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2019年09月19日 23:59:21 | 作者:康泰互动 | 来源:新华社
Two trains are traveling side by side and at the same speed along parallel tracks. We are seated in one of the trains, and with us we have a special speedometer that measures their relative speed. Since the trains are traveling at the same speed, their relative speed is zero; the speedometer therefore s "0."Suddenly the other train seems to start pulling ahead of ours. The speedometer shows a ing of 10 miles per hour. The other train has apparently increased its speed. But can we be absolutely certain of this increase?If your answer is yes, you are wrong. You are wrong because all that we know is that the relative speed between the two trains changed from 0 mph to 10 mph. Nothing more. This change could have been brought about in one of two ways:The other train increased its speed.Our train decreased its speed.There are thus two possible explanations to account for the change in speed, but we don't know which one is right. Furthermore, regardless of which explanation we choose, the end result will be the same: the other train will arrive at the station first. So it makes no difference whether we say that the other train increased its speed or that our train decreased its speed.Since both explanations lead to the same result, you can choose either one. Whenever two things are relative, you can choose either one of them. The converse is also true: whenever you have a choice between two things that are equally possible, then the things are relative.There is no reason, except convenience, for choosing one explanation over the other. The relative speed between the trains remains the same, 10 mph; and the end result will be the same.Now let's suppose that both trains are at the railroad station loading and unloading passengers and baggage. A half-hour passes. As we look at the other train through our window, we see that our train seems to start moving, smoothly and slowly. For a minute or so, our train seems to travel at a uniform speed. Our special speedometer shows that the relative speed between the two trains is 20 mph. But as we look out our window, we suddenly see the last coach of the other train disappear from sight and notice the motionless station behind it. So we are not moving after all. The other train has been moving!This peculiar and often frustrating experience is an effect of relative motion. At the train station we cannot tell whether it was our train that changed its speed from 0 mph to 20 mph or whether it was the other train that changed its speed from 0 mph to 20 mph. Only after the other train pulled out of the station could we see that it, and not our train, was moving.Now let us again raise the question that was raised at the beginning of this article: can we be absolutely certain that the other train did indeed increase its speed, and in this case pull out of the station?If your answer is yes, then you are wrong again. All we can be certain of is that the relative speed between the two trains changed.These examples illustrate an important principle in the special theory of relativity. If A appears to be moving at a steady speed relative to B, we cannot know for sure if it is A that is really moving. Perhaps A is standing still, and B is moving. Or perhaps both are moving. According to relativity, there is no experiment that can be devised to solve the problem. As there is no way of deciding which of the two objects is moving, we can choose either one as the moving object. The reason is that their motion is relative, and relativity, as we have seen, means that we have a choice.This principle - that if two objects are in uniform motion relative to each other, it is impossible to decide which one is moving and which one is at rest - applies to all objects moving uniformly in a straight line through the universe.In relativity you'll find that whenever you have a choice among things that are equally possible, you are dealing with relative things. For example, time, which is measured with clocks and watches, is relative because it can be shown that there is more than one system of time. All systems of time are equally possible and you can choose any system you with.