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During the first 30 years of the 20th century, America became a safer and healthier place. Living conditions improved, causing many diseases to almost disappear. One exception to this pattern was cancer, and in 1937 Congress established the National Cancer Institute.在20世纪前30年里,美国成为一个更安全更健康的国家。人民生活水平提高了,许多疾病也差不多销声匿迹了。唯一的例外就是癌症。1937年国会成立了国家癌症研究所。By 1970, cancer had become the nations second leading cause of death. Texas Senator Ralph Yarborough sought to make its conquest a national priority. He led a group of medical experts, cancer advocates, and business leaders who explored the issue. They became commonly known as the ;Yarborough Commission.;到1970年,癌症是造成人口死亡的第二大原因。德克萨斯州参议员拉尔夫力图倡导国家大力抗击癌症。他还专门成立了小组来探讨这个问题,成员包括医疗专家、癌症倡导者以及商人领袖。The Yarborough Report became the blueprint for the National Cancer Act, which was signed into law in 1971 by President Richard Nixon. The National Cancer Act provided additional funding for the National Cancer Institute, establishing 15 new cancer research centers, local cancer control programs, and an international cancer data research bank.理查德·尼克松总统于1971年签署了国家癌症法案,这条法案的蓝图就是 Yarborough 报告。国家癌症法案为国家癌症研究所提供了专项资金,并成立15处新的研究中心,地方癌症控制项目以及国际癌症研究资料库。Its passage received a boost when popular columnist Ann Landers encouraged a flood of mail from her ers, urging representatives to vote for the bill. The goal for a simple cure for cancer remains elusive. But scientific knowledge about cancer continues to grow. New techniques for detection, diagnosis, and treatment are constantly emerging, as a result of efforts of Congress and the American people.安·兰德斯是一位广受欢迎的专栏女作家,她鼓励读者们以邮件的方式强烈要求众议院投票持,这推动了法案的通过。但对癌症患者进行简单的治疗远远不够。不过人类对癌症的科学知识在不断增长,新的检查、诊断和治疗方法也在不断涌现,这些都是国会和美国人民一起努力的结果。原文译文属!201211/207107ON MARCH 15th the former governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich, will start to serve a 14-year sentence for corruption in a federal low-security prison. In this part of America, he is ting a well-worn path. Over four decades, four governors (out of seven) have been convicted of corruption.伊利诺斯州前州长罗德bull;布拉格耶维奇因在联邦低安全级别监狱中工作腐败,于3月15日开始为期14年的刑罚。在美国的这个地区,他走过了一条曲折的道路。在过去的四十年中,4个州长(共有7个)都因腐败而被定罪。A new report, by Dick Simpson and his colleagues at the University of Chicago, documents the extent to which the state of Illinois and the city of Chicago have been hotbeds of corruption. Chicago, they conclude, has the dubious distinction of being the federal district with the most convictions since 1976.在芝加哥大学迪克bull;辛普森和他的同事们一份新的报告中,他们描绘了作为滋生腐败的温床伊利诺斯州和芝加哥已经到了何种程度。他们宣称,从1976年开始芝加哥就很可能是美联邦中高犯罪率地区,而它也因此显著区别与其他地区。Since then, 1,828 elected officials, appointees, government employees and a few private individuals have been convicted of corruption in Illinois, and 84% of these were in its Northern District;a judicial zone which contains the entire Chicago metropolitan area. During this time around one-third of the cityrsquo;s aldermen have been convicted of corruption. No mayors have been convicted or indicted;not even Bill Thompson, who was backed by Al Capone.从那之后,1828名选举官员、指派官员、政府雇员和一小部分私人个体都因在伊利诺斯州实施腐败而被治罪。他们中的84%都来自于州北部地区;;这是一块包含芝加哥所有繁华区域的司法区。如今整个城市已经有1/3的商人都被定为腐败罪。没有一个市长因腐败被定罪或起诉,甚至在阿尔bull;卡彭持下的比尔bull;汤普森也不例外。Although Chicago is the capital of corruption, the state of Illinois as a whole ranks only third in the country;after the much more populous states of New York and California. But the report documents a pattern of crime that has become synonymous with the Chicago or Illinois ;way; of doing things. All the corrupt governors and 26 of the aldermen had tried to extract bribes from builders, developers, business owners and those seeking to do business with the city or the state. Those who paid bribes either assumed, or were told, that payment was necessary for zoning changes, building permits or any other government action.