这些装。在夏天穿着白色外衣,但在其他季节则穿着黑色或暗色调外衣。在长袍上穿马褂依然是常见的穿着风格。学生的装则采用立领、三个口袋以及七粒纽扣,这主要是大学和学院的学生所穿的装。此外,农村男女的普通穿着方式是一件短褂加一条裤子,或是在裤子外面再罩上竺麻裙子(系在身上的小裙子,可长可短)。Women#39;s costume changed greatly during the period,some kept the Qing Dynasty(1644一1912)style of trousers and clothes with curving front,some imitated western-style with a jacket and a skirt,most schoolgirls wore black silk skirts and short jackets that had a round lower hem and short sleeves to elbow. The common garments of social women were mainly Chi-pao.妇女的装发生了巨大的变化,有些保留了清朝(1644一1912 )的裤子和衣式样,它们前侧采用了弧形造型,有些则仿照了西式装并采用短褂加裙子,大多数女学生则穿着黑色的丝裙和短上衣,并且在下方有个圆形的褶边,它的袖子较短只及肘部。社交女性的普通外衣则主要采用旗袍。The overall tendency of new garments was divided into two types:one type was the long Chi-paos made of solid-color cloth or printed materials;characteristi-tally, laces or patterns were added to the edges,or the small waistcoat and silk scarves were over the jacket. As to the other dressing type,the upper garment and lower skirt were separated.新式外衣的整体倾向可以分为两种类型:一类是长旗袍,它由纯色布料或印花布料所制成;它的特点是在边上加花边或图案,或是在短褂上罩小马甲和丝巾。至于另一种穿着类型,则分别穿着上衣和裙子。In the 1920s,people began to wear Chi-pao whose style was mostly the same as that of the Qizhuang garments(garments of banner men)existing at the end of the QingDynasty. Later,the cuff was reduced gradually,and embroidered border was not as broad as the previous one. By the end of the 1920s,dressing style was affected by that of Europe and America,and the pattern of chipao was changed significantly. By the early 19306,Chi-pao had been very popular. The main changes of garments in that time were the modifications of collar, sleeve and length,etc. The garments with high collar were popular at first,and the higher the collar, the more popular. Gradual1y,garments with low collars began to be popular,and the lower the collar,the more modern. Finally,people wore collarless and sleeveless Chi-pao.到了上世纪20年代,人们开始穿着旗袍,它的风格基本上与清末的旗装(旗人的外衣)是一样的。之后,旗袍的袖口便逐渐收小,而且绣边也不像之前那么宽了。到了上世纪20年代末,装式样受到了欧美的影响,而旗袍的式样也发生了巨大的变化。到了上世纪30年代初,旗袍已经极为流行了。当时外衣的主要变化是对领口、袖子以及长度等进行了修改。高领外衣起初十分流行,而且领口越高越流行。低领外衣逐渐开始风靡,而且领口越低越时髦。最后,人们开始穿着无领、无袖的旗袍了。Influence of Foreign Costume西方装的影响With the inflow of foreign goods into China,western life styles penetrated into the society. Women living in Chinese big cities often attended social activities in the 19305一19405. All this resulted into the change of social morals accordingly. Women wore the western-style clothing and skirt together with glass and watch,and sunshade in hands,looking more modern and romantic. The modem fashion-able dress of Europe and Japan affected Chinese women in terms of short skirts, underwear and colors, etc. More and more women began to imitate ahem,and some e}len imitated the simple dressing style of America. Ladies who liked sports always wore red pleated skirts and used brassiere to replace the old-time bellyband (an undervvear that was made of red embroidery cloth and hung from the neck with gold or silver chains,it came down from ancient times).In addition,women#39;s one-piece dress was more popular. During the 19205一19405,fur coats were still popular in rich families.