两列火车以相同的车速并排地沿着两条平行的轨道往前行驰。我们坐在其中的一列火车上带着特制的速度测量仪,可以测出两列火车之间的相对速度。因为这两列火车是以相同的车速前进的,所以二者的相对速度是零;因此,测速仪上的读数为"0"。突然间另一列火车使我们觉得好像是开始赶到我们所乘坐的火车前头去了。这时测速仪上显示出来的读数是每小时10英里。很显然,另一列火车已经加快了速度。但是,我们能不能肯定是另外那辆火车加快了速度呢?如果你回答说是的,那你就错了。你之所以是错了,我们所知道的仅仅是这两辆火车之间的相对速度由每小时0英里增加到了每小时10英里。仅此而已,这车速的变化很可能是由于下列两种原因中的任何一个原因所造成的:另一列火车增加了车速;我们的火车降低了车速。因而对于车速的改变就可能有两种不同的解释,但是我们不知道哪一种解释是对的。进一步来说,不管我们选定了上述两种解释中的哪一种,反正最终的结果是同样的:另一列火车将首先抵达终点站。所以,不论我们说另一列火车加快了车速,还是说我们所乘的火车减慢了车速,实际上这两种说法没有什么 区别。既然上述两种解释会导致同样的结果,那么你选定任何一种解释都可以。不论任何时候,只要两件事物两种情况是相对的,那你就可以选定其中一种解释。逆真理亦真,每当你从有同样可能的两件事物中选定其中之一时,那么这两种事物之间就是相对的。除为了方便这个理由而外,我们选定了一种解释而不选另一种解释根本就没有其他别的原因。如果两列火车之间的相对速度依然相同,都是每小时10英里,那么最终的结果也会是相同的。现在我们假设两列火车都在火车站上在上下乘客或装卸行李。过了半小时以后,当我们透过车窗看另一列火车时,我们看到我们所乘的火车好像是在缓慢地平稳地开始开动了。约有一分钟左右,我们所乘的火车似乎是在以均匀的速度向前运行。我们特制的测速仪显示这两列火车的相对速度是每小时20英里。但当我们往窗外一看,这才突然看见另一列火车的最后一节车厢从我们的视野中正在消失,于是我们看到那一列火车后面留下的是不动的火车站。所以,我们所乘的火车根本就没有开动。原来是另外一辆火车在开动!这种奇特的而又经常使人沮丧的经历就是相对运动所产生的效应。在火车站上我们辨别不出窨是我们所乘坐的那一列火车把车速从每小时0英里改变成每小时20英里。只有当另一列火车驶出火车站之后,这我们才能明白原来是它在开动,而不是我们所乘坐的这列火车在开动。现在让我们再次提出本文开头所提出过的那个问题:我们能否绝对肯定确实是另一列火车加快了车速,在此情此景驶出了火车站呢?如果你回答说是的,那么你就又错了。我们所能够完全肯定的一点只是这两列火车之间的相对速度变了。这些例子阐明了特殊的相对论中的一个重要的原理。假如我们觉得A似乎是在用相对于B的一种很均匀的速度在移动,我们就不能肯定地确切知道是否就是A在真的移动。也许A仍在原地不动而是B在移动。或者,AB两者都在移动。根据相对论的说法,根本就不能构想出任何一个实验去解答这个问题。因为根本没有办法来确定这两个物体中哪一个物体在移动,所以我们可以把两个物体中的任何一个物体认定是在移动着的物体。理由就是他们的运动是相对的。正如我们所理解的那样,相对论就意味着我们可以选用一种解释了。如果两个物体在以相互间相对的同等的运动速度在运动,若想判定哪一个物体在动,哪一个物体原地不动,这是不可能的。这一原理适用于整个宇宙中凡是作直线等速运动的一切物体。按着相对论的说法你就会发现,每当你在众多同样可能的事物中需要选定一种解释时,你就是在跟相对的事物打交道。例如,时间,虽然能用钟表加以测量,也是相对的,因为有不止一种时间体系可以来表示时间。所有的时间体系都同样有可能表示时间,所以你可以选用你所喜欢的时间体系来表示时间。 Article/200802/27989I like painting. It makes me very happy. I loved using paint when I was young. I was really good at drawing, even in elementary school. My school reports said I had a talent in art. I won the school painting competition many times. My friends say painting is difficult. I disagree. All you have to do is pick up a brush and put the paint on the paper. Anyone can do it. It's child's play. I don’t understand why people say they can't paint. For me, it's so easy to paint. It's the most natural thing in the world to do. My friends say my paintings look so real, and that their paintings look like children's paintings. I'm not sure why this is. I'm lucky, I guess. I don't know what I would do without painting. It really helps me to relax. Article/201106/1416953This is the account of the family of Aaron and Moses at the time the Lord talked with Moses on Mount Sinai. 2The names of the sons of Aaron were Nadab the firstborn and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 3Those were the names of Aaron's sons, the anointed priests, who were ordained to serve as priests. 4Nadab and Abihu, however, fell dead before the Lord when they made an offering with unauthorized fire before him in the Desert of Sinai. They had no sons; so only Eleazar and Ithamar served as priests during the lifetime of their father Aaron. 5The Lord said to Moses, 6"Bring the tribe of Levi and present them to Aaron the priest to assist him. 7They are to perform duties for him and for the whole community at the Tent of Meeting by doing the work of the tabernacle. 8They are to take care of all the furnishings of the Tent of Meeting, fulfilling the obligations of the Israelites by doing the work of the tabernacle. 9Give the Levites to Aaron and his sons; they are the Israelites who are to be given wholly to him. 10Appoint Aaron and his sons to serve as priests; anyone else who approaches the sanctuary must be put to death." 11The Lord also said to Moses, 12"I have taken the Levites from among the Israelites in place of the first male offspring of every Israelite woman. The Levites are mine, 13for all the firstborn are mine. When I struck down all the firstborn in Egypt, I set apart for myself every firstborn in Israel, whether man or animal. They are to be mine. I am the Lord ." 14The Lord said to Moses in the Desert of Sinai, 15"Count the Levites by their families and clans. Count every male a month old or more." 16So Moses counted them, as he was commanded by the word of the Lord . 17These were the names of the sons of Levi: Gershon, Kohath and Merari. 