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来源:康泰互动    发布时间:2019年12月12日 05:48:56    编辑:admin         

Amazon was forced to take action on Saturday after it was found to be selling T-shirts with slogans promoting rape and violence on its website.在被发现其网站上出售带有推广强奸和暴力口号的T恤之后,亚马逊在星期六被迫采取了行动。The American clothing company Solid Gold Bomb blamed an automated computer dictionary for its series of the items emblazoned with offensive phrases such as ;Keep Calm and Rape a Lot; and ;Keep Calm and Hit Her;, based on the much reproduced ;Keep Calm and Carry On; second world war poster.美国装公司Solid Gold Bomb责怪一台自动化的电脑词典将其一系列产品印上攻击性短语,例如“保持冷静,尽情XX”和“保持冷静,打她”,基于二战海报“保持冷静,坚持到底”的多次复制。Both companies were bombarded with complaints and Solid Gold Bomb later closed its Twitter account. The T-shirts were still on sale in Germany on Saturday.这两家公司被投诉炮轰,Solid Gold Bomb之后关闭了它的Twitter账户。T恤周六仍在德国销售。One of the slogans was taken down but others, including ;Keep Calm and Knife Her; and ;Keep Calm and Punch Her; remained on Solid Gold Bomb#39;s website on Saturday afternoon; the company said they were all in a ;deletion queue;.有一个口号被撤了下来,但其他包括“保持冷静,捅她”和“保持冷静,揍她” 周六下午仍在Solid Gold Bomb的网站上,该公司表示他们都在一个“删除队列”中。Amazon deleted most of the offensive ;Keep Calm; range but continued to promote the company#39;s shop.亚马逊删除了大部分“保持冷静”的攻击性系列产品,但继续为该公司促销。Solid Gold Bomb, based in Massachusetts, said the graphics for the T-shirts were the result of ;a scripted computer process;, which used an algorithm to generate hundreds of slogans.Solid Gold Bomb,总部位于马萨诸塞州,表示T恤上的图形是“脚本化计算机过程”的结果,它使用一种算法生成成百上千的口号。The shirts, which appeared on Amazon on Friday, prompted an online furore. Amazon did not respond to the Observer#39;s call but a spokesman for Amazon UK told Sky News: ;I can confirm that those items are not available for sale.;这些衬衫周五出现在亚马逊上,在网上引起轰动。亚马逊没有回应《观察家》的电话但亚马逊英国发言人告诉天空新闻:“我可以实,这些物品并没有可供出售。”The company said it had received death threats and its Twitter account was bombarded with scores of angry messages, many of which said: ;Rape is not a joke.;该公司表示它已收到了死亡威胁,其Twitter账户被许多愤怒消息炮轰,其中许多说:“强奸不是一个笑话。”Amazon is no stranger to controversy. The site#39;s US operation faced criticism for briefly selling a book described as a paedophile#39;s guide. In 2008 it had to pull from sale T-shirts lauding Nazi leaders.亚马逊对争议并不陌生。该网站的美国业务因为简单地将销售书籍描述为恋童癖指南而遭受批评。2008年它不得不取消出售赞扬纳粹领导人的T恤。 /201303/227952。

Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina have built an experimental camera with more than 30 times the data-collecting capacity of today#39;s best consumer digital devices, a development that could fundamentally alter the way images are captured and viewed. 美国北卡罗来纳州杜克大学(Duke University)的科学家制造出了一台数据采集容量为当今最先进的消费型数码相机30多倍的实验性相机,这一成果可能会彻底改变人们拍摄和观看图片的方式。 While today#39;s best digital cameras take images having pixel counts in the tens of millions, the latest device produces a still or image with a billion pixels, which is five times more detail than can be seen by a person with 20/20 vision. A pixel is one of the many tiny areas of illumination on a display screen from which an image is composed. The greater the number of pixels, the more detailed the image. 现今最好的数码相机可拍摄分辨率达数千万像素的图片,这款最新的相机能够拍摄10亿级像素的静态图片或视频图像,而且清晰度比完美视力的人眼所能看到的图像要清晰五倍。像素是显示屏上所显示的一个个小方点,它们排列在一起就构成了影像。其他条件相同的情况下,像素数越高拍出来的图片就越清晰。 The experimental Duke device, known as AWARE-2, is a long way from being a commercial product. The current version needs lots of space to house and cool its electronic control boards; it weighs 100 pounds and is about the size of two microwave ovens stacked together. It also takes about 18 seconds to shoot a frame and record the data on a disk. 