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桐乡丰胸多少钱嘉兴大腿脱毛多少钱Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼得Fighting the flab减肥大作战Corporate headquarters have put on weight, and need to slim down again企业的总部体积膨胀,需要再次瘦身“ONE of the most extraordinary corporate centres in America.”“这可能是美国最奇怪的企业总部了 。”This is how Trian Partners, a disgruntled shareholder of PepsiCo, described the headquarters of the snacks-to-soft-drinks company in a recent letter to its board.特利安基金管理公司在给百事公司的董事会最近的一封信中抱怨道。特里安基金是这个销售零食和软饮料的公司的股东。Set amid lakes and fountains in 100 acres of wealthy Westchester County, New York, PepsiCos HQ features seven interconnected three-storey office buildings designed in the 1960s by Edward Durell Stone, a pioneering American modernist architect.百事总部位于纽约市富裕的威彻斯特郡,坐落于湖泊与喷泉之间,占地约100英亩,中心是七座相连的三层办公楼,此楼是美国现代主义先驱建筑师爱德华?斯通在1960年设计的。Its crown jewel is the Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens, named after a former chief executive, which has works by artists such as Alexander Calder, Henry Moore and Auguste Rodin.百事总部最吸引人的景观就是以其前总经理Donald M. Kendall名字命名,由Alexander Calder、Henry Moore 和Auguste Rodin三位艺术家共同建造的雕塑花园。Mr Kendall reportedly intended the garden to reflect his vision for the company by creating an atmosphere of “stability, creativity and experimentation”.据报道称,Kendall是想要这用花园能展现他对公司的构想,即“稳定,创新和实验性”。Two years ago PepsiCo began a 243m upgrade of the complex to make space for more staff and “create a more collaborative and innovative work environment”.两年前,为了给更多的员工创造空间,并“建立一个更利于协作与创新的工作环境”,的百事公司斥资2.43亿美元,开始对其总部的建筑群进行升级。Trian, run by Nelson Peltz, a veteran activist investor, thinks shareholders would be better served by selling it and shedding many of its 1,100 workers, as part of a broader cost-cutting and productivity-boosting strategy that would see PepsiCo split in two.由资深活跃投资人纳尔逊佩尔茨运作的特里安基金则认为,百事应该把总部卖掉,并将其中的1100名员工裁掉大半,以此作为消减成本和提升生产力计划的一部分,百事内部对此产生了分歧。The raiders of the 1980s, who made fortunes by seizing and shaping up flabby conglomerates, were supposed to have put an end to corporate extravagance and administrative bloat.上世纪八十年代的那些恶意收购者通过给臃肿的企业集团瘦身攫取了大量利益,人们本以为企业铺张浪费的习气和管理人员过剩的问题已经在那时被终结了。But PepsiCo is not alone in now being accused of these.可是,像百事这样因这类问题被诟病的公司不在少数。A recent report by Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, reckoned that Coca-Cola, which is spending 100m on upgrading its home in Atlanta, has overheads that are 30% of sales, almost as high as PepsiCos 32%.调研公司Sanford C. Bernstein最近的一份报告指出,可口可乐公司正花费1亿美元升级其在亚特兰大的总部,可口可乐公司的经常性开占其营业额的30%,百事的则为32%。Activist investors such as Trian, which also has its guns trained on DuPont, a chemicals firm, may find inspiration in other examples highlighted by Bernstein.像特里安这样的活跃投资者又把矛头指向了化学公司DuPont,后者可能是受到了Bernstein强调的那些反面教材的启发。Procter amp; Gambles overheads ratio is far higher than that of its consumer-goods archrival, Unilever; so is Estee Lauders compared with that of LOreal, another big cosmetics firm.日用消费品公司Procter amp; Gambles的经常性开比率比其主要竞争对手Unilever要高出一大截;化妆品行业大公司Estee Lauder同LOreal也形成了这样鲜明的对比。It is hard to think of many big companies that could not benefit from taking a fresh look at their overheads.如果那些大公司能重新审视自己的费用开,一定可以获益良多。One, perhaps, is Mars, a family-run confectioner with a tiny, frugal HQ in suburban Virginia.