随着西方商品进人中国,西方的生活方式开始渗透社会。居住在大城市中的妇女在上世纪30年代至40年代经常参加社交活动。所有这些导致社会道德出现了相应变化。妇女们穿着西式的衣和裙子,戴着眼镜和手表,手里打着太阳伞,看上去更加时髦、浪漫。欧洲和日本近代的流行装在短裙、内衣以及颜色等方面对中国妇女产生了影响。越来越多的妇女开始对此进行模仿,有些妇女甚至模仿美国简约的着装风格。喜爱运动的妇女经常穿着红色褶皱裙并用文胸来取代之前所使用的肚兜(一种用红色刺绣布料制成的内衣并用金、银锁链悬挂在颈部,它自从古代便一直得以使用)。此外,女式单件装也更加流行。在20世纪20年代至40年代,毛皮大衣在富裕家庭中依然十分盛行。Today#39;s Clothing如今的装China#39;s fashion designers use a mixture of traditional and modern ideas to create new fashions. These new fashions also incorporate age-old motifs such as guardian deities, lions,and masks of Chinese opera characters. Chinese bronze is another source of printed,woven,and embroidered design for clothes. Some of the distinctive designs include dragons,phoenixes,clouds,and lightning. Motifs from traditional Chinese painting also end up in woven or printed fashion designs.中国的时装设计师运用了各种传统和现代理念来创造出新的时装。这些新式时装还加入了古老的图案,例如守护神、狮子以及中国京剧人物所使用的面具。装上还印上、织上或缝上中国青铜器的图案。某些独特的设计图案包括龙、凤、云以及闪电。传统中国画中的图案也被编织或印在时装设计中。Many accessories such as macrame are used to decorate shoulders, bodices, pockets, seams,and openings of clothing,as well as belts,hair ornaments,and necklaces. Some successful examples of combinations of modern and traditional fashion elements are the modern bridal tiara,based on a Sung Dynasty design and the Hunan Province style of embroidered sash made in the traditional colors of pure red,blue, and green. From these examples,it can be seen how traditional Chinese dress is the foundation of modern fashion. However, the Chinese have also adopted many Western styles of clothing such as business suits and jeans.为了装饰衣的肩部、胸衣、口袋、缝合线、开口以及腰带、头饰以及项链,采用了诸如流苏等许多装饰品。有许多例子成功地将现代和传统的时装要素融合在一起,其中有现代化的新娘冠饰,它采用了宋朝的设计和湖南风格的刺绣饰带,并且色调使用了传统的大红色、蓝色以及绿色。从这些例子可以看出传统的中国饰乃是现代时装的基础。但是中国人也采用了许多西式的装,例如商务套装和牛仔。In modern society,Chinese men are seen at social occasions wearing ceremovial clothes in two varieties on formal occasions,t. e. the dignified and refined traditional Chinese long gown and the Sun Yat-sen#39;s uniform,which is a creative blending of fashion elements from the East and West, and a milestone in the history of Chinese garment design-was hailed as the ;State Suit;.White women often wear the ch#39;i-p#39;ao,a modified version of a traditional Ching Dynasty. fashion. The variations of height, length,width,and ornamentation of the collar, sleeves,skirt and basic cut of this Oriental fashion are limitless.在现代社会,中国男子在社交场合穿着两种礼,一种是威严、精巧的传统中国长袍,另一种则是中山装,它创造性地将东西方的时装要素揉合在一起并成为中国装设计史上的里程碑—被称为“国”。而女子则经常穿着旗袍,这是清朝一种传统时装的现代化版本。这种东方时装的领口、袖子以及下摆的高度、长度、宽度、装饰以及基本的剪裁方法都是不受拘束的。 /201506/378231 Readers plunging into Stephen Kotkin’s “Stalin: Paradoxes of Power” expecting a detailed dissection of the cobbler’s son and seminarian from Georgia who evolved into the monster called Stalin may be disconcerted to find that, as a boy called Iosif Dzhugashvili (Jughashvili in this book), he plays a relatively minor role in early chapters.阅读斯蒂芬·科特金(Stephen Kotkin)的《斯大林:权力的悖论》之时,读者可能会期望本书详尽剖析一位格鲁吉亚鞋匠的儿子与神学院学生如何变成了名为斯大林的魔鬼,但他们会不安地发现,儿时的约瑟夫·朱加什维利(Iosif Dzhugashvili,本书中称他为“Jughashvili”),也就是小斯大林,在本书前几章中占的分量并不重。The narrative focuses largely on the disintegration of czarist Russia. What we do learn about the life of Soso, as Stalin’s family referred to him, is served up as a relatively acceptable childhood given the time and place, denouncing the popular Freudian analyses that spot early evidence of a psychopath stemming from his absentee father, physical defects, beatings, religious education or doting mother.叙事主要集中在沙皇俄国解体时期。我们会看到,处在那个时代和地点,索索(Soso,家里人这样称呼小斯大林)的童年时光相对来说是可以接受的,这本书没有从他缺席的父亲、身体缺陷、挨打、宗教教育背景或溺爱的母亲等背景中寻找精神变态的早期据,驳斥了流行的弗洛伊德式。But “Stalin” is far more than the story of the man. “Paradoxes of Power,” even at almost 1,000 pages, is only the first of three volumes that, in Mr. Kotkin’s somewhat understated explanation, tell “the story of Russia’s power in the world and Stalin’s power in Russia.” Mr. Kotkin’s stunningly ambitious project is nothing less than to write an exhaustive history of Russia and the world around it, from the collapse of the czarist empire through the end of World War II. The first volume ends in 1928 on the eve of the savage collectivization of Russia’s peasant agriculture, with fascism rising to the west.但是“斯大林”的故事并不是关于一个人的故事。《权力的悖论》大约一千页,不过是三卷本的第一卷;在这一卷里,科特金用略有些平淡的口吻,讲述了“俄罗斯在世界上的权力与斯大林在俄罗斯的权力”。科特金的目标极具野心,相当于要写出俄罗斯与俄罗斯周遭世界的详尽历史,从沙皇帝国的崩溃到“二战”的结束。第一卷止于1928年,残酷的俄罗斯农民经济集体化即将拉开序幕,与此同时,法西斯主义正在西方崛起。It becomes immediately clear that Mr. Kotkin, a professor of history at Princeton, has done prodigious research, not only among the troves of scholarly works about Stalin but also in the archives that have become accessible since the collapse of the Soviet Union. And while the often intimidating torrent of fact and detail will tax the general er, there are enough juicy details, colorful personalities and anecdotes to keep the story moving at a lively pace. Ministers of the doomed czarist order, and Nicholas II himself, come to life here, as do peripheral figures like Kaiser Wilhelm II and Benito Mussolini, and, of course, the main figures: Lenin, Felix Dzerzhinsky, Trotsky and the other young Bolshevik zealots who somehow navigated through the rubble of czarism and war to create a revolutionary state, only to hand it in the end to Stalin.科特金是普林斯顿的历史学教授,显然他进行了大量研究工作,不仅研究了关于斯大林丰富的学术资料,也研究了许多自苏联解体后公诸于世的档案。虽然大量令人望而生畏的事实和细节可能会令普通读者感到疲惫,但书中也充满有趣的细节、丰富多的人物个性和趣闻轶事,令故事保持生动活泼。穷途末路的沙皇政府中的大臣们,以及尼古拉斯二世(Nicholas II)本人都被刻画得栩栩如生,德皇威廉二世(Kaiser Wilhelm II)和贝尼托·墨索里尼这些边缘人物也很生动;更不用说列宁(Lenin)、菲利克斯·捷尔任斯基(Felix Dzerzhinsky)、托洛茨基(Trotsky)这些主角,还有那些年轻的布尔什维克热心分子们,他们在沙皇俄国与战争的废墟中跋涉,缔造出一个革命的国家,但最终却落入斯大林之手。Sometimes Mr. Kotkin’s efforts to entertain get a bit out of line, as when he discusses Stalin’s reputation as a ladies’ man with a crass reference to his sex organ. More important, he is not shy about assailing what he regards as false interpretations by other historians. His Stalin is not a disciple who deviates from Lenin; he is Lenin’s true disciple, in pitiless class warfare, in the inability to compromise, and, above all, in unshakable ideological conviction. Lenin’s “Testament,” which questioned Stalin’s ability to govern the Soviet Union, plays a major part in the maneuvering of his rivals to block his ascent, but Mr. Kotkin leans toward the theory that the document was a forgery, possibly by Lenin’s wife.