杜克大学研发的这款实验性相机名为“AWARE-2”,其要实现商业化生产还需很长一段时间。当前这个机型需要很大空间来存放和冷却其电子控制面板。它的重量达100磅(约45公斤),体积约相当于两台微波炉叠在一起。用它来拍摄图片并把数据存在磁盘上需要18秒左右。 The availability of a hand-held gigapixel camera could spark an alternative approach to photography. Instead of deciding where to focus a camera, a user would simply shoot a scene, then later zoom into any part of the picture and view it in extraordinary detail. Desirable or useful portions could thus be identified or #39;mined#39; after the images are captured. 手持式10亿像素级相机的问世可能会引发另一种摄影方式的产生。摄影者不必决定把焦点对准何处,只需把画面拍下来,将图片的任一部分放大即可极其细致地观看它们。在拍完图片之后,摄影者可把满意的或是有用的部分确定下来或者是“抽取”出来。 Taking a picture with a traditional digital camera ;is like looking through a soda straw since you can only see a narrow part of the scene,; said David Brady, optical engineer at Duke University, who led the team that designed the one-gigapixel camera. ;Ours is more like a fire hose-the world comes at you full [blast];. 杜克大学光学工程师戴维#8226;布拉迪(David Brady)说,用传统数码相机拍照就像通过一根苏打水吸管看东西,因为你只能看到一小块画面,而他们的新型相机则更像从消防软管看东西,整个世界完全展现在你的眼前。 Dr. Brady said that when his team used the device to take a photograph of the Seattle skyline, they were able to zoom in and the ;In; and ;Out; signs written on a parking garage located half a mile away. Similarly, if the camera were used to take images of a tennis match, the viewer could zoom in on a player, or on someone at the far end of the stadium, and see both images in equal detail. 布拉迪是这台10亿像素相机研发团队的领头人,他说其团队在用它来拍摄西雅图天际线的图片时,能够把图片放大看到半英里之外一个停车库上写着的“入口”和“出口”标识。同样地,如果观众用这台相机来拍摄网球比赛的视频,也可以把选手或坐在球场远处另一端的观众的图像放大,看到的图像都同样清晰。 Details of the Duke camera were published Wednesday in the journal Nature. The million project is funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, part of the U.S. Department of Defense. The military is interested in high-resolution cameras as tools for aerial or land-based surveillance. 有关这台相机的详细信息最近发表在了《自然》(Nature)杂志上。这个2500万美元的研究项目由美国国防部尖端研究项目局(Defense Advanced Research Project Agency)资助。美国军方有意将高分辨率相机用于航空及地面监控用途。 Many scientists believe the age of gigapixel photography isn#39;t too far away. 许多科学家都认为,10亿像素级摄影时代距离我们不会太遥远。 The Pan-STARRS telescope in Hawaii uses several gigapixel cameras, though it is designed for astronomical use. Some drones carry megapixel cameras, but they tend to have a relatively narrow field of view. The Gigapixl Project is using large-format film cameras to create a highly detailed coast-to-coast portrait of North America, focusing on cities, parks and monuments. 夏威夷“全景巡天望远镜与快速反应系统”(Pan-STARRS)的望远镜也使用了数个10亿像素级的相机,但它是用于天文用途的。一些无人机安有百万像素级的摄像头,但它们的视场角往往比较狭窄。10亿像素计划(The Gigapixl Project)正使用大画幅胶片相机拍摄高清晰度的北美全景照片,并把焦点放在城市、公园和纪念碑上。 By comparison, the Duke device the ;first cut at making gigapixel; cameras for general use, said Shree Nayar, a computer-vision researcher at Columbia University in New York, who has seen the camera work but wasn#39;t involved in the project. The challenge, he added, is to shrink the electronics and reduce the amount of power the system required. 纽约哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)计算机视觉技术研究者希瑞#8226;纳亚尔(Shree Nayar)称,相比之下,杜克大学研发的相机是促进10亿像素级相机用于普通用途的首台设备。他还说,其中的困难在于如何缩小电路板空间并降低设备所需的电量。纳亚尔观看过这台相机的操作,但他并未参与该研究计划。 The secret of the Duke device is a spherical lens, a design first proposed in the late 19th century. Although very effective spherical lenses exist naturally lenses-the human eye, for example-researchers have long found it tricky to accurately focus images using lab-made versions. 杜克大学所研发的10亿像素相机的秘诀是一个球形镜头,该设计创意最初于19世纪晚期提出。尽管效果非常不错的球形镜头天然就存在(比如人眼),但是长期以来研究人员发现要想用实验性的机型精准对焦还是颇有难度。 