玛氏食品公司就是一个很好的例子,这个家族企业在弗吉尼亚州郊外的总部简朴而精致。Another is Berkshire Hathaway.伯克希尔哈撒韦公司也是个很好的例子。In this years letter to shareholders, sent last month, the conglomerates boss, Warren Buffett, broke a long-standing “no pictures” policy to show off his head-office team, just 24 strong.上个月,这个大集团的的老板巴菲特在今年给股东的信中打破了其长期以来的“无照片”的传统,展示了他仅由24名精英组成的总公司团队。Mr Buffetts last big acquisition, of Heinz, was made in partnership with 3G, a Brazilian private-equity firm whose boss, Jorge Paulo Lemann, has a passion for cost-saving.巴菲特上一笔大宗收购,就是与巴西的私募股权公司3G资本合伙收购亨氏食品。3G的老板Jorge Paulo Lemann很热衷于消减成本。Heinz had aly undergone a round of cuts under pressure from Mr Peltz.虽然亨氏之前就已经在Peltz的督促下进行了一轮开消减。But 3G found plenty more to trim, as it applied its “zero-based budgeting” approach, in which all spending must be justified from first principles each year.但3G认为还有很多地方需要消减,才能达到它的“零基准预算”标准,即每一项开都要以实现公司的年度目标为目的。Swathes of managerial jobs were axed, as was the companys “aviation department”, which ran its corporate planes.亨氏大片的管理层职位被砍掉,其中包括管理企业飞机的“航空部”。Mr Buffett is impressed: hitherto he has mostly bought well-run firms that he could largely leave alone, but now he wants to do more deals like the Heinz one.巴菲特对此印象深刻,想来只会收购那些自我运行良好,不需要他再多加关注的企业,但现在,他想多做几次像亨氏这样的收购。Of course there are many reasons, other than differing levels of bloat, why businesses vary greatly in which functions are performed centrally, and in how many people and other resources are needed at head office.除了不同程度的人员过剩之外,当然还有其他原因,造成了各企业在职能的重心取向方面和总部需要的人力物力多寡方面千差万别。But there is evidence that companies have piled on the pounds in recent years.然而,的确有据近年来企业有增重的趋势。A study by Sven Kunisch, a management professor at the University of St Gallen in Switzerland, and others looked at the head offices of 761 big companies in Europe and America between 2007 and 2010.瑞士圣加伦大学的管理学教授Sven Kunisch及其同事以2007至2010年全球761个大型企业的总部为对象进行了一项研究。By the end of the period, a quarter of them had more than 600 staff at HQ, whereas another quarter had fewer than 63.截至年底,四分之一的公司拥有超过600名员工,而另一个季度已经不到63人。Two-thirds of the firms said they had made significant changes during the period, generally strengthening centralised control over their divisions.三分之二的公司表示他们已经取得了重大变化,普遍加强中央集权控制他们所存在的分歧。Some 44% of the firms had increased the headcount at HQ, whereas only 28% trimmed.截至2010年,其中四分之一的企业都加强了对其分部的控制,约44%的企业都增加其总部的人数,而只有28%进行了消减。Of the 21 countries in which the head offices were located, only ones based in Denmark and Greece reduced staff numbers on average.在此研究涉及到的21个国家中,只有位于丹麦和希腊两国的企业总部的平均员工人数减少了。All this at a time, in the wake of the financial crisis, when companies were striving to protect their profit margins by cutting jobs elsewhere in the workforce.而这也是由于金融危机的影响,企业为了保其利润率,只得裁员以减少工资出。All aboard the mother ship登上母舰What might explain the return of head-office bloat?是什么原因再次造成了企业总部的膨胀呢?The crusade for leaner, more focused companies, which began in the 1980s, ran out of steam after the turn of the century.上世纪美国刮起了一场主要集中于企业的精简运动,从80年代一直持续到世纪末。And three other issues moved up bosses agendas, each seemingly justifying extra staff at HQ: globalisation meant that the mother ship had more far-flung operations to oversee; new digital technology made it easier, in theory, to centralise control and oversight; and, starting with Americas Sarbanes-Oxley act in 2002, deregulation gave way to a growing regulatory burden, bringing with it a bigger head-office compliance operation.