18These were the names of the Gershonite clans: Libni and Shimei. 19The Kohathite clans: Amram, Izhar, Hebron and Uzziel. 20The Merarite clans: Mahli and Mushi. These were the Levite clans, according to their families. 21To Gershon belonged the clans of the Libnites and Shimeites; these were the Gershonite clans. 22The number of all the males a month old or more who were counted was 7,500. 23The Gershonite clans were to camp on the west, behind the tabernacle. 24The leader of the families of the Gershonites was Eliasaph son of Lael. 25At the Tent of Meeting the Gershonites were responsible for the care of the tabernacle and tent, its coverings, the curtain at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, 26the curtains of the courtyard, the curtain at the entrance to the courtyard surrounding the tabernacle and altar, and the ropes-and everything related to their use. 27To Kohath belonged the clans of the Amramites, Izharites, Hebronites and Uzzielites; these were the Kohathite clans. 28The number of all the males a month old or more was 8,600. The Kohathites were responsible for the care of the sanctuary. 29The Kohathite clans were to camp on the south side of the tabernacle. 30The leader of the families of the Kohathite clans was Elizaphan son of Uzziel. 31They were responsible for the care of the ark, the table, the lampstand, the altars, the articles of the sanctuary used in ministering, the curtain, and everything related to their use. 32The chief leader of the Levites was Eleazar son of Aaron, the priest. He was appointed over those who were responsible for the care of the sanctuary. 33To Merari belonged the clans of the Mahlites and the Mushites; these were the Merarite clans. 34The number of all the males a month old or more who were counted was 6,200. 35The leader of the families of the Merarite clans was Zuriel son of Abihail; they were to camp on the north side of the tabernacle. 36The Merarites were appointed to take care of the frames of the tabernacle, its crossbars, posts, bases, all its equipment, and everything related to their use, 37as well as the posts of the surrounding courtyard with their bases, tent pegs and ropes. 38Moses and Aaron and his sons were to camp to the east of the tabernacle, toward the sunrise, in front of the Tent of Meeting. They were responsible for the care of the sanctuary on behalf of the Israelites. Anyone else who approached the sanctuary was to be put to death. 39The total number of Levites counted at the Lord 's command by Moses and Aaron according to their clans, including every male a month old or more, was 22,000. 40The Lord said to Moses, "Count all the firstborn Israelite males who are a month old or more and make a list of their names. 41Take the Levites for me in place of all the firstborn of the Israelites, and the livestock of the Levites in place of all the firstborn of the livestock of the Israelites. I am the Lord ." 42So Moses counted all the firstborn of the Israelites, as the Lord commanded him. 43The total number of firstborn males a month old or more, listed by name, was 22,273. 44The Lord also said to Moses, 45"Take the Levites in place of all the firstborn of Israel, and the livestock of the Levites in place of their livestock. The Levites are to be mine. I am the Lord . 46To redeem the 273 firstborn Israelites who exceed the number of the Levites, 47collect five shekels for each one, according to the sanctuary shekel, which weighs twenty gerahs. 48Give the money for the redemption of the additional Israelites to Aaron and his sons." 49So Moses collected the redemption money from those who exceeded the number redeemed by the Levites. 50From the firstborn of the Israelites he collected silver weighing 1,365 shekels, according to the sanctuary shekel. 51Moses gave the redemption money to Aaron and his sons, as he was commanded by the word of the Lord . Article/200810/52548

6Then Solomon said, "The Lord has said that he would dwell in a dark cloud; 2I have built a magnificent temple for you, a place for you to dwell forever." 3While the whole assembly of Israel was standing there, the king turned around and blessed them. 4Then he said: "Praise be to the Lord , the God of Israel, who with his hands has fulfilled what he promised with his mouth to my father David. For he said, 5'Since the day I brought my people out of Egypt, I have not chosen a city in any tribe of Israel to have a temple built for my Name to be there, nor have I chosen anyone to be the leader over my people Israel. 6But now I have chosen Jerusalem for my Name to be there, and I have chosen David to rule my people Israel.' 7"My father David had it in his heart to build a temple for the Name of the Lord , the God of Israel. 8But the Lord said to my father David, 'Because it was in your heart to build a temple for my Name, you did well to have this in your heart. 9Nevertheless, you are not the one to build the temple, but your son, who is your own flesh and blood-he is the one who will build the temple for my Name.' 10"The Lord has kept the promise he made. I have succeeded David my father and now I sit on the throne of Israel, just as the Lord promised, and I have built the temple for the Name of the Lord , the God of Israel. 11There I have placed the ark, in which is the covenant of the Lord that he made with the people of Israel." 12Then Solomon stood before the altar of the Lord in front of the whole assembly of Israel and sp out his hands. 13Now he had made a bronze platform, five cubits long, five cubits wide and three cubits high, and had placed it in the center of the outer court. He stood on the platform and then knelt down before the whole assembly of Israel and sp out his hands toward heaven. 14He said: "O Lord , God of Israel, there is no God like you in heaven or on earth-you who keep your covenant of love with your servants who continue wholeheartedly in your way. 15You have kept your promise to your servant David my father; with your mouth you have promised and with your hand you have fulfilled it-as it is today. 16"Now Lord , God of Israel, keep for your servant David my father the promises you made to him when you said, 'You shall never fail to have a man to sit before me on the throne of Israel, if only your sons are careful in all they do to walk before me according to my law, as you have done.' 17And now, O Lord , God of Israel, let your word that you promised your servant David come true. 18"But will God really dwell on earth with men? The heavens, even the highest heavens, cannot contain you. How much less this temple I have built! 19Yet give attention to your servant's prayer and his plea for mercy, O Lord my God. Hear the cry and the prayer that your servant is praying in your presence. 20May your eyes be open toward this temple day and night, this place of which you said you would put your Name there. May you hear the prayer your servant prays toward this place. 21Hear the supplications of your servant and of your people Israel when they pray toward this place. Hear from heaven, your dwelling place; and when you hear, forgive. 22"When a man wrongs his neighbor and is required to take an oath and he comes and swears the oath before your altar in this temple, 23then hear from heaven and act. Judge between your servants, repaying the guilty by bringing down on his own head what he has done. Declare the innocent not guilty and so establish his innocence. 24"When your people Israel have been defeated by an enemy because they have sinned against you and when they turn back and confess your name, praying and making supplication before you in this temple, 25then hear from heaven and forgive the sin of your people Israel and bring them back to the land you gave to them and their fathers. 26"When the heavens are shut up and there is no rain because your people have sinned against you, and when they pray toward this place and confess your name and turn from their sin because you have afflicted them, 27then hear from heaven and forgive the sin of your servants, your people Israel. Teach them the right way to live, and send rain on the land you gave your people for an inheritance. 