The Duke group overcame the challenge by installing nearly 100 micro-cameras, each with a 14-megapixel sensor, on the outside of a small sphere about the size of a football. The set-up yields nearly 100 separate-but accurately focused-images. A computer connected to the sphere then stitches them together to create a composite whole. 杜克大学的研究团队克了这一困难,他们在一个足球大小的球形小镜头的外部安装了近100台微型相机,每台相机都配有一个1400万像素的传感器。这种配置可拍摄近100张独立而且对焦精准的图片,与球形镜头连接的计算机随后会把它们拼凑在一起合为一张完整的图片。 The camera described in the Nature paper only takes black-and-white pictures. Dr. Brady said his team will finish building a 10-gigapixel color version by year-end and will then construct a 50-gigapixel device. 发表于《自然》杂志的论文所描述的相机只能拍摄黑白照片。布拉迪士称其团队将于今年年底制成一台100亿像素的色相机,并计划在未来制造一台500亿像素的相机。 The team hopes to begin manufacturing industrial-type gigapixel cameras on a limited basis in 2013. But scientists estimate it will take at least several years before a hand-held consumer version of the technology becomes available.该团队希望在2013年开始对10亿像素相机进行小规模的量产,但是科学家们估计手持式消费型10亿像素级相机至少还需要数年时间才能面市。 /201207/189118。

Here#39;s what Apple told investors about its business Tuesday: Margins, revenues, and profits in the next quarter all will be worse than investors had expected. Here#39;s what Apple didn#39;t address Wednesday: Specific plans for any new product categories or personnel moves, either among its long-serving management team or to fill at least one long-vacant hole. The stock rallied in after-hours trading.本周二,苹果(Apple)这样告诉投资者:下个季度的利润率、收入和净利润都会低于投资者此前的预期。苹果没有谈到的是:没有任何关于新的产品品类或人事变动的具体计划,既没有对长期务的管理团队进行调整,也没有填补什么长期空缺职位。随后,苹果股价在盘后交易中反弹。Oh yeah, one more thing: Apple (AAPL) said it will dramatically increase its dividend, its share buybacks, and, for the first time, that it will borrow significant amounts of money to fuel this return of capital to shareholders. Apple actually bragged on its earnings call with investors that it will be one of the biggest payers of dividends in the world. Think: Insanely great … dividends·哦,对了,还有一件事:苹果宣布将大幅增加派息和股票回购,还将首次借入相当的资金来提高股东的资本回报率。事实上,苹果在这次面向投资者的业绩电话会议上甚至夸口,苹果将成为全球派息最高的公司之一。想想:超高……派息?There#39;s more. Tim Cook, the man with the most unenviable task in the history of business, that of following Steve Jobs, said Apple planned to release ;great; new products in the ;fall and throughout 2014,; and, eventually, new categories. The fall· If true, meaning that if Apple#39;s big meeting with developers in June is a ho-hum event from a new-product perspective, then Apple will have gone a year without new product introductions.还有,从史蒂夫·乔布斯手中接过苹果公司CEO一职、怎么干都吃力不讨好的蒂姆·库克还宣布,苹果计划在“今秋和2014年”推出“非常出色”的新产品,并最终推出新的产品品类。今年秋天?如果是这样,那么6月份的苹果开发人员大会从新产品角度而言将毫无亮点,苹果将经历没有新产品推出的一年。New products at Apple is the only thing that matters. Margins are eroding because new products cannibalize older products. The success of the iPad Mini is a financial penalty for Apple: It#39;s a less profitable product than its bigger cousin. But that is beside the point. Apple said a significant number of iPad Mini buyers are first-time iPad buyers, and this is what is important, adding new Apple customers to its lists of people to market the next great products -- whatever their configuration. Remember, Apple has done this before. iPod Shuffle customers spent less than they did on iPods. They also had to have an iPhone when it came out.新产品对于苹果是唯一真正重要的东西。利润率也在下降,因为新产品侵占了老产品的市场和消费者。iPad Mini的成功对于苹果的财务是一项灾难:iPad Mini的利润率低于比它大一号的iPad。但这只是一方面。苹果称,相当一部分的iPad Mini买家是首次购入iPad产品,这很重要,因为它为苹果带来了新客户,所有现有客户都会是下一款杰出产品的目标客户——不管新产品是啥样。记得吗,苹果早就这么干过,当初iPod Shuffle用户就比iPod用户的花费要低。但iPhone出现后,他们都得要一台。