三个原因使得这一运动开始转向,每个原因似乎都为企业增加总部的多余人员提供了合理性:全球化意味着企业总部需要监管更多的海外业务;数字技术理论上也为企业实施集中控制和监督提供了便利;另外,美国在2002颁布的萨宾法案也加重了企业监管负担,企业为了进行合规操作,不得不扩大总部。Various events, from the September 11th 2001 terror attacks to the financial crisis, may have made bosses view the world as an increasingly complicated and uncertain place.从2001年的911事件到后来的的金融危机,各种意外事件已经让企业家们觉得这个世界正变得越来越复杂多变。It would not be surprising if many of them responded in the same way as Jeffrey Immelt, the boss of GE: in his latest annual letter to shareholders, he confessed that “We attempted to manage volatility through layers and reviewers.所以某些人的表现得像通用电气的的老板伊梅尔特一样其实并不奇怪:在最近的一封给股东的年度致股东信中,他进行了自我反省:“我们曾期望用层层审查来控制不确定性。Like many companies we were guilty of countering complexity with complexity...more inspectors, multiple reviewers.”像很多公司一样,用复杂的系统来解决复杂的问题,我们对此感到很内疚…更多的监管人员,更多的审查者。”The result was a “higher cost structure, an artificial sense of risk management, and we were insulating our people from the heat of the market.” Mr Immelt has now decided to reverse course.这样的结果就是“高成本的结构,一种风险得到控制的错觉,而且还把我们的员工同市场隔离起来。”GE has launched a new simplification strategy, with a goal of cutting overheads to 12% of sales from 16%, including a 45% reduction in the cost of the corporate headquarters, by 2016.伊梅尔特现在决定转变方向。通用已经开启了一个新的精简计划,目标是在2016年之前把开从占营业额16%减到12%,其中包括把企业总部的开消减45%。Other bosses would be wise to do the same, or expect to have Mr Peltz and his fellow activists on their case.其他的企业老板最好也去效仿伊梅尔特,不然只好等着成为佩尔茨等的一众活跃投资人的靶子了。 /201403/282100秀城区隆下巴多少钱 Business商业报道Social entrepreneurship in India印度的公益创业Cut from a different cloth开辟出另一片天地Building a business around solving a chronic female health-care problem创立产业以解决长期困扰的女性保健问题RATAN JADHAV, a shy, slight woman in her 30s, works on a farm in Osmanabad, a remote part of the western Indian state of Maharashtra.年过三十的Ratan Jadhav是一个害羞,纤弱的女性。她在印度奥斯曼阿巴德的一个农场工作,那里是印度马哈拉斯特拉邦的偏远地区。Her tiny mud-brick house boasts such modern conveniences as a computer bought with a loan from relatives, while arranged neatly on the kitchen window sill are her teenage daughters cosmetics.一台向亲戚借款而买的电脑也给住在低矮泥砖房的她带来了一丝现代生活的便利,而放在厨房窗台上女儿的化妆品则显得整齐有序。Yet when it comes to personal hygiene, both women prefer a cotton rag to a branded sanitary pad.然而当提及个人卫生问题上,这两位女士都偏爱棉布胜过品牌的卫生护垫。Why buy one, asks the mother, when a homespun substitute does the job?母亲不解:自己做的东西就可以替代卫生巾,为什么还要买这个?Ms Jadhav is one of300mmenstruating Indian women who eschew sanitary pads in favour of rags, dry leaves, straw or newspapers.印度有300万月经来潮的女性用碎布,干叶,枯草或者报纸来替代卫生棉条,Jadhav女士就是其中一位。AC Nielsen, a research firm, says that 70% of women in India cannot afford sanitary products.一家名为AC Nielsen的研究公司称,印度70%的女性买不起卫生用品。Many who can pay do not, as they hate having to ask for them in drugstores that are usually run by men.即使付得起,很多女性也拒绝购买。他们恨透了向药店人员索要卫生棉条,因为这些商店通常是由男性经营。This has serious consequences.这个情况后果严重。Adolescent girls miss up to 50 days of school a year.印度的青春期女孩每年旷课高达50天。Some 23% drop out altogether.大约23%的女生干脆完全退学。Working women lose their daily wages.上班族女性也会因月经缺勤被扣掉当日工资。The social and economic benefits to be had from resolving this problem are potentially so large that doing so is now a focus of social entrepreneurs in many developing countries.解决这个问题在经济和社会上的潜在利益是十分巨大的。They include Jaydeep Mandal and Sombodhi Ghosh of Aakar Innovations, a Delhi-based start-up.对于许多发展中国家,解决这个问题是公益企业家现在关注的一个焦点。They have developed a machine that produces low-cost sanitary napkins using as raw materials agri-waste such as banana fibre, bamboo and water-hyacinth pulp.企业家们已经研发出一种可以生产廉价卫生棉的机器。该棉条使用的原材料为工业废品,比如香蕉纤维,毛竹以及水葫芦纸浆。Each machine can churn out 1,600-2,000 pads a day, to be sold for 40% less than branded mass-market products.每台机器每天可以制造出1600-2000个棉片,出售价格比畅销的品牌产品要低出40%。To bypass the current female-unfriendly distribution system, Aakar aims to sell its machines for 250,000 rupees a time to groups of women.为了避开当前对女性不利的流通体系,Aakar公司计划以每台25万卢布的价格出售该机器给特定群体的女性。The finished item will be sold door-to-door by village saleswomen who also hawk solar lamps, stoves and saris.这种成品将由村民中的女销售员进行上门推销。她们还会兜售太阳能灯具,炉灶和印度莎丽。It will be distributed, too, in women-run grocery stores and beauty parlours.由女性经营的杂货店和美容院中也会有该机器出售。Aakar hopes to profit by selling the raw materials and the machines.公司Aakar希望能从销售原材料和该机器中获得利润。This is hardly a new idea.这不是什么新点子。Arunachalam Muruganantham, another Indian entrepreneur, is a pioneer of low-cost pad manufacturing.另一个印度企业家Arunachalam Muruganantham是廉价卫生棉条产业的先驱人物。Gandhigram, a non-profit organisation in Tamil Nadu, has developed similar technology in partnership with engineers at the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras.位于印度泰米尔纳德邦的非营利性组织Gandhigram已同位于马德拉斯的印度技术研究院的工程师共同合作研发出类似的工艺技术。Goonj, an NGO, sews and sterilises discarded old clothes into sanitary pads.民营机构Goonj则将废弃的旧衣进行缝纫消毒制成了卫生护垫。Many start-ups process cotton fibre from old knitwear into pads.许多新兴企业通过加工棉布纤维将旧的针织品制成了护垫。Mr Muruganantham reckons that the country is awash with hundreds of local brands.先生Muruganantham认为印度已经充斥着成百上千种本土品牌的卫生护垫了。Yet, unusually, Aakars product meets the standards of the Western world and can compete with all global brands, says Ronald van het Hof of Women on Wings, a Dutch-based consultancy focused on creating jobs for women.来自挥着翅膀女人的Ronald van het Hof称,Aakar的产品却出乎意料的达到了西方国家的卫生标准并且可以与所有的国际品牌一较高低。挥着翅膀的女人是一个位于荷兰的咨询公司,其致力于为女性增创就业机会。After studying sanitary-pad markets in four states, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, the Dutch outfit decided to help Aakar grow.通过对印度的比哈尔,西孟加拉,马哈拉施特拉和泰米尔纳德这四个邦的卫生护垫市场进行研究,这个荷兰公司决定扶持Aakar发展壮大。Aakars founders see a big opportunity.Aakar公司的创立者们看到了巨大的商机。Despite the challenges, the 13.5 billion rupee sanitary-pad industry in India is growing fast.尽管竞争激烈,印度总资产达到135亿卢布的卫生护垫产业也在迅猛发展。Established firms, including global giants such as Procter amp; Gamble, hold sway in towns and cities, though still only 25% of women use their products.上市公司在印度城镇地区的地位不可动摇,其中包括诸如宝洁公司在内的国际巨头。但是,仍然只有25%的女性在使用它们的产品。In the countryside the proportion is lower still.在乡村地区这些产品所占份额则会更小。By bypassing middlemen and using existing rural retail networks the founders believe they can win6mcustomers and provide direct employment to 11,000 women in the next five years.通过避免雇佣中年男子和借用现存的乡村零售网络的方法,公司创立者们相信在接下来的五年里,他们可以赢得6百万客户并为11000位女性提供直接的就业岗位。Yet many similar ventures have failed due to problems ranging from a lack of standardisation to inadequate saleