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2019年10月21日 10:09:23来源:快问大全

Science and technology科学技术Safe driving安全行驶Keep your mind on the road时刻看路Hands-free texting is more distracting to drivers than using a mobile phone语音发短信比手机通話更容易让驾驶人分心CARS, to paraphrase some in Americas gun lobby, do not kill people.套用美国步协会的说法,汽车不会杀人。People kill people.人杀人。And among the people more likely than others to kill people are those distracted by their use of mobile phones and other portable electronic devices while they are driving.在人群中,那些在开车时,使用手机或者其他便携式电子设备的人,比其他人更容易杀人。Actually holding a phone to your ear while driving is illegal in many places.事实上在许多地方,开车的时候将手机放在耳朵上是违法的。But not having both hands on the wheel is only part of the problem.但是没有把双手放在方向盘上仅仅只是一部分问题。Another part, probably more serious, is the dissipation of attention involved.另一部分,可能更加严重,是注意力不集中。If further evidence of this were needed, it has just been provided in a study published by the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, in Washington,如果需要更多的据,这可以由在华盛顿特区的美国汽车协会的交通安全基金会发表的一份研究报告提供。DC. David Strayer and his colleagues at the University of Utah, the studys authors, looked at exactly how distracting various mental activities are to drivers.犹他州的大卫·斯特雷耶和他的同事,这份研究报告的作者,清楚地看到了精神活动是如何使驾驶员分心。In a world where cars are often fitted with hands-free electronic devices, what they found is worrying.在一个汽车配备了免提式电子设备的世界里,这就是他们所担心的事情。Dr Strayer divided 102 volunteers into three groups.斯特雷耶士将102名志愿者分为了三组。Each participant performed eight tasks under the scrutiny of his team and while wearing an electrode-laden hat to record what is known as their Event-Related Brain Potentials.每一位参与者要在他的队伍的监督下完成八个任务,并且是戴了一个用于记录大脑的事件相关电位的,布满电极的帽子。The eight tasks were: doing nothing; listening to the radio; listening to an audio book; conversing with a passenger; calling a friend using a hand-held phone; calling a friend using a hands-free phone; using speech to send a text message; and, as an example of a difficult task few people engage in behind the wheel, verifying a set of mathematical equations while memorising nouns interjected between the maths problems.这八个任务是:什么都不做;听广播;听音频书;与一位乘客交谈;用一个手持式电话呼叫一位朋友;使用免提式电话呼叫一位朋友;用语音发送一条短信;作为一个困难的任务的一个例子,少数人加入这个团体;当熟记插入到这些算术问题中的名词时,明一系列算术等式。The first group of volunteers performed these tasks sitting at a computer.第一组人在电脑前完成这些任务。The second sat in simulators resembling the interior of a car, and followed another car on a screen.第二组坐在一个汽车模拟器里,在屏幕上他的前方有一辆车。The third drove real cars.第三组开真正的车。Besides their ERPs, the volunteers reaction times were assessed, their level of concentration was tested by studying their responses to lights shone in the periphery of their visual fields, and their subjective views of which tasks demanded most attention were recorded.除了他们的大脑的事件相关电位外,他们的反应时间也会被评估,他们的集中程度也会通过研究他们对视野边缘的灯光闪烁的反应进行测试,还有他们对哪种任务更加需要集中精力的判断也被记录下来。Dr Strayer then consolidated these various results into a single number that represented the overall mental distraction a task created.斯特雷耶士将这些不同的结果结合在一起形成一个单独的数字,用于表示一个任务所产生的综合精神分散。Doing nothing provided a baseline value of 1.0 and juggling maths and word-memory provided an upper bound of 5.0.什么都不做的情况设为基础值-1.0,然后尽量使用数学和字存储器产生一个更高的范围-5.0。As might be expected, listening to the radio or to a book were the least distracting activities.可能像预期的那样,听广播或者音频书是是最不容易使人分心的活动。Talking to a passenger and talking on the phone were intermediate.与一位乘客交谈和打电话是中等程度。The most distracting, at 3.06, was hands-free texting.最使人分心的活动的分数为3.06,是语音发短信。On a scale where 5.0 is the most distracted it is possible to be, that is worryingly high.在某种程度上,可能存在最使人分心的,程度为5.0的活动,那么3.06就相当高。In attention to the road is not the only cause of traffic accidents, but it is an important one.不集中注意力观察道路情况不是造成交通事故的唯一的原因, 但是它是最重要的。In America, various studies have suggested that it contributes to between a quarter and a half of accidents.在美国,许多研究表明这种情况所造成的交通事故的比率在1/4到1/2之间。Those who think that hands-free texting is low on the list of potential driving hazards might therefore wish to think again.那些认为语音发短信所造成的风险很小的人可能要因此重新考虑一下。 /201311/264215。