In some ways, Apple sounds delusional when it talks about itself. Asked, as he has been many times before, for his take on the trend to pack bigger screens into smartphones, Tim Cook said he thinks Apple#39;s iPhone 5 has the best screen in existence and that big screens aren#39;t for everyone. He#39;ll keep saying that until Apple offers a phone with a bigger screen. And we#39;ll see how that sounds when we witness customer reactions to the new Samsung Galaxy S4, a product whose media blitz has just begun.在某种程度上,苹果说起自己的时候有些妄自尊大。问起他对智能手机屏幕越来越大这个趋势怎么看时(这个问题他显然已经被问到过很多次了),蒂姆·库克表示,他认为苹果iPhone 5的显示屏是现有产品中最好的,大屏幕并不适合所有人。估计在苹果能够提供一款大屏手机之前,他会一直这么说。我们会关注随着消费者对三星(Samsung)新款Galaxy S4手机的反应变化,他的言辞有何变化。围绕Galaxy S4手机的诸多报道才刚刚见诸媒体。In other ways, Apple shows that it is very much in tune with reality. Cook knows keeping 5 billion lying around is too much. So he#39;ll give more back to shareholders. He knows that with interest rates as low as they are it makes no sense for a company with Apple#39;s balance sheet not to borrow money and share the benefits with shareholders. So he#39;s taking on debt -- Steve Jobs#39;s aversion to the stuff be damned.其他方面,苹果的自我表述与现实相当吻合。库克知道持有1,450亿美元现金实在是太多了。因此,他打算增加对股东的回馈。他知道,在当前利率这么低的情况下,像苹果这样优质的资产负债表,不贷款,不把利润与股东分享,是没有意义的。因此,他准备举债——这可是史蒂夫·乔布斯最不愿做的事了。The world stops and listens when Apple talks. The problem is that Apple doesn#39;t always have something to say, and Tuesday was one of those days. It would be foolish to assume Apple isn#39;t ever going to have anything to say again. But the pressure certainly is building.一旦苹果开口,世界都会停下来倾听。问题是苹果不是总有东西可以讲,周二就是这样。当然,不能假定苹果将来也不会有什么可讲。改变的压力显然正在不断加大。 /201304/237141。

“Writing is easy,” the sports columnist Red Smith once said. “You just open a vein and bleed.”体育专栏作者瑞德o史密斯曾说过:“写作并不难,只需掏心挖肺地对待读者即可。”The same might be said of the car business. It’s easy: You just design and build great cars.汽车行业可能也有类似的表述。这不是件难事:只需要设计并造出好车就行。Of course, it isn’t that simple. As the recent misfortunes of General Motors GM 0.19% and Ford Motor F -0.30% demonstrate, something as straightforward as installing foolproof ignition switches or accurately calculating fuel economy can elude the most experienced of automakers.当然,事情并没有这么简单。通用汽车(General Motors)和福特汽车(Ford Motor)最近的负面新闻表明,最为老道的汽车制造商也会在傻瓜式点火开关的安装或燃油经济性计算精确性上面栽跟头。When it comes to marketing cars, there is an emerging debate that can most succinctly be described as mass vs. class.在汽车营销领域,一场争论正在如火如荼地进行当中,简而言之就是:车型数量与档次之争。On the mass side is analyst John Murphy, author of the long-running “Car Wars” study for Bank of America Merrill Lynch. Murphy is a fan of new models, the more the merrier. He has consistently demonstrated that market share is directly related to the number of new models a company introduces and the speed with which it refreshes them. While he concedes the importance of mix, pricing, execution, distribution, and brand power, he argues that the more rapidly product lines are expanded and refreshed, the more rapidly sales will grow. “Our measures of replacement rate and showroom age are the major driver of market share gains and losses,” he writes. “Successful new products drive higher market share.”分析师约翰o墨菲是“数量”派,他是美银美林(Bank of America Merrill Lynch)长期调查《汽车之战》(Car Wars)的作者。墨菲钟爱新车型,而且车型越多越好。在他的不懈努力之下,他所得出的结论是,市场占有率与制造商推出新车型的数量和速度有直接关系。在承认搭配、定价、执行、销售和品牌影响力的重要性的同时,他还认为,生产线扩张、更新的速度越快,销售业绩的增长也就越快。他写道:“更新率和展厅年限指标是企业获得/失去市场份额的主要原因。成功的新产品会带来更高的市场份额。”Leading the arguments for the class side is longtime marketing consultant and self-styled industry curmudgeon Peter De Lorenzo. De Lorenzo, who is based in Detroit, leads the AutoExtremist blog, calls himself “a purveyor of the bare-knuckled, unvarnished, high-octane truth,” and has been a rigorous defender of brand integrity. “How a brand is perceived can make or break a car company, regardless of how long and illustrious a run that brand has enjoyed up until any given point in time,” he wrote in June.“档次”派阵营的主要人物则是资深营销顾问、自称行业异类的皮特o德o罗伦索。德o罗伦索常驻底特律,是客“汽车极端分子”的主。他称自己是一位“非常规、朴实无华、最热门事实的提供者”,而且一直是品牌诚信的忠实拥趸。他在6月的文中写道:“人们对品牌的看法能造就、也能毁掉一家汽车公司,无论这个品牌在此前任何一段时间内拥有多么悠久或辉煌的历史。”De Lorenzo has been a persistent critic of luxury brands that use new models to grow volume. He believes they are compromising their identity by using their brand for vehicles that have no connection to heritage and history. “They believe that if they cover every niche in the market–both real and imagined–it will ensure their survival and profitability,” he contends. “But it doesn’t work,” he writes. “There are painful ramifications that come with their actions.”德o罗伦索一直都在批评豪华汽车品牌使用新车型来提升销量的做法。他认为,这种做法会有损品牌形象,因为品牌被用在了与其传承和历史毫无关联的车型身上。他指出:“这些厂商认为,如果公司能照顾到每一个细分市场(有的是真实存在的,有的是公司想象出来的),他们的生存和利润就有了保障。但这是行不通的,而且这种举措会带来痛苦的后果。”One of the unique strengths of “Car Wars” is its distillation of competitive intelligence, press clippings, speculation, and rumor analysis into a rigorous analysis of future product trends. In the most recent edition covering the years 2015 to 2018, Murphy identifies by model name and segment, every redesign and new model coming to the U.S. market. He sees a surge of new crossovers vehicles bearing the badges of luxury manufacturers that previously concentrated on sedans, coupes, and sports cars–among them Audi, BMW, Jaguar, and Bentley–and writes approvingly about the positive impact on sales. “If the numerous new German Lux CUVs are well received in the market,” he writes, “there may be some upside risk” in the market share of European OEMs.《汽车之战》的一个独特优势在于,它将竞争情报、新闻简报、观察和传闻分析进行过滤加工,然后整合成为未来产品趋势的严密分析。在最近一期涵盖2015-2018年趋势的调查中,墨菲按照车型名称和类别分别列出了进入美国市场的每一个重新设计的车型和新车型。他发现了新跨界车型的崛起,而这些车型出身于过去专注于轿车、轿跑和跑车的业界豪门,例如奥迪、宝马、捷豹和宾利,而且他还以赞许的口吻提到了这个趋势对于销售的积极影响。他写道:“如果大量的新型德系豪华CUV(混合型多用途车)在市场上得以热销,那么欧洲OEM(原始设备制造商)厂商的市场份额可能会面临一些上行风险。”Such product line extensions into unfamiliar segments by long-established brands induce a state of near apoplexy in De Lorenzo. Brandishing no research but effectively flexing his instinct from years in the business, he argues that automakers–particularly those with a racing heritage–should stick to making cars and leave crossovers and SUVs to the likes of Jeep and Land Rover. He gets especially vitriolic in discussing the strategies of the fast-rising German luxury makers, which seem to keep adding more body styles–BMW Active Tourer anyone?– aimed at freshening up their product lines and adding incremental volume:知名品牌这种将产品线扩展到陌生领域的做法几乎让德o罗伦索感到抓狂。德o罗伦索并不会拿什么调查来说事,而是有效地借助多年来形成的行业直觉。他指出,汽车制造商,尤其是那些拥有赛车传承的制造商,应该致力于制造轿车,同时将跨界车型和SUV交给吉普和路虎这样的生产厂家。讨论迅速崛起的德国豪华车制造商的决策时,他会变得尤为刻薄,因为这种讨论似乎总是围绕增加车型的种类——宝马Active Tourer车型,有人要吗?——它们的目的在于更新产品线,从而增加销量:o “[Audi] seems to be falling victim to the disease that’s infecting all of the German brands of late, the ded being all things to all people daze that leads these manufacturers to drop their guard and make mistakes.”“(奥迪)似乎患上了最近所有德国品牌无一幸免的传染病,这是一种面面俱到的可怕打法,它让消费者眼花缭乱,而且也让这些制造商放松了警惕,开始犯错误。”o “Almost everything that made BMW a BMW has been lost in translation.”“似乎BMW的一切精髓都已在车型大战中消失殆尽。”o “When [Mercedes-Benz is] off, well, they can stink up the joint like no other. Daimler is forced to stretch out its model lineup because it’s trying to fight a brutally competitive auto world without the resources of the other auto manufacturer conglomerates.”“当(梅赛德斯-奔驰)遭遇滑铁卢时,它的东施效颦能力较其他品牌有过之而无不及。戴姆勒被迫扩充车型数量,因为它没有其它汽车制造巨头的所拥有的资源作为依靠,而且还得硬着头皮去在这个竞争异常激烈的汽车产业中寻求自己的一席之地。”