虽然芝加哥身为腐败之都,但是伊利诺斯州在全国的腐败排名位居第三;;纽约州和加利福尼亚州在这点上更为众望所归。不过报告中描述了一种犯罪方式,这种方式与芝加哥和伊利诺斯州行事方式有相似之处。所有行为腐败的市长和市参议员(市议会长老议员)都曾向建筑商、发展商、大商人以及意欲与城市或者州进行生意交易的人索取过贿赂。这些被索取贿赂的人认为,也有其他人告诉他们,那些作为贿赂的钱财都是为地区改变、建筑许可或是其他任何政府行为所必须的。Mr Blagojevich, notoriously, sought money in exchange for an appointment to a seat in the Senate. Other convictions may have been less spectacular, but the pattern of pay-offs for political favours has prevailed in these parts for 150 years.布拉格耶维奇寻找钱财为了在议会中享有一席之地的事情已经臭名昭著。他的其他罪名没有这么严重,但是通过金钱来交换政治这种方式已经在这个地区盛行了150年了。A project under way by the State Integrity Investigation, due out on March 19th, notes that some changes have been made in the light of past scandals. Mr Simpson thinks the ultimate solution lies in ending the culture of corruption, which would include prohibiting patronage (something he says is on the decline anyway), nepotism and the holding of two government jobs at the same time.国家正义调查局正进行一个于3月19号结束的项目,他们发现在过去的丑闻影响下,一些变化悄然兴起。辛普森先生认为禁止任命职务(他说这个已经在不断减少)、任人唯亲以及同时就职于政府两个职位,这才是断绝腐败问题的最终解决方案。Corruption has cost taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars and sapped faith in government. Both the new governor of Illinois, Pat Quinn, and the new mayor of Chicago, Rahm Emanuel, have shown a willingness to reform. Many of Mr Emanuelrsquo;s early executive orders are designed to improve transparency and accountability. But Mr Simpson says too many loopholes remain. The devil, as ever, is in the detail.腐败问题以纳税人数以百万计的金钱作为代价,并且使得公众丧失了对政府的信任。伊利诺斯州的新州长奎恩和芝加哥的新市长拉姆bull;伊曼纽尔都表示了改革的决心。伊曼纽尔先生早期的行政命令也意在提高政府行政的透明度和信任感。但是辛普森先生说这个体制还是有太多的漏洞,而最终的魔鬼,仍然是在细节上。201203/173109

Books and Arts; Book Review; Philip Larkin;Library book;文艺;书评;菲利普·拉金;图书馆藏书;The Complete Poems of Philip Larkin. Edited by Archie Burnett.《拉金诗歌全集》阿奇·伯内特编辑。Philip Larkins fame could rest on a dozen poems alone. Even while he was still alive, the poet and lifelong librarian at Hull University in the north of England was considered by many to be one of the finest writers of his generation. With his love of jazz, beautiful women and the grey palettes of post-war Britain, his witty, acerbic verse was a fine counterpoint to the more sentimental stuff produced by the London-born poet laureate, Sir John Betjeman. Eminently able, Larkins poetry caught a spirit of middle-class disaffection and quiet rebellion. He became known for the short, aphoristic sayings contained within the four slim volumes of poetry he published in his lifetime, such as the assertion that “Sexual intercourse began/In nineteen sixty-three”. His poems were pithy and to the point; short, but often demanding to be re.菲利普#8226;拉金仅凭借几首诗就早已名声在望。当他还在世的时候,这位诗人在英格兰北部的赫尔大学做了一辈子的图书馆管理员。早在那时,他就被人们所认可,是同时代最优秀的作家之一。拉金喜爱爵士乐,钟情于美女,着迷于战后英国的消沉生活,他的诗句诙谐机智又尖酸讽刺,与伦敦出生的桂冠诗人约翰#8226;贝杰曼爵士的感伤诗句形成鲜明对比。拉金的诗歌道出了中产阶级内心的不满和反抗,他的诗歌常常被人引用。拉金以短小精悍的警句而出名,一生共出版四本薄薄的诗集,例如他曾写道“开始云雨吧/在一九六三年”。拉金的诗歌简洁、精炼、短小,但能令人回味无穷。This is one reason why the voluminous size of “The Complete Poems” is startling. Its editor, Archie Burnett, has carefully collected all of the poems Larkin ever wrote. Included in the volume are the four published collections and Larkins previously published juvenilia, but also all that remained unpublished or unfinished, from sketches found in Larkins archive to poems included in letters to friends.这也是为什么鸿篇巨著的《诗歌全集》令人吃惊的原因之一。本书的编辑阿奇#8226;伯内特仔细收集拉金写过的所有诗歌。