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泉州市新阳光是三甲医院吗健康信息

2019年09月23日 00:37:19 | 作者:泡泡对话 | 来源:新华社
THE race for the Republican presidential nomination has followed a consistent pattern. Every month or so a candidate emerges from the pack to threaten Mitt Romneyrsquo;s lead, only to drop back after a week or two. It used to be a new challenger each time: Michele Bachmann, Herman Cain, Rick Perry and so on. Lately, it has been the same man periodically snapping at Mr Romneyrsquo;s heels before falling behind again: Rick Santorum, a former senator from Pennsylvania. This week Mr Santorum flubbed yet another chance to overtake Mr Romney, by losing the primary in Illinois. That is great news for Mr Romney.共和党人参选总统提名的方式总是千篇一律。每个月都会从党内冒出一个会对罗姆尼的领先地位造成威胁的候选人,但只是为了一两个星期后被罗姆尼甩在身后。以前这样的候选人每每都会成为一个新的挑战:米歇尔贝克曼,赫尔曼凯因,里克派瑞等等。后来的候选人渐渐沦为定期出现的人偶,只是为了在又一次落后之前徒劳地咬住罗姆尼前进的车轮,比如宾夕法尼亚州的前议员里克桑托勒姆。本周桑托勒姆伊利诺斯州初选失利,失去了超越罗姆尼的机会。不过这对罗姆尼来说却是个好消息。After Georgia, Illinois is the biggest prize yet, accounting for 69 of 2,286 delegates to the Republican convention in August, at which the nominee will formally be selected. Mr Romney won by a big margin: 47% to 35%. Because of the complicated electoral rules in Illinois and many other states, that will bring him at least two-thirds of the delegates from the state. It also marks the first time that he has drubbed Mr Santorum in the Midwest, after narrow wins in Michigan and Ohio and defeats in Iowa and Minnesota.伊利诺斯州是继乔治亚州之后最重要的选区,在2286名参加八月举办的共和党大会的代表中,有69名都来自伊利诺斯州,届时大会将正式选出提名者。罗姆尼以47%比35%的绝对优势大获全胜。 多亏了伊利诺斯和其他州复杂的选举规则,罗姆尼将获得至少三分之二的伊利诺斯州代表的持。这也标志着在经历了密歇根,俄亥俄的险胜以及爱荷华,明尼苏达的失败之后,罗姆尼首次在中西部地区打败了桑托勒姆。Mr Santorum did his best to expand his appeal beyond the most conservative voters, talking in histrionic terms about the need for smaller government. ;This is the most important election of your lifetime,; he intoned at a rally in Peoria, the supposed navel of middle America. ;Freedom [is] at stake,; he tweeted on the morning of the primary. But he had aly fluffed his lines, appearing to suggest that the unemployment rate was not that important (compared with preserving Americarsquo;s founding principles, he meant).就冲他曾经煽情地说过缩减政府规模的必要性这一点,桑托勒姆在向保守选民施展魅力方面也算尽心尽力了。;这是你们有生之年最重要的选举;,桑托勒姆曾在美国中部的中心城市皮奥利亚的某个集会上如是说道。他曾在初选的早晨情绪激昂的说;自由就要被剥夺;。但是他说错了话,因为他曾暗示失业率并不那么重要(其实他的意思相较于死守美国的基本准则来说,失业率不太重要)Disappointingly for Mr Santorum, Peorians seemed to have faith in Mr Romneyrsquo;s ability to repair the economy. People for whom that was the most important issue voted for him overwhelmingly, according to exit polls. They also had misgivings about Mr Santorumrsquo;s emphasis on social issues. At an event he held also in Peoria, a veteran said of his fixation with abortion: ;Itrsquo;s the last thing we should care about. If we keep spending, we are going to end up like Greece.; Yet like a moth to the flame Mr Santorum keeps returning to such topics, and all the controversy that comes with them. During a speech he gave at a religious school in the Chicago suburbs, two men in the audience stood up and kissed, prompting predictable hostility from the crowd.皮奥利亚的人民抱着对桑托勒姆的失望之情转而寄希望于罗姆尼能够挽救萎靡的经济。据投票后民调显示,那些把失业率视为重中之重的人都坚定地把票投给了罗姆尼。他们同样误解了桑托勒姆强调的社会问题。在另一场皮奥利亚的集会上,一个退伍老兵表示自己持终止计划:;这是最后一件值得我们关注的事,如果我们继续挥霍,下场会和希腊一样惨。;于是桑托勒姆如飞蛾扑火一般又回到了这类话题,以及这类话题所来了种种争议上。 他曾在芝加哥郊区的一所教会学校讲话,其间两个男人从观众席里站起来拥吻,毫不意外地招来了观众的反感。Mr Romney has won over half of the delegates awarded so far. That pace, if sustained, will be more than enough to secure him the nomination outright, although probably not before the final primaries in May and June. His rivals, by contrast, would need to improve their showing dramatically, winning the lionrsquo;s share of the remaining delegates simply to deny Mr Romney outright victory. And they would have to do that in unfavourable states like Maryland, New York and California.目前罗姆尼赢得了一半多的代表持。如果这一良好态势得到保持,罗姆尼完全可以不费吹灰之力地赢得提名资格,至少在五六月的最后初选之前都没问题。相反,他的对手们要想获得余下的大部分代表持来抹杀罗姆尼的的绝对优势的话,就必须好好练练怎么做秀。他们得在马里兰,纽约和加利福尼亚这类十分难缠的选区花功夫。The prospects for the two other candidates, Newt Gingrich and Ron Paul, look hopeless; but neither of them shows any sign of being y to concede. Both Mr Paul and Mr Santorum argue that they have actually won more delegates than estimated in the caucus states. This could be true (those delegates have not actually been assigned yet), but the difference would be far too small to alter the dynamics of the race. Mr Gingrich, for his part, seems to enjoy campaigning and to bear a grudge about how Mr Romney and an allied Super PAC ended his time in the sun with cloudbursts of negative advertising.纽特金里奇和罗恩保罗这两位候选人的前景也十分黯淡。但是两个人都没有退缩的意思。保罗和桑托勒姆都认为自己实际赢得的代表人数要比决策会议上公布的多。这也不是没可能(因为那些代表还没有被指派。)但差距太小,不足以改变参选动态。金里奇似乎很喜欢参选,也很喜欢抱怨罗姆尼和同盟Super PAC是如何利用负面宣传这个晴天霹雳终结了自己阳光灿烂的的参选生涯的。Moreover, even if Mr Romneyrsquo;s nomination is in the bag barring some unexpected reversal, his position is hardly commanding. His biggest wins have tended to be in places that either vote reliably Democratic in presidential elections, such as Illinois and Massachusetts, or donrsquo;t vote at all, such as Guam and Puerto Rico (which gave him almost 90% of the vote on March 18th). He still struggles to win the support of poorer, less educated, more conservative and more religious voters. On March 24th he is likely to lose the next state to vote, Louisiana. His long, hard march to the nomination continues即使不考虑罗姆尼在提名之路遇到的未知阻碍,他也很难保持遥遥领先的位置。他大获全胜的几个州要么是伊利诺斯州和马萨诸塞州这样忠诚地把票投给民主党的地区,要么就是关岛和波多黎各这样干脆不投票的地区(在3月18号,这些地区把90%的票都投给了罗姆尼)。他仍然在努力争取那些较贫困,受教育程度较低,更保守和受宗教影响更大的选民。他似乎在3月24四日又输掉了一个州的持;;路易斯安那。对于罗姆尼来说,提名之路漫漫而修远,仍需上下求索。201203/176188This continued violence is simply not acceptable, and it will be stopped. We will not put up with this in our country. We will not allow a culture of fear to exist on our streets.我们绝不接受这种持续的暴力行为,这种行为一定会被遏制住。我们不会容忍在英国发生骚乱,也不允许恐惧文化存在于我们的街道。Let me be clear: at Cobra this morning we agreed full contingency planning is going ahead. Whatever resources the police need, they will get. Whatever tactics the police feel they need to employ, theyll have legal backing to do so.有一点我们必须明确,在今早的“眼镜蛇”安全委员会会议上,我们同意并实施完整的应急计划。无论什么资源,只要警方需要就会得到。无论采取什么战术,只要警方需要一定会得到法律的全力持。We will do whatever is necessary to restore law and order onto our streets. Every contingency is being looked at. Nothing is off the table. The police are aly authorised to use baton rounds. And we agreed at the Cobra that while they are not currently needed, we now have in place contingency plans for water cannon to be available at 24 hours notice.我们将采取必要的措施使街道恢复至井然有序。警方正考虑每一种应急措施,不排除任何手段制止事态蔓延。警方已获得使用橡胶子弹的授权,还有,尽管我们在“眼镜蛇”会议上同意目前还没有必要,但我们已制定了应急计划,可以在提前24小时通知后使用高压水。