Murphy and De Lorenzo agree on some things. In the latest “Car Wars,” Murphy singles out Ford and Honda for their speedy replacement of existing models, and predicts that each will gain half a point of market share over the next three years. De Lorenzo likes both companies too. But he worries that if Ford “allows itself to get complacent, its prospects will be less than stellar,” and wonders about Honda, “will it stumble again and lose its way?”墨菲和德o罗伦索并不是在所有的观点上都格格不入。在最新一期的《汽车之战》中,墨菲单独例举了福特和本田,介绍了他们快速更换现有车型的举措。而且他还预测,在未来的三年中,这两家的市场份额都会增长0.5个百分点。德o罗伦索也很喜欢这两家公司。但是他担心,如果福特“放任自己不思进取,它的前景并不会太好。”同时他也为本田感到担忧,“它会再次摔倒而变得一蹶不振吗?”Who is the winner in this faceoff? The Car Wars analysis has a lot to recommend it. With statistics on new models going back to 1987, it possesses unusual depth. It is even-handed, and if it occasionally misses some fine points, it projects a reasonably accurate view of a company’s relative position in the market compared to its competitors. But Car Wars may be of less value going forward. As foreign automakers fill out their product lines and as all manufactures achieve more consistency in their product renewal cycles, there will be fewer big shifts in market share.在这场对峙中,谁会成为赢家?《汽车之战》的分析有很多都值得称道。调查涵盖了1987年的新车型的数据,深度非比寻常。这项调查十分公正,就算偶尔会遗漏一些细节之处,但它以合理的方式准确地展现了公司相对于竞争对手的市场位置。但是从长远来看,《汽车之战》调查的价值可能会缩水。因为随着外国汽车制造商生产线扩充的完成,以及各大制造商的更新周期变得更为一致,市场份额的波动将会更小。De Lorenzo plays favorites and rarely lets the facts get in the way of a good argument. German luxury car makers are enjoying record years, and despite some grumbling about the quality of lower-priced models and unconventional body styles, they appear to be holding on to their existing customers at the same time as they attract new ones. Passionate though he is, De Lorenzo can shift gears. At one time a ferocious opponent of Porsche’s diversification away from sports cars into SUVs and four-doors, he now praises the company for being “relentlessly focused” and “peerless” in its execution.德o罗伦索打的是喜好牌,而且很少让事实成为其有力观点的障碍。近几年,德国豪华车制造商的销售业绩接连创下历史新高,尽管人们对他们的低价车型和非传统车型的质量仍存在一些抱怨,但这些制造商不仅留住了现有的客户,还吸引到了新客户。虽然德o罗伦索是一个狂热分子,但他也有可能会反其道而行之。曾几何时,他曾强烈地抨击保时捷的多元化举措,即从跑车转向SUV()和四门轿跑领域,然而如今,他却对这家公司“不懈的关注”和“无与伦比”的执行表示赞许。And in the end, it is execution more than anything else that determines success or the lack of it. Look at Tata, owner of both Jaguar and Land Rover. Jaguar concentrated on sedans and coupes for its entire life and nearly expired. Now the first Jaguar crossover, the XQ, is due in 2017. Land Rover, on the other hand, has stayed focused on SUVs and thrived. Even its Sport model is expedition-capable and there are no signs of an active tourer on the horizon.最后,在所有的要素中,执行才是决定成败的决定性因素。我们不妨看看捷豹和路虎的母公司塔塔。捷豹始终专注于轿车和轿跑,差点破产。如今,捷豹的第一款跨界车型XQ将于2017年面世。另一方面,路虎一直专注于做SUV,并因此而兴盛起来。即使路虎的跑车车型都具有越野能力,而且它目前也并不打算推出类似于active tourer这样的车型。 /201406/307774。

This week London hosts a jamboree of computer geeks, politicians, and urban planners from around the world. At the Urban Age conference, they will discuss the latest whizz idea in high tech, the ;smart city;. Doing more than programming traffic, the smart city#39;s computers will calculate where offices and shops can be laid out most efficiently, where people should sleep, and how all the parts of urban life should be fitted together. Science fiction? Smart cities are being built in the Middle East and in Korea; they have become a model for developers in China, and for redevelopment in Europe. Thanks to the digital revolution, at last life in cities can be brought under control. But is this a good thing?本周伦敦请来世界各地的计算机极客,政治家和城市规划者搞了一个大聚会。 在城市年代会议上, 他们将讨论最新的高科技专家的建议 -关于’智能城市‘。在智能城市里, 计算机不仅管理交通,而且能够规划办公室和商店如何分布最有效率, 人们在什么地方睡觉最合适,以及城市生活的各个方面如何有机地结合在一起。 听上去像科幻小说吗? 实际上在中东和韩国,人们已经开始建造智能城市了,在中国智能城市也成为了开发者的样板,对欧洲的重新开发也是这样。 由于数字革命,城市生活终于变得可控了。 但是这算是一件好事吗?You don#39;t have to be a romantic to doubt it. In the 1930s the American urbanist Lewis Mumford foresaw the disaster entailed by ;scientific planning; of transport, embodied in the super-efficient highway, choking the city. The Swiss architecture critic Sigfried Giedion worried that after the second world war efficient building technologies would produce a soulless landscape of glass, steel, and concrete boxes. Yesterday#39;s smart city, today#39;s nightmare.即使不是浪漫主义者的人也会对此存有怀疑。 在1930年代, 美国城市规划专家Lewis Mumford 预见到了’科学规划‘ 所连带的交通灾难- 超级高效的高速公路把城市堵塞起来。 瑞士建筑批评家Sigfried Giedion 担心在二次大战后的高效建筑技术会产生出一批毫无生机的玻璃,钢铁和水泥盒子。 昨天的聪明城市已经成了今天的噩梦。The debate about good engineering has changed now because digital technology has shifted the technological focus to information processing; this can occur in handheld computers linked to ;clouds;, or in command-and-control centres. The danger now is that this information-rich city may do nothing to help people think for themselves or communicate well with one another.关于何为好工程的辩论今天已经改变了, 因为数字技术已经把技术重点转移到了信息处理方面; 这一点表现在手持电脑与’云‘,或者是命令与控制中心相连。 现在的危险在于, 这种信息丰富的城市可能对于帮助人们为自己考虑或者人们之间的良好沟通并方面毫无作为。Imagine that you are a master planner facing a blank computer screen and that you can design a city from scratch, free to incorporate every bit of high technology into your design. You might come up with Masdar, in the ed Arab Emirates, or Songdo, in South Korea. These are two versions of the stupefying smart city: Masdar the more famous, or infamous; Songdo the more fascinating in a perverse way.想象你自己是一个总规划师, 面对一个空白计算机屏幕,从零开始设计一座城市, 可以在规划中包含各种高新技术。 你可能会设计出阿联酋的马斯达尔,或者韩国的松岛。他们是两个令人瞠目的智能城市版本, 马斯达尔更出名或者更不出名, 而松岛以一种反常的方式更令人着迷。Masdar is a half-built city rising out of the desert, whose planning – overseen by the master architect Norman Foster – comprehensively lays out the activities of the city, the technology monitoring and regulating the function from a central command centre. The city is conceived in ; Fordist; terms – that is, each activity has an appropriate place and time. Urbanites become consumers of choices laid out for them by prior calculations of where to shop, or to get a doctor, most efficiently. There#39;s no stimulation through trial and error; people learn their city passively. ;User-friendly; in Masdar means choosing options rather than creating the .马斯达尔是在沙漠上建起的半完工城市, 由总设计师Norman Foster 主持规划, 包罗万象地涵盖了城市的功能,有一个中央控制中心来监控和规范整个城市。 整个城市是按’福特主义者‘来构思的 - 也就是说, 每一种活动都有个适当的地方和时段。 按照先前计算的最佳结果来选择去什么地方购物,去什么地方看医生。 没有了试试看之后的兴奋和刺激, 人们对城市的了解是被动的。 ‘用户友好’ 在马斯达尔意味着在现成菜单上做选择,而不是创造菜单。Creating your own, new entails, as it were, being in the wrong place at the wrong time. In mid 20th-century Boston, for instance, its new ;brain industries; developed in places where the planners never imagined they could grow. Masdar – like London#39;s new ;ideas quarter; around Old Street – on the contrary assumes a clairvoyant sense of what should grow where. The smart city is over-zoned, defying the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard, or in between the cracks of what#39;s allowed.过去, 在错误的时间,去到错误的地方, 是创造你自己的菜单所必然要带来的。 例如,在20世纪中叶的波士顿,新的‘大脑产业’在规划者们完全没有想到的地方开始成长。 与过去完全相反的是, 马斯达尔像伦敦古旧街道周围的新‘创意角’一样, ,假设一种知道什么东西应该生长于什么地方的遥感术。 智能城市的分区过度智能了, 不承认城市中真正的发展经常是很偶然的, 或者正是从正式规划的’缝隙‘中产生的。