2019年11月16日 16:22:27|来源:国际在线|编辑:88晚报
Travel warnings about the Zika virus, especially for pregnant women, are very much in the news now, but the germ was discovered more than a half century ago, and you may have aly visited places where it flourishes.目前关于兹卡病毒的旅行警告,尤其是对妇的警告,受到了新闻媒体的广泛报道。但这种病毒早在半个世纪之前就已被发现,你可能已经去过兹卡流行的地方了。As of December 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta reported evidence of transmission of the virus in at least 45 countries in Africa, Asia, the Americas and the Pacific islands. There were cases reported in Mexico and El Salvador in November 2015, and one in Puerto Rico in December. Travelers should be concerned, but there is no need for panic.截至20152月,亚特兰大的美国疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)收集到了兹卡病毒在非洲、亚洲、美洲和太平洋岛屿上至少45个国家传播的据0151月,墨西哥和萨尔瓦多出现过这种病例,12月波多黎各也出现了一例。旅行者应该加以重视,但也没有必要恐慌。“There are two things that make people pay attention,said one expert, Dr. Kamran Khan, an infectious disease doctor and scientist at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto. “It showed up where it has never been before, and it is rapidly sping. That’s because Aedes mosquitoes are widesp throughout most of Latin America and parts of the U.S.”“有两件事情引起了人们的关注,”这方面的专家卡姆兰·汗Kamran Khan)表示。“它出现在了以前没有到过的地方,而且还在迅速蔓延。这是因为伊蚊广泛分布在拉丁美洲大部分地区,以及美国的部分地区。”卡姆兰·汗是多伦多圣迈克尔医St. Michael’s Hospital)的传染病医生和科学家。Mosquitoes of the Aedes species (the name derives from a Greek word for “unpleasant seem to be the main vector. These mosquitoes also sp dengue and chikungunya, two other, more severe, viral infections.伊蚊似乎是兹卡病毒的主要传播媒介。这种蚊子还传播登革热和基孔肯雅热,这两种病毒感染更加严重。伊Aedes)一词来源于希腊语,意为“令人不快的”。The virus was isolated in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda. Researchers were studying the transmission of yellow fever, when they found the new virus in a rhesus monkey. Its first appearance in humans was in 1952 in Uganda and Tanzania, and the first large outbreak of disease was in 2007 on Yap Island in Micronesia.兹卡病毒947年在乌干达兹卡森Zika Forest)被发现的。研究人员当时正在研究黄热病的传播,结果在一种恒河猴身上发现了这种新病毒952年,在乌干达和坦桑尼亚,它第一次出现在人类身上007年,密克罗尼西亚的雅浦岛出现了第一次兹卡大爆发。There was an even larger outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2013, when about 10,000 cases were reported. In 2014, there were cases in New Caledonia and the Cook Islands in the South Pacific.20130月,法属波利尼西亚爆发了一次较大的兹卡疫情,大约报告了1万个病例014年,南太平洋的新喀里多尼亚和库克群岛也出现了一些病例。For most people, the Zika infection is not particularly serious. According to the C.D.C., only about 20 percent of infected people have any symptoms at all, and the few who become sick usually have a mild fever, sometimes diarrhea or a rash, headache or muscle pain. The illness goes away within a week, and rarely requires hospitalization. Rest, pain medication and hydration are the only treatments, and there is no cure or vaccine. There has never been a death attributed to the Zika virus, according to the C.D.C.对于大多数人来说,兹卡感染并不是特别严重。CDC表示,只有约20%感染者会出现症状,少数人会有轻微的发烧,有时会出现腹泻或皮疹、头痛、肌肉疼痛。症状会在一周之内消失,极少有人需要住院治疗。兹卡没有特效药或疫苗,只能通过休息、补水、用止痛药来缓解病情。从CDC的资料来看,以前从未有过兹卡致人死亡的病例。Still, there are significant dangers for pregnant women because the virus has been linked to congenital microcephaly, a serious and often fatal birth defect in which the fetal brain fails to develop properly.不过,对于妇来说,兹卡非常危险,因为研究已经明,该病毒与先天性小头症有关。这是一种很严重的先天缺陷,指胎儿大脑不能正常发育,往往会导致死亡。The large outbreak in Brazil, which began in May 2015, is particularly worrisome because the number of cases of congenital microcephaly in newborns and stillborns has abruptly increased. It is possible that there is some other reason for this, but there is general agreement that until another association is found, the Zika virus should be assumed to be the cause.2015月起在巴西爆发的兹卡疫情尤其令人担忧,因为这里的先天性小头症新生儿和死胎病例急剧增加。可能也有其他因素在起作用,但人们普遍认为,在没有发现其他原因之前,我们应该假定兹卡病毒是罪魁祸首。No one knows how many people in Brazil are infected, but C.D.C. estimates range from 500,000 to 1.5 million. There have been about 3,500 cases of congenital microcephaly, according to Brazilian health authorities. On Jan. 15, the Hawaii State Health Department reported that a microcephalic baby infected with the virus had been born in Oahu, the first such case in the ed States. The mother had lived in Brazil during part of her pregnancy.没人知道巴西有多少人已被感染,但CDC估计感染人数0万到150万之间。据巴西卫生部门透露,目前已500例先天性小头症病例5日,美国夏威夷州卫生Hawaii State Health Department)报告称,一名感染兹卡病毒的小头症新生儿在瓦胡岛出生,这是美国的首例此类病例。婴儿的母亲怀期间曾在巴西居住。Knowledge is evolving, but as of Jan. 15, the C.D.C . had issued Alert Level 2 Warnings (“Increased risk in defined settings or associated with specific risk factors for Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Suriname, Venezuela and Puerto Rico. The agency did not mention Africa or Asia in connection with the Zika virus, but warnings about the dangers of other mosquito-borne illnesses are aly in effect in those regions.研究人员的了解也在日益完善,但到15日,CDC发布了二级警告(“某些情境下风险有所提升或与特定风险因素有关联”),针对巴西、哥伦比亚、萨尔瓦多、法属圭亚那、危地马拉、海地、洪都拉斯、马提尼克、墨西哥、巴拿马、巴拉圭、苏里南、委内瑞拉和波多黎各。该机构没有提到非洲或亚洲的兹卡病毒情况,但有关其他蚊媒疾病的警告已经在这些地区生效。Pregnant women, in no matter which trimester, should talk to their doctors if they must travel to countries where Zika infections have been found, and if the trip is not essential, they should consider postponing it. Women who are trying to become pregnant are also at risk, and should discuss their travel plans and the risks of the Zika infection with their health care providers. All travelers should strictly follow the routines that will prevent mosquito bites.妇如果必须前往发现兹卡病毒感染病例的国家,无论处于哪个阶段,她们都应该与医生进行沟通。如果不是必需的,那就应该推迟出行。准备怀的女性也面临风险,她们应该与医务人员讨论自己的旅行计划及感染兹卡病毒的风险。所有旅行者都应该严格遵循防止蚊虫叮咬的常规操作。Aedes mosquitoes flourish seasonally in large areas in the ed States, and year-round in most of Florida and parts of Texas and California, so travelers who are infected abroad and return to these areas could sp the illness.伊蚊在美国大部分地区只是季节性活动,在佛罗里达州大部分地区及德克萨斯州和加利福尼亚州的部分地区是全年活动,因此在国外感染病毒然后回到这些地方的旅行者,可能会传播这种疾病。Sexual transmission of the virus may also be possible. In 2011, researchers found that a scientist who had contracted the Zika virus while working in Senegal transmitted it to his wife after his return home to Colorado, almost certainly through sexual intercourse. And in 2015 the virus was found in the sperm of a 44-year-old man in Tahiti. There is also at least a theoretical risk of transmission through blood transfusions.这种病毒或许也可以通过性行为传播011年,研究人员发现,一名在塞内加尔工作时感染兹卡病毒的科学家回到科罗拉多州后将病毒传给了妻子,几乎可以肯定是通过性行为传播的015年,塔希提岛一4岁男子被发现中含有该病毒。该病毒可能也可以通过输血传播,至少理论上有这种风险。来 /201602/424112Chinas Internet regulator released a regulation on search engines, ordering search providers to ensure objective, fair and authoritative search results.我国互联网监管机构近日发布一项针对搜索引擎的规定,要求搜索务提供者确保客观、公正、权威的搜索结果。Search providers must improve censorship and remove any illegal content, according to the regulation released by the Cyberspace Administration of China.根据国家互联网信息办公室发布的这一规定,搜索务提供者必须健全审核制度、删除违法内容。All paid-for search results must be labeled clearly and checks on advertisers should be improved, according to the regulation.规定要求,须对所有付费搜索结果加注显著标识并加强对广告客户的查验。Moreover, the practice of blocking negative content concerning advertisers has been banned.此外,规定还禁止屏蔽有关广告客户的负面信息的行为。The regulation came after an investigation into Baidu, which was criticized for influencing the treatment choice of a late cancer patient, Wei Zexi, by presenting misguiding medical information.此前,百度被批提供误导性的医疗信息,影响了晚期癌症患者魏则西的治疗方法选择。这一规定在对百度进行调查后出台。Wei, 22, died after undergoing a controversial cancer treatment at a Beijing hospital, which the Wei family found through Baidu search.今年22岁的魏则西,在北京一所医院接受一项有争议的癌症治疗后死亡,而这正是魏则西的家人通过百度搜索到的。Paid listing were not distinguishable from normal search results, which could mislead users, the administration said. It has been reported that some medical organizations, which paid for search results, were unqualified or had forged certificates.该监管部门表示,正常的搜索结果和付费列表是没有区别的,这可能会误导用户。据报道,为搜索结果付了金额的一些医疗机构,大多是无资格的或伪造了相关件。来 /201607/452350