  • Made in Spain西班牙制造A pressing issue迫在眉睫The government frets about foreign hands on the nations olive-presses外国人插手本国橄榄油产业让政府很不安These are Spanish, not Italian这些是产自西班牙的橄榄,不是产自意大利的THE French government once scuttled a possible foreign bid for Danone, a big dairy firm, on the ground that it was a national industrial “jewel”. If yogurt is strategic for the French, olive oil has the same exalted status inSpain. Four savings banks wanted to sell their combined 31% stake in Deoleo, the countrys largest producer, and under Spains stockmarket rules anyone buying such a large stake has to bid for the whole company. Earlier this month, when it emerged that all the bidders were foreign, ministers said they would prefer that it remained in Spanish hands, and raised the possibility of the state taking a stake in the firm.达能集团是法国一家大型乳制品公司。法国政府曾以它是法国工业的“瑰宝”为理由,否决一项可能达成的国外买家对它的收购案。如果把酸奶产业看作是法国的战略产业,那么橄榄油产业在西班牙拥有同样高的地位。Deoleo是西班牙最大的橄榄油生产商,四家储蓄想抛售他们所持有共计31%的Deoleo股份,而根据西班牙股市交易规则,不论是谁购入如此大额的股份,他都必须向整个公司股东发出收购要约。本月初,当发现所有的竞购者都来自国外,部长们表示他们更希望Deoleo公司的所有权留在西班牙手中,随即提出了国家参股的可能性。On April 10th a British private-equity firm, CVC Capital, won the backing of Deoleos board after making the highest offer, valuing it at 439m. But given the controversy over selling to foreigners, two of the four would-be sellers now look like keeping their stakes. CVC will end up owning 30% of Deoleo but will later seek to buy the rest.4月10日英国一家私募股权公司CVC Capital以4.93亿欧元的最高价竞投,赢得了Deoleo董事会的持。但考虑到买家是外国人而引发的争议,现在四家储蓄中的两家看来要拒绝出售他们所持有的股份。CVC公司最终将拥有Deoleo 公司30%的股份,但之后将寻求购买其余股份的机会。Olive oil accounts for a mere 0.8% ofSpains exports. Yet it is an extra-sensitive matter. The country is the worlds largest producer of the oil, but one-third of its exports are sent in bulk toItalywhere it is bottled and sold, often for a significant markup, under Italian labels. Some of the oil sold with the Bertolli brand, one ofItalys andAmericas favourites, is in fact pressed by Deoleo from the fruits of Spanish olive groves.橄榄油出口额仅占西班牙出口额的0.8%。然而它却是一个特别敏感的问题。西班牙是世界上最大的橄榄油生产国,但是其出口的橄榄油有三分之一是批量发送到意大利的,在那里橄榄油以装瓶出售,通常带着明显的意大利标签,以意大利自有品牌进行销售。Bertolli是意大利人和美国人最青睐品牌之一,然而,有些冠以Bertolli的品牌出售的橄榄油,实际上是使用产自西班牙橄榄园的橄榄,由Deoleo公司压榨的。It is a similar story for wine.Spainhas overtakenFranceandItalyto become the worlds largest producer, but sells almost half of its exports in bulk to markets likeFrance, some of which is retailed under French labels. French- and Italian-labelled wines typically fetch higher prices than Spanish-labelled ones, though the gap is narrowing. And despite the global success of Spanish fashion retailers such as Inditex and Mango, the fancy handbags turned out by artisans in the small Andalusian town ofUbriqueare sold under French and Italian labels. Stuart Weitzman, an American shoe designer who makes his products inSpain, says the country produces the worlds best footwear, but its domestic labels have barely left a footprint on the world stage.对于葡萄酒,情况也类似。西班牙已经超过法国和意大利,成为世界上最大的葡萄酒生产国,但其出口的葡萄酒有几乎一半都批量送往国外零售市场,如法国零售市场,其中一些葡萄酒被冠以法国品牌出售。被冠以法国和意大利品牌标签的葡萄酒通常比西班牙品牌的葡萄酒售价更高,但这一差距正在缩小。尽管西班牙快时尚零售商在全球取得了成功,例如Inditex集团和芒果饰,但是由乌夫克里的安达卢西亚小镇中的工匠所制作的高档手袋,却被冠以法国和意大利的品牌销售。美国的鞋设计师斯图尔特.威兹曼在西班牙生产他的产品,他说:西班牙出产全世界最好的鞋,但其本土品牌却鲜有在世界舞台上留下足迹。Spainhas come a long way, compared with the relatively closed economy it had before joining the European Union in 1986. More recently, rising exports have helped pull the country out of a deep recession, with the economy returning to growth in the third quarter of 2013. Exports are now 34% of Spains GDP, up from 24% in . Its olive oil is winning new customers in places likeChinaandMexico. Prominent chefs like Ferran Adria have raised the profile of Spanish cuisine and attracted foodie tourists. But the country clearly has some way to go in raising the prestige of the “Made inSpain” label.1986年加入欧盟前,西班牙还是个相对封闭的经济体,到如今,它已取得很大进展。最近,出口的增长已帮助西班牙走出了深度的经济衰退。随着2013年第三季度经济回暖,日益增长的出口逐步拉动西班牙走出大萧条的泥沼。年,西班牙的出口额仅占国内生产总值的24%,如今已增长到34%。其橄榄油产品正在赢得中国和墨西哥等国顾客的青睐。像Ferran Adria这样的著名厨师提高了西班牙美食的知名度,也吸引了美食游客的到来。但显然,对于提高“西班牙制造”的声望,西班牙还有一段路要走。 /201404/293152。
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