201206/187066If you have a cat, its likely that at some point youve seen it do this: while playing with your foot it suddenly dropped to its side, latched on with its front claws and began a coordinated kicking motion with both back legs. 如果你养猫,在某一时刻你可能会注意到它这样的举动:在脚边玩耍时,猫咪突然猛地下扑,用两只前爪抱住你的脚,两条后腿持续蹬踢。The cat probably gave you a good four or five swats before letting go. From a human point of view this looks like great fun—a real rough-and-tumble kind of game. But where does it come from?猫咪不给你来四五个猛击可能不会停手。对人来说看似很好玩,就像一场真正的混战游戏。但是这样的游戏是有由来的。Before giving an answer, lets think for a second about the kind of thing we can learn even from so commonplace an event. Housepets are not toys; although they are domesticated and, in the instance of cats, much smaller than their wild counterparts, its a mistake to regard them as fundamentally different from wild animals. They share millions of years of evolutionary history, and their behaviors--even playful ones--are in many cases behavior that was very useful in the wild.在给出之前,花一秒钟来想想从这种最常见的游戏上能学到什么。家养宠物可不是玩具;尽管它们被驯了,并且比野生的同类体积小许多,但是拿猫来说,如果你认为家猫与野猫有本质的区别,那就大错特错了。它们有着上百万年相同的进化历史。家猫的一些行为,即使很有趣,但对野猫来说是有很用的。So, think again about that front-claw grab connected with a back-claw kick that your cat does from time to time. You may see it in a new light when you realize that the cat is executing a very effective device for killing prey or enemies: hold the other animals stomach in place while you disembowel it.所以,再想想你家猫咪那一次又一次,前爪抱后爪踢的动作。以另一种观点来看待的话,你或许会发现猫咪是在执行一种很有效的能杀死猎物或敌人的动作:前爪按住其它动物的胃部,后爪钩出内脏。Of course, that doesnt mean your cat is really trying to hurt you; but it does show us that playful behavior in animals --and, oftentimes, in humans--is not simply nonsense. In many cases it is a practice run for learning more useful skills--even deadly ones. 当然,这并不表示你的猫咪是在伤害你;但也明动物之间,或者动物与人之间的一些顽皮行为并不是无用的。在许多情况下,这是在演习更有用的生存本领,即使是致命的本领。本文译文属201206/188373

Science and Technology,Eradicating polio,Late? Or never?科技,根除脊髓灰质炎,为时已晚?或絕無可能?A plan to wipe out polio by the end of next year is in trouble明年底消灭脊髓灰质炎的计划倍受挑战HUBRIS is always dangerous. In 1977 smallpox was eradicated and—an accidental infection in a British laboratory a year later aside—that claim has stood the test of time.骄傲自满通常是危险的行为。1977年,人类宣称消灭了天花(若将一年后英国实验室发生的一次偶然天花感染排除在外的话),这份声明经历了时间的考验。Having eliminated one viral disease, the authorities decided they ought to be able to get rid of another: polio.在消灭了一种病毒疾病后,权威专家们认为他们有能力再消灭另一种病毒:脊髓灰质炎病毒。That, though, proved a tougher opponent.但实践明,脊髓灰质炎是个难以应付的对手。The World Health Organisations original target, set in 1988—a polio-free world by 2000—proved illusory.世界卫生组织于1988年定下的原始目标——到2000年实现全世界无脊髓灰质炎——被明是天方夜谭。The latest deadline set by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), the multinational body charged with dealing with the disease, is next year.全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动小组(GPEI)是负责消灭该疾病的跨国机构,它将消灭脊髓灰质炎的最后期限定为明年。On July 20th, though, Sir Liam Donaldson, once Englands chief medical officer and now the chairman of an independent watchdog committee that scrutinises the GPEIs activities, published a report which says this deadline, too, is at risk.但7月20日,利亚姆·唐纳森发布的一份报告指出这个最后期限也正面临风险。利亚姆·唐纳森是英国前首席医疗官,现任负责审查;全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动;活动的独立监督委员会主席。In truth, the GPEI has not done badly.事实上,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动一直成绩卓著。The number of cases of polio is a mere 1% of what it was in 1988.