The Chinese embassy in Kyrgyzstan was hit by a suicide attack on Tuesday leaving several injured, in a development likely to worry Beijing as it steps up investments in Central Asia under its One Belt One Road initiative.周二,中国驻吉尔吉斯斯坦大使馆遭遇自杀式袭击,导致多人受伤。在中国按照一带一路计划扩大在中亚投资之际,这件事很可能会引发北京方面的担忧。Citing Kyrgyzstan’s health ministry, China’s state broadcaster CCTV said in a post on its Sina Weibo microblog that a car carrying a bomb had rammed the gates of the embassy, after which there had been an explosion inside its grounds leading to death of at least one person and the injury of at least two.官方的中国中央电视台(CCTV)在其微(Sina Weibo)账号上发帖称,据吉尔吉斯斯坦卫生部称,一携带炸弹的汽车冲进中国驻吉尔吉斯斯坦大使馆,在馆区内发生爆炸,造成至少一人死亡两人受伤。Photos published by Kyrgyz media showed the windows of the embassy had been shattered and debris littered the compound.吉尔吉斯斯坦媒体发布的照片显示,大使馆的窗户被震碎,碎片散落一地。Police and ambulance services have been called to the scene. 警察和救护人员在接到电话后赶到现场。According to local media, medics have said the fatality was the driver of the vehicle while those injured were bystanders wounded in the blast.当地媒体报道称,医务人员表示,死者为驾车冲进使馆的人,在爆炸中受伤的为车辆附近的人。The motivation for the attack was not immediately clear. 眼下还不清楚这起袭击背后的动机。But the targeting of a Chinese embassy is likely to cause consternation in Beijing. 但中国大使馆成为攻击目标很可能会令北京方面感到惊慌。Many people in Central Asia are wary of China’s growing economic role in the region; earlier this year, a wave of protests broke out across Kazakhstan on the back of fears that a new land code would allow Chinese companies to buy up Kazakh land.许多中亚人对中国在该地区日益增强的经济影响力怀有戒心;今年早些时候,哈萨克斯坦各地爆发了一波抗议活动,原因是人们担心新土地法会允许中国企业大肆收购该国土地。The region is also home to several million Uighurs, and Beijing has long feared that it could be a staging post for attacks in its restive Xinjiang province.中亚地区还居住着不少维吾尔人。北京方面长期以来一直担心,中亚可能会沦为在中国动荡不安的新疆发动袭击的人的一个中转站。来 /201609/464163

At least 27 people have been killed and 75 injured in a car bomb in Ankara’s main transportation hub, the second major attack in Turkey’s capital in less than a month. 安卡拉主要交通枢纽周日发生一起汽车炸弹袭击,造成至少34人死亡25人受伤。这是土耳其首都在不个月内第二次遭受严重袭击The death toll is expected to rise, a doctor at an Ankara hospital said. The death toll was confirmed by the Ankara governor’s office, which said 20 people were killed at the site of explosion, a busy interchange near Guven Park. 安卡拉市长办公室早些时候表示,20人在爆炸中当场死亡,爆炸地点位于Guven公园附近一处繁忙的立体交叉道路The government announced a media ban, in line with previous terrorist attacks. Twitter and Facebook also slowed down, and non-government affiliated journalists at the scene were forced to leave. 土耳其总统雷杰#8226;塔伊#8226;埃尔多安(Recep Tayyip Erdogan)表示,土耳其已成为这个不安定地区的一个攻击目标,并誓言要在打击恐怖主义的斗争中取得胜利One eyewitness reported two explosions in a February attack where at least 30 people were killed less than a kilometre from this incident, security officials were able to safely detonate a secondary device. 与此前发生恐怖袭击时一样,土耳其政府颁布了媒体禁令。Twitter、Facebook也限制访问,爆炸现场的非官方媒体记者被驱离With no group taking immediate responsibility, suspicion swung to Isis, which has been tied to at least two terrorists attacks since June of last year, and the Kurdistan Worker’s party (or PKK), which has renewed its armed struggle against Turkey in the past few months. 还没有组织声称对这次爆炸事件负责,但土耳其官员私下怀疑是“伊斯兰国ISIS)或者库尔德工人PKK)所为。ISIS被指责应为自去年7月以来的五起爆炸事件负责,而在过去几个月,库尔德工人党重新开始了反对土耳其的武装斗争。来 /201603/431700

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