有时候科特金读者的努力有点出格了,他谈起斯大林有“大众情人”之称的时候,粗鲁地谈起了斯大林的性器官。更重要的是,如果他认为其他历史学家的解读是错误的,便会毫不迟疑地对之进行攻击。他笔下的斯大林并不是列宁门下离经叛道的学徒,而是列宁的真正传人,继承了列宁无情的阶级斗争与毫不妥协的态度,最重要的是,继承了列宁毫不动摇的意识形态理念。列宁生前的一份“遗嘱”质疑了斯大林统治苏联的能力,这成了斯大林的对手阻挠他上位的重要武器,但科特金倾向于认为这份文件是伪造的,很可能是出自列宁的妻子之手。There is little equivocation in Mr. Kotkin’s judgments. Scholars who argue collectivization was necessary to force Russian peasants into a modern state are “dead wrong.” The conclusion by the British historian E. H. Carr that Stalin was a product of circumstances, and not the other way around, is “utterly, eternally wrong.” On the contrary, it is one of Mr. Kotkin’s major theses that Stalin “reveals how, on extremely rare occasions, a single individual’s decisions can radically transform an entire country’s political and socioeconomic structures, with global repercussions.” Or, as he puts it in a more graphic passage: “The Bolshevik putsch could have been prevented by a pair of bullets” — one for Lenin and one for Stalin. (In fact, there was a would-be-assassin’s bullet lodged in Lenin’s shoulder, and poisoning by its lead was raised as a possible reason for his medical problems.)科特金的判断中绝少模棱两可的成分。有些学者认为,集体化是迫使俄罗斯农民进入现代化必不可少的手段,他说这些学者“彻底错了”。英国历史学家E·H·卡尔(E.H. Carr)认为是时代环境造就了斯大林,而不是斯大林造就了时代环境,科特金说这个结论“完全、绝对大错特错”。相反,科特金的主要结论之一就是,斯大林“解释了在极少的情况下,个人的决定可以剧烈地改变整个国家的政治与社会经济结构,并带来全球性后果”。或者如他在更生动的一段话中所写的,“其实两颗子弹就足以防止布尔什维克的暴动”——一颗给列宁,一颗给斯大林(事实上,列宁曾在一次暗杀中肩膀中弹,后来又因子弹患上铅中毒,可能导致了他后来的一系列健康问题)。Mr. Kotkin’s involvement in his subject is so intense that at times he leaps from his historian’s perch right into the fray. He dismisses as “gobbledygook” Trotsky’s explanation that he did not want a senior post because people would say the Soviet Union was being ruled by a Jew. Then, amid the endless backstabbing among top Bolsheviks, Mr. Kotkin exclaims, “What in the world was Bukharin doing spilling his guts out to Kamenev?”科特金深深沉浸在自己的主题里,以至于有时候跳出历史学家的身份,卷入争论之中。托洛茨基曾解释自己不想谋求高位,因为担心人们会觉得苏联是在受犹太人统治,科特金斥之为“官样文章”。其后科特金更是无休止地痛斥布尔什维克的高层人物,说“布哈林(Bkharin)竟然会向卡曼年科告密,他到底在干什么?”A work of this scope, ambition and intensity is bound to attract challenge, debate and criticism. I would have wished more attention to the role of culture and religion in the fall of the Russian empire and the rise of Soviet power, given their central places in Russian identity and sense of messianic destiny. Mr. Kotkin notes that Stalin wrote poetry and often attended the theater — Mikhail Bulgakov was his favorite playwright — but there is no discussion of what this meant to him, or of the role writers, poets, composers and artists played in those fateful years.一本拥有如此眼界、抱负与强度的书必然会引发质疑、争议和批评。我原本期待本书更关注俄罗斯帝国覆灭与苏联势力崛起期间,俄罗斯文化与信仰所扮演的角色,因为文化与信仰是俄罗斯人的身份认同,以及他们那种弥赛亚式宿命感的核心。科特金提到,斯大林也写诗,经常去剧院——他最喜欢的剧作家是米哈伊尔·布尔加科夫(Mikhail Bulgakov)——但他并没有探讨这对斯大林来说意味着什么,也没有提到作家、诗人、作曲家与艺术家们在那些决定命运的年代里所扮演的角色。