28"When famine or plague comes to the land, or blight or mildew, locusts or grasshoppers, or when enemies besiege them in any of their cities, whatever disaster or disease may come, 29and when a prayer or plea is made by any of your people Israel-each one aware of his afflictions and pains, and sping out his hands toward this temple- 30then hear from heaven, your dwelling place. Forgive, and deal with each man according to all he does, since you know his heart (for you alone know the hearts of men), 31so that they will fear you and walk in your ways all the time they live in the land you gave our fathers. 32"As for the foreigner who does not belong to your people Israel but has come from a distant land because of your great name and your mighty hand and your outstretched arm-when he comes and prays toward this temple, 33then hear from heaven, your dwelling place, and do whatever the foreigner asks of you, so that all the peoples of the earth may know your name and fear you, as do your own people Israel, and may know that this house I have built bears your Name. 34"When your people go to war against their enemies, wherever you send them, and when they pray to you toward this city you have chosen and the temple I have built for your Name, 35then hear from heaven their prayer and their plea, and uphold their cause. 36"When they sin against you-for there is no one who does not sin-and you become angry with them and give them over to the enemy, who takes them captive to a land far away or near; 37and if they have a change of heart in the land where they are held captive, and repent and plead with you in the land of their captivity and say, 'We have sinned, we have done wrong and acted wickedly'; 38and if they turn back to you with all their heart and soul in the land of their captivity where they were taken, and pray toward the land you gave their fathers, toward the city you have chosen and toward the temple I have built for your Name; 39then from heaven, your dwelling place, hear their prayer and their pleas, and uphold their cause. And forgive your people, who have sinned against you. 40"Now, my God, may your eyes be open and your ears attentive to the prayers offered in this place. 41"Now arise, O Lord God, and come to your resting place, you and the ark of your might. May your priests, O Lord God, be clothed with salvation, may your saints rejoice in your goodness. 42O Lord God, do not reject your anointed one. Remember the great love promised to David your servant." Article/200812/59693

Hermione didn#39;t turn up for the next class and wasn#39;t seen all afternoon.下一节课赫敏没有露面,而且整个下午都不见人影。On their way down to the Great Hall for the Halloween feast, 哈利和罗恩下楼走向餐厅,去参加万圣节前夕的宴会,Harry and Ron overheard Parvati Patil telling her friend Lavender that Hermione was crying in the girls#39; bathroom and wanted to be left alone.无意间听见佩蒂尔对她的朋友拉文德说,赫敏在女厕所里伤心地哭泣,还不让别人安慰她。Ron looked still more awkward at this, but a moment later they had entered the Great Hall,罗恩听了这话,显得更不自在了。where the Halloween decorations put Hermione out of their minds.然而片刻之后,当他们走进餐厅、看见五光十色的万圣节装饰品时,立刻就把赫敏忘到了脑后。A thousand live bats fluttered from the walls and ceiling while a thousand more swooped over the tables in low black clouds,一千只蝙蝠在墙壁和天花板上扑棱棱地飞翔,另外还有一千只像一团团低矮的乌云,making the candles in the pumpkins stutter.在餐桌上方盘旋飞舞,使南瓜肚里的蜡烛火苗一阵阵扑闪。The feast appeared suddenly on the golden plates, as it had at the start-of-term banquet.美味佳肴突然出现在金色的盘子里,就跟在开学的那次宴会上一样。Harry was just helping himself to a baked potato when Professor Quirrell came sprinting into the hall,哈利正在吃一个带皮的土豆,奇洛教授突然一头冲进了餐厅,his turban askew and terror on his face.他的大围巾歪戴在头上,脸上满是惊恐的神色。Everyone stared as he reached Professor Dumbledore#39;s chair, slumped against the table, and gasped,大家都盯着他,只见他走到邓布利多教授的椅子旁,一歪身倚在桌子上,喘着气说Troll -- in the dungeons -- thought you ought to know.巨怪……在地下教室里……以为你应该知道的。He then sank to the floor in a dead faint.说完,他一头栽到在地板上,昏死了过去。There was an uproar. It took several purple firecrackers exploding from the end of Professor Dumbledore#39;s wand to bring silence.餐厅里顿时乱成一团。邓布利多教授不得不使他的魔杖头上发出几次刺耳的烟火爆炸声,大家才安静下来。Prefects,he rumbled, lead your Houses back to the dormitories immediately!级长,他声音低沉地说,立刻把你们学院的学生领到宿舍去! /201205/184533

An Absolute Zero 零分Student: I don't think I deserve an absolute zero. Professor: Neither do I, but it is the lowest mark that I am allowed to give.学生:我认为我不应该得零分。教授:我也这么认为,但这是允许我打的最低分数。 Article/200804/36098

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