其中包括四本已经出版的诗集,拉金青年时期发表的诗歌,还有拉金的手稿和写给友人的信件中包含的所有未发表或未完成的作品。Mr Burnett presents a very different picture of Larkin from the one by which he came to be known; one that is far more literary, and occasionally far more amusing. A er can now trace Larkins development from his allusive Oxford University Labour Club Bulletin efforts “about trees and the sky and the seasons” to his more mature, better-known works. It may be common knowledge that his greatest poem, “The Whitsun Weddings”, took three painstaking years to complete, but it is less well known that during those years Larkin was writing constantly, and continually discarding his efforts.伯内特别具新意,展现了拉金少为人知的一面;那个充满着书卷气,时常还很幽默风趣的拉金。读者能够从书中追溯拉金的发展,从他在《牛津大学工党俱乐部简报》上引经据典,描写“关于树木、天空和季节”的诗歌到他更为成熟,有名气的作品。众所周知,拉金最伟大的诗歌《降灵节婚礼》是他在三年时间内呕心沥血才完成,但少有人知道在这三年里,拉金一直在写诗,并不断否定放弃自己所做的努力。The advantage of such a comprehensive volume is the possibility of tracing the development of a writers voice. It is possible to hear in his poem, “On Being Twenty-six” the tone of world-weariness an older Larkin would make into an art form, looking back on “the slag/Of burnt-out childhood” with his familiar tone of regret laced with misanthropy: “Life, you arent a god, youre a bloody old sod.” He disliked modern poetry, or the vogue for experimentation; even aged 18 he despaired of the lack of wit in contemporary literature: “Nothing like comedy/Can ever be admitted as poetry.” Women continued to remain a mystery to him, even after he left university, and mostly lost the stammer he had had since childhood. Now, instead of dreaming of “The idea of a kiss”, he merely knew his limits: “A bosomy English rose/And her friend in specs I could talk to.”这部庞然巨著可以使读者看到作家个人思想的发展脉络。在《二十六岁》中,可能听出老拉金对世界感到厌倦的语气,他将这些感受融入到艺术形式之中。回顾《才思枯竭的童年》一诗,拉金用一如往常的语调表达了后悔和厌世之感:“生活,你不是上帝,你是个残忍的老家伙。”拉金不喜欢现代诗歌,亦反感实验主义的风潮;18岁的时候,他就已经对当代文学中缺乏风趣而深感绝望:“什么都比不上喜剧/怎能称之为诗句” 即使在拉金大学毕业之后,他基本上纠正了从孩童时期就有的口吃,但对拉金来说,女人依然是个谜。现在,不再幻想着“吻的遐想”,他知道了自己本领有限:“一位丰满的英国美女/但我只能与她戴眼镜的朋友搭讪。”However, despite Mr Burnetts efforts, the contrast between Larkins published poetry and his unfinished efforts remains. Frequently scatological, often crudely misogynistic, some of Larkins unpublished work makes for uneasy ing. Sketches of poems which rhyme Jung with dung or James Joyces “Ulysses” with faeces seem intended as private jokes, and they add little to the volume. Larkin himself was aware of this, entitling one series “Dances in Doggerel”. There is a reason why Larkin, normally so particular in his use of words, deemed them unworthy for publication.尽管伯内特努力弥补,拉金已出版的诗歌和未完成的作品间差距仍然存在。他的作品里时有关于粪便的描写,对女人痛深恶绝,这些未出版的作品让读者读来感到很不舒。在一些诗歌的草稿上,拉金将金(Jung)韵和粪便(dung)或将詹姆士#8226;乔伊斯的《尤利西斯》(Ulysses)和粪便(faeces)一起押韵,有意写成私下里的笑话,这些对提升拉金诗的水平没有任何帮助。拉金自己对这一点有清醒认识,他将一系列诗命名为“在打油诗中跳舞”。这也是为什么拉金非常注意字词的选择,却认为这些诗不值得出版的原因。Instead, his finest poems remain his best-loved: ones about his mother overhearing him playing blues records on the gramophone, or of feeling, once a guest has left, “the instantaneous grief of being alone”. They take place on trains or in an empty church, where the atheist Larkin takes off “My cycle-clips in awkward reverence”, and capture life as Larkin saw it, expressing “A hunger in himself to be more serious”. But it speaks of their greatness that these short poems, despite being swamped by so many of his other efforts, still manage to stand out.然而,拉金依旧最爱他最好的诗歌:一些关于他母亲无意中偷听他在留声机上放布鲁士音乐,或是一位访客走后自己的感受,“独处时瞬间的悲伤”。这些故事发生在火车上,或一间空教堂里,无神论者拉金取下“我的回形针在静默中崇敬”,还是把眼之所及当成生活本身。“他的饥饿更重要”。这些诗歌都自有伟大之处,尽管它们被拉金其他诗歌所淹没,但仍能脱颖而出。 /201301/223035

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