What was striking throughout the book were the many troubling echoes with Russia today. Mr. Kotkin argues convincingly that Stalin was that rare individual whose decisions radically changed history, and his next volume, on collectivization, promises to further develop the thesis. But it is hard when looking at the path Russia is plotting today not to wonder how much of that terrible era was Stalin’s implacable will, and how much was a Russia that seems forever dreaming of a special destiny and forever meekly surrendering all power to autocrats.书中从始至终引人瞩目的那些东西至今仍令人忧虑地回荡在俄罗斯。科特金令人信地指出,斯大林的决定剧烈地改变了历史,像他这样的人是极为罕有的。第二卷将会讲述集体化问题,也承诺进一步深入这个主题。但审视如今俄罗斯的道路,人们很难不去思考,那个恐怖的时代究竟有多少是由于斯大林毫不动摇的意志,又有多少要归咎于永远梦想着特别的命运,却又永远对独裁者权力逆来顺受的俄罗斯呢?“The Russian Revolution — against the tyranny, corruption, and, not least, incompetence of czarism — sparked soaring hopes for a new world of abundance, social justice and peace,” Mr. Kotkin writes. “But all that was precluded by the Bolsheviks, who unwittingly yet relentlessly reproduced the pathologies and predations of the old regime state in new forms.” Is that not what is happening today, after the soaring hopes raised by the collapse of the Bolshevik state?“俄罗斯革命反对暴政和腐败,特别是无能的沙皇制度,令人们燃起希望,憧憬一个富裕、公正与和平的新世界,”科特金写道,“但这一切都被布尔什维克们阻碍了,他们不自觉地、然而又是不屈不挠地以新的形式复制旧政权的种种症结与掠夺行为。”这种情况是不是如今仍在发生呢?当布尔什维克的国家崩溃后,人们再度燃起了希望,但之后呢?Of course, President Vladimir V. Putin is not even a pale shadow of Stalin, and today’s Russia is a far cry from Stalin’s totalitarian state, but then the young Dzhugashvili gave no sign that he would become Stalin, just as Mr. Putin, as a low-ranking K.G.B. officer, showed no early evidence of what he would evolve into. Yet much of what Mr. Putin has shaped — the restoration of strong central authority around one man, the intolerance of opposition, the cultivation of self-pity and victimhood, the “hand of Washington” behind every problem (for Stalin it was the hand of England) and the creation of a state of siege in Russia — all have precedents in “Stalin.”当然,弗拉迪米尔·V·普京总统(President Vladimir V. Putin)绝非斯大林的影子,如今的俄罗斯也同斯大林治下的集权国家相去甚远,但是并没有任何迹象表明年轻的朱加什维利在未来会成为斯大林;正如克格勃低级官员普京并没有显示出任何日后飞黄腾达的迹象一样。然而普京所塑造的东西——恢复以统治者为中心的强大中央集权制度、对异见的不宽容、培养自怜和牺牲者心态,在任何问题之后都要揪出“华盛顿的黑手”(对于斯大林来说是“英格兰的黑手”),乃至在俄罗斯创造一种戒严的状态——这一切在《斯大林》中都可以找到先例。This er, for one, still hopes for more evidence that Stalin was indeed singular, a historical malignancy, and not a product of circumstances of the kind that might aly be shaping the next chapter of Russian history. And that only whets the appetite for the next installment, in which Stalin decides to starve Russia almost to death to bring peasants under state control. That, Mr. Kotkin has aly declared, was an assault on the peasantry for which there was no political or social logic, and that only Stalin could have done. It is a testament to Mr. Kotkin’s skill that even after almost a thousand pages, one wants more.因为这个原因,读者仍然希望作者能够提出更多据,明斯大林确实是特例,是一种历史的恶意,而不是环境作用下的产物,而这种环境或许已经开始塑造俄罗斯历史的下一章。这个悬念只能刺激起人们对本书下一卷的兴趣——在下一卷里,科特金将会描写斯大林决定让俄罗斯忍饥挨饿,到了极度危险的地步,以便把农民置于国家控制之下。科特金认定,这种对农民阶层的攻击毫无政治或社会逻辑可言,只有斯大林才干得出来。这足以明科特金的才华——已经读了一千页,人们还想继续读下去。 /201501/355514青岛市开发区第一人民医院在哪儿青岛严重宫颈糜烂要多少钱

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