目前,脊髓灰质炎的病例数量仅为1988年的1%。But that number has hardly budged for several years.而且在数年间,该数字几乎都未发生变化。Squeezing the last few cases out of existence has proved far harder than expected.要想根除最后的少量残存病例明比预期更难。Polio poses a particular challenge to countries with unstable politics and weak health systems.在政治动荡和卫生系统薄弱的国家,消除脊髓灰质炎将面临很严峻的挑战。To contain outbreaks, surveillance must be vigilant: the virus usually lurks silently, paralysing just one carrier in 200.为控制疾病爆发,必须在疫情监测上提高警惕:此种病毒通常悄无声息地潜伏于人体内,每200名病毒携带者中仅有1名会遭受此病毒侵袭。Moreover, the vaccine is delicate and must be kept cool.此外,由于病毒疫苗的敏感特性使其必须在低温下保存。And immunisation requires repeated vaccinations.并且要想实现免疫还需要反复接种。Today polio is endemic in only four countries: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. It has, however, re-emerged in several others (see chart).目前脊髓灰质炎仅在四个国家流行:阿富汗、印度、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。但此病在其它几个国家也曾死灰复燃(见图表)。Each endemic country has its own particular problems.每个疾病流行的国家都有自己特殊的问题。In Afghanistan the GPEI has failed to stop transmission in 13 war-ridden southern districts.在战火纷飞的13个阿富汗南部地区,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动没能够阻止疫情的传播。Most of India is free of the disease, but the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar continue to struggle.印度大部分地区都未出现该病疫情,但北方邦州和比哈尔邦州仍在与该疾病抗争。In 2003 and 2004 Nigeria was gripped by rumours that polio vaccine would sterilise children and infect them with HIV.2003年和2004年,尼日利亚坊间盛传脊髓灰质炎疫苗会使儿童绝育并让他们感染艾滋病毒。And although in Pakistan the incidence of polio dropped tenfold between 1995 and 2000, conflict, poor sanitation and a mobile population helped the number of cases jump by 62% last year.尽管巴基斯坦的脊髓灰质炎发病率在1995年到2000年间降低了10倍,但战争冲突、恶劣的卫生条件和人口的流动使病例数量在去年激增了62% 。In 2010 the GPEI adopted a new strategy, with the goal of stopping transmission by the end of 2012.2010年,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动通过了一项新策略,其目标是到2012年底阻止脊髓灰质炎的传播。If no cases are seen for three years after that, the disease will be certified as eradicated.如果接下来的三年内无病例发生,那就明该疾病被彻底根除了。One priority of this new strategy is to work carefully with local leaders, to win support for immunisation.这项新策略的首要任务是寻求与疫情当地领导人的紧密合作,赢得他们对免疫行动的持。In Asia, where polio cases are concentrated in just a few places, the GPEI has tailored plans for each of them.在亚洲,脊髓灰质炎仅集中在少数几个地区,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动已经为它们量身定制了几套方案。For example, better co-ordination between Afghanistan and Pakistan would help manage cross-border transmission.例如,阿富汗与巴基斯坦的通力合作有助于控制疫情的跨境传播。In Africa, where the virus now roams across a broad swathe of countries, the GPEI would scale up activity in places such as Angola, Chad, Guinea and Mali where polio has reappeared in recent years.在非洲,病毒目前在众多国家肆虐。近年来,脊髓灰质炎在安哥拉、乍得、几内亚与马里等国家死灰复燃,全球根除脊髓灰质炎行动将扩大对它们的救治规模。The response to new outbreaks would be swifter and stronger; the administration of vaccines, broader. A new, more effective oral vaccine will help.对新疫情爆发的反应将更加快速而有效,并且疫苗的投放范围将更为广泛。一种新型更为有效的口疫苗也将对疫情防治有所帮助。One final push最后一搏Sir Liams committee was itself a product of this new strategy, and now it is fulfilling its remit by pointing out where other components are going wrong.利亚姆负责的委员会本身就是这项新策略的产物,他们要履行的职责是指出根除脊髓灰质炎行动计划中的错漏之处。Though India has made gains, elections interrupted progress in Nigeria.尽管印度在脊髓灰质炎防治方面取得成效,但尼日利亚的大选阻断了该病所取得的进展。Pakistans emergency action plan seems to have had little effect—the country has recorded 54 cases this year, double the number in the first half of 2010.巴基斯坦的紧急行动计划似乎也成效甚微——该国今年已经发生了54宗病例,比2010年上半年增加一倍。Countries with resurgent polio are struggling as well.脊髓灰质炎复发的国家也面临同样的困境。Chad, for example, has been slow to implement a strong plan of action.例如乍得迟迟未付诸实施强有力的行动计划。The original strategy for the Democratic Republic of the Congo was to concentrate vaccination in three provinces.刚果民主共和国原先的策略是将免疫计划集中在三个省。However, transmission is now more widesp, so a broader campaign might prove necessary.然而现在疾病传播反而更加广泛了,因此可能需要在更大范围内与该疾病抗争。More than billion has been spent to date, with more than billion of that coming from the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation.迄今为止,各国已经投入了80多亿美元对抗脊髓灰质炎,其中有十几亿美元资金来自于比尔·盖茨和梅林达·盖茨基金会。Mr and Mrs Gates hope their investment will pay a big dividend.盖茨夫妇希望他们的投资会带来很大成效。A recent paper estimated that eliminating polio would bring a net benefit of between billion and billion over the period from 1988 to 2035.一份最近的报告估计从1988年到2035年间消除脊髓灰质炎将带来400亿到500亿美元的净收益。But that assumed eradication by 2012.但其前提是到2012年要将脊髓灰质炎彻底根除。Donald Henderson, the doctor who led the campaign to rid the world of smallpox, predicts that even if polio is deemed eradicated, vaccination will have to continue, just in case.唐纳德·亨德森医生曾领导消灭全世界天花的斗争,他预测即使有天脊髓灰质炎被消灭了,免疫工作仍要继续以确保万无一失。That will drive up costs.但这将推高行动计划的成本。For now the GPEI is resolute. But the eradication campaign cannot last for ever.目前全球根除脊髓灰质炎的行动是坚决的,但病毒消灭战役不可能永无休止地进行下去。 /201211/210443

Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮: I weigh close to 200 pounds, and am solidly built. My family is full of stocky individuals, so I dont know why Im afraid to tell my parents about a guy I am dating while away at university.我的体重将近200磅,但体格很结实。我家人个个都矮胖结实,所以不知道为什么,我很害怕告诉父母我正在和一个校外的男孩约会。 ;Roger; is extremely smart, funny, physically strong, personable, works in social work and is getting a Ph.D. in education.“罗杰”十分聪明,风趣,而且身体强壮,风度翩翩,目前从事社会工作,在学校时获得了士学位。 The problem is, hes upward of 300 pounds, and at 6 feet 4 inches, is a massive human being. Hes the same size as my boss, a man my family refers to as ;Jabba the Hutt.;问题在于,他的体型也很巨大,体重快达到300磅,穿4英寸的鞋子。他跟我老板的体型相当,我们家人戏称他为“赫特人贾巴”。 I dont want my family to judge my significant other based on something as superficial as weight, but I know my grandmother will say something nasty about his body. I want my mother to know whats going on in my dating life. Should I state upfront that hes a large man or just not bring it up unless she asks?-Not Afraid of a Little Fat我不想让家人依据体重来评价我的另一半,那样太肤浅了。但我也知道奶奶会挑他身体的毛病。我希望妈妈知道,我的约会发展到什么程度。我应该大声宣布他是个肥胖的男孩,还是等到她问起的时候再坦白?——不怕胖的小可爱 Dear Not Afraid:亲爱的小可爱:If you choose someone your parents are prejudiced against, you have to be willing to stand up to their disapproval until they get to know him. For now, tell your parents you are dating a great guy. Later, you can e-mail them a photo of the two of you and see what happens.如果你选择的这个人,你父母对他有偏见的话,你必须尽量消除误会,直到父母开始了解他。从现在起,告诉父母你在和一个很棒的对象约会。随后,你可以发一张你们两人的合照,看看会发生什么。原文译文属!201207/190698

Anchors Away, Me Boys—but How Far?锚应该抛多远?Anchors away, me boys—but how far? On this moment of science.What happens if you throw your anchor overboard and there isnt enough chain to reach the bottom? Does the anchor haul you down with it?但锚还不够长,没法触底固定,那么锚会把船拖下水吗?朋友们,又到了“科学一刻”的时间了。抛锚了,锚究竟该抛多远呢?如果你将锚抛出船外,This sounds a little bit like something that would happen in a cartoon. But for sailors its no laughing matter. Its unlikely the whole ship would be pulled under, but there could very well be damage to the hull caused by not having enough chain—including a sudden hole where the anchor used to be.这听起来像是动画片里才能看到场景,但对水手来说可不是开玩笑。发生这种情况时,整艘船被拖下水可能性不大,但船体很有可能受到大的破坏,比如船上原本固定锚的地方会被突然扯出一个洞。That’s why the nautical rule of thumb is to use three times as much chain as is needed to hit bottom. That extra chain piles up around the anchor and provides added stability.所以,对于航海有条黄金法则:使用比触底所需的长度长两倍的锚。多余部分的锚链会在固定锚的周围盘起,从而加强船的稳定性。Still, what if you dont know how deep the water is? Or what if you just make a mistake? The navy has prepared for this by building what is called a ;weak link; into their anchor chains.但要是不知道水有多深,或者不小心失误了怎么办?为了解决这个问题,海军设计了有“弱环”链接的锚链。The weak link is the last link in the chain, and while its strong enough to hold together in general, its weak enough to break if the whole weight of the anchor and chain is put on it. The weak link there is as a safety valve. Because its the very last link, under normal circumstances it never gets played out at all; you always want to have some chain left on the ship.弱环是锚链的最后一环,通常它可以紧扣锚链,在受到整条锚链的重力时才会断裂,就像一个安全阀门。正因为它是整条锚链的最后一环,一般根本受不到力,因为总有一部分链条还留在船上。But, if the anchor is still zooming down full speed at the point where the entire chain runs out, the abrupt jerk will cause that link to snap. Without the safety valve of the weak link, sailors might routinely drop more than their anchors.但要是在整条锚链已完全抛出,锚还在急速下降,猛然的拉动还是会扯断弱环。如果没有弱环作为安全阀,恐怕被抛入水底的就是那些水手了。 /201207/190862

Ill tell you the two best pieces of advice, maybe I’m breaking the rules, but you know, I break the rules.我会告诉你们两个忠告,也许我会打破常规,但你要知道,我不按规则办事。Go for it大胆说吧My father told me when I was going off to Yale for law school. And you know, he grew up in segregated South, he never thought he would see that. He was emotional about it, but he told me, ;Kid, listen, when you get there, you’re gonna see there are two kinds of smart people. There are smart people that take very simple things and make them sound very complicated, so they can enrich themselves, and there are people who take very complicated things and make them sound simple to empower other people. And I want you to be that kind of smart kid when you come back home.; That totally framed my approach to my legal education. I want to be able to explain these ideas to the ordinary people.第一条是我父亲在我去耶鲁法学院求学时告诉我的。你也知道,他在种族隔离的南方长大,他绝不会想到会有这一天。他对此感慨万千,但是他告诉我:“孩子,听着,你到耶鲁后会遇到两种很聪明的人。他们很聪明,能把简单的事情复杂化,这样他们可以提高自己,他们也能把复杂的事情简单化,这样就提高了别人。我希望你下次回家时,就成为那种聪明的孩子。”这些话为我以后的求学塑造了方法。我希望自己能够向普通人阐释这些想法。But the other advice I got was from my professor, who, when I was trying to choose between going to Yale for law school and working for the Associated Press. He said ;Each choice you make, make the choice that gives you more choices.; He says, ;Cause life is about, when you’re first born, nobody knows what you’re gonna be,infinite possibilities. And then you presume ....还有一个忠告来自于我的教授,他在我面临抉择,不知道是去耶鲁的法学院求学还是去美联社工作的时候告诉我说:“每做一次选择,都要给你更多选择的机会。”他说:“因为在你刚出生时,没人知道你会长成什么样的人,所以就有无限的可能。这就是生活。然后你假想......”Life narrows choices生活让选择变少Yeah, that’s right, so my college professor told me that life narrows your choices, so if you have to make a choice, make the choice that gives you more choices. And thats obvious as well.正是如此,我大学教授告诉我,生活让选择变少,所以你每做一次选择,就要确保它给你更多选择的机会。这个道理也是显而易见的。原文译文属!201207/192948

Business商业报道Middle managers中层管理者In praise of David Brent赞扬大卫#8226;布兰特Middle managers are not as useless as people think中层管理者并不像人们认为的那样没有用处IN “UNDERCOVER BOSS”, a British television programme, company chiefs disguise themselves and work on the shop floor of their own companies.英国有一档电视节目叫“卧底老板”,公司老板乔装打扮后,下到自己公司一线与员工一起工作。The climax comes when the boss reveals his true identity to his co-workers.当老板向一起工作的员工揭开自己的真实身份时,节目达到了高潮。Much to his surprise, the shop-floor grunts often have no clue who he is.让老板感到吃惊的是,这些基层员工常常不知道自己的老板是谁。The cult of the chief executive has reached absurd proportions.对于首席执行官的狂热已经达到了一种荒谬的地步,Business magazines splash their smug faces on glossy covers, and give them all the credit for achievements to which thousands of others have contributed.商业期刊的封面上尽是他们的大幅照片,个个自命不凡。数千员工辛苦劳动取得的功劳全部记在他们的头上。Yet a recent study by Antoinette Schoar, an economist at MIT, found that the person at the top accounted for just 5% of a Fortune 500 firms performance.但最近麻省理工学院经济学家安托瓦内特#8226;斯考尔进行的一项研究发现,在财富500强公司中,最高领导对公司业绩的贡献仅有5%。Some bosses believe their own hype: a survey by the Economist Intelligence , our sister company, found that many were convinced that their own words and actions were the key to motivating employees.有些老板非常相信自己的号召力,经济学人智库“我们的姊公司”进行的一项调查发现,许多老板对自己的言行对员工的感召深信不移。Yet when the same survey asked workers what they thought, more said that it was their relationship with their line manager that counted.但该调查也征询了员工的看法,很多员工表示,他们与现场主管的关系更为重要。As Marcus Buckingham, a management writer, once quipped, “People join companies but leave managers.”这正应了管理学作家马库斯#8226;贝克汉姆的一句妙语:公司员工进来时看公司,出去时看领导。Yet middle managers could hardly be less fashionable.然而,中层管理者可能是最不风光的职位。Companies sack them by the truckload. Sitcoms such as “The Office” mock them.公司大批大批地对他们进行解雇。情景剧《办公室》就是这些人的真实写照。The days of general managers who know “a little about lots” are completely over, claims Lynda Gratton of London Business School in “The Shift”, a new book.伦敦商学院的琳达#8226;布兰顿在他的新书《大转移》中断言,总经理事无巨细管理公司的日子早已过去。Knowledge workers often receive feedback from peers working on the same project, she observes.她观察到,知识工人常从在一个项目中工作的同事那里获得反馈。Technology helps them monitor each others output, with little need for supervision by a middle manager.他们可以借助技术手段来监控彼此的产出情况,不再需要中层管理者的监督。Many firms have become nimbler by removing unnecessary bureaucracy.很多公司通过清除不必要的繁文缛节而变得更加灵活。Unilever, a consumer-goods firm, used to have as many as 36 tiers of management; now it has, by some counts, only six.消费品公司联合利华过去管理上有36个层级,有人发现现在只剩下了6个。But cutting out too much of the middle can start to look like corporate hara-kiri.但是砍掉这么多的中间管理层对公司来说,也许无异于切腹自杀。Ethan Mollick, of Wharton Business School in Pennsylvania, argues that firms should nurture managers with the initiative to balance the needs of day-to-day operations against the need to implement the boards strategy. Middle managers also act as a crucial filter.宾夕法尼亚沃顿商学院的伊桑#8226;莫立克认为,公司应该用创新精神培养管理者,使他们既能搞好日常管理工作,又能贯彻董事会战略。中层管理人员就像一个过滤器,作用十分重要。A large firm may have tens of thousands of employees. The CEO cannot possibly listen to them all.一家大公司可能有数万员工,公司的CEO不可能听到他们每个人的声音。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231165

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