Songdo represents the stupefying smart city in its architectural aspect – massive, clean, efficient housing blocks rising up in the shadow of South Korea#39;s western mountains, like an inflated 1960s British housing estate – but now heat, security, parking and deliveries are all controlled by a central Songdo ;brain;. The massive units of housing are not conceived as structures with any individuality in themselves, nor is the ensemble of these faceless buildings meant to create a sense of place.松岛代表智能城市建筑反常的一面 - 巨大,干净,高效的房屋在韩国西部山区中拔地而起, 就像1960年代英国住宅去的膨胀版,但是现在供暖,安防,停车和送货都是受到松岛“神经中枢’控制的。 巨大的房屋单元不是按照任何个性本身的结构设计,也不是那些毫无个性的只是为了建个房子而已的建筑群。Uniform architecture need not inevitably produce a dead environment, if there is some flexibility on the ground; in New York, for instance, along parts of Third Avenue monotonous residential towers are subdivided on street level into small, irregular shops and cafes; they give a good sense of neighbourhood. But in Songdo, lacking that principle of diversity within the block, there is nothing to be learned from walking the streets.如果在地面规划足够有弹性的话, 上风格样式一致的建筑并不一定会造成一种死气沉沉的气氛; 例如在纽约,第三大道那些单调的住宅塔楼边上有很多小型的,不规则的店铺和咖啡馆; 这些小店给人以很舒适的邻家感觉。 但是在松岛, 街区里没有这种多样性的原则, 走在大街上看不到任何有意思的东西。A more intelligent attempt to create a smart city comes from work currently under way in Rio de Janeiro. Rio has a long history of devastating flash floods, made worse socially by widesp poverty and violent crime. In the past people survived thanks to the complex tissues of local life; the new information technologies are now helping them, in a very different way to Masdar and Songdo. Led by IBM, with help by Cisco and other subcontractors, the technologies have been applied to forecasting physical disasters, to co-ordinating responses to traffic crises, and to organising police work on crime. The principle here is co-ordination rather than, as in Masdar and Songdo, prescription.目前对于智能城市更聪明的一种尝试正发生在里约热内卢。 里约过去曾被毁灭性的洪水摧毁过,广泛分布的贫民区和暴力犯罪使得城市的状况更加糟糕。 以前人们之所以能够生存下来,要靠当地复杂的社区生活结构; 现在新的信息技术正在用与马斯达尔和松岛完全不同 方式帮助人们。 由IBM牵头,在Cisco和其他分包商的配合下, 新技术被用于自然灾害的预报, 协调交通事故处理,以及组织警察对抗犯罪。 这里的原则是协调,而不是像马斯达尔和松岛那样的发出指令。But isn#39;t this comparison unfair? Wouldn#39;t people in the favelas prefer, if they had a choice, the pre-organised, aly planned place in which to live? After all, everything works in Songdo. A great deal of research during the last decade, in cities as different as Mumbai and Chicago, suggests that once basic services are in place people don#39;t value efficiency above all; they want quality of life. A hand-held GPS device won#39;t, for instance, provide a sense of community. More, the prospect of an orderly city has not been a lure for voluntary migration, neither to European cities in the past nor today to the sprawling cities of South America and Asia. If they have a choice, people want a more open, indeterminate city in which to make their way; this is how they can come to take ownership over their lives.但是难道这种比较不是很不公平的吗? 在贫民窟里的人们如果可以选择的话, 难道不是更愿意生活在那种预先组织好的, 规划好的地方吗? 无论如何, 松岛市各方面都能正常运转。 过去十年在像孟买和芝加哥这样完全不同的城市中的大量研究表明,一旦基本务到位,人们就不会再关心效率问题,而是希望有更高质量的生活。 例如,手持GPS怎么也不可能带给人们社区的感觉。 不仅如此, 井然有序的城市并不是吸引人们自愿移民的诱因, 无论是过去的欧洲城市还是今天南美洲和亚洲那些蔓延发展的城市都是如此。 如果人们能够选择, 他们就会选择更加开放,有更多不确定性的城市来开创自己的生活。 只有这样他们才是真正的拥有了自己的生活。There#39;s nothing wicked about the smart city confab London is hosting this week. Technology is a great tool, when it#39;s used responsively, as in Rio. But a city is not a machine; as in Masdar and Songdo, this version of the city can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace. We want cities that work well enough, but are open to the shifts, uncertainties, and mess which are real life.本周在伦敦召开的智能城市讨论会并没有任何恶意。 当技术被适当地应用时,能够成为一种伟大的工具,就像在里约那样。 但是城市不是一台机器,不能像马斯达尔和松岛那样,那样版本的城市会在高效中使得生活其中的人们变得死气沉沉和昏头昏脑。 我们希望城市能够运转良好,但同时充满真正生活的那种变化,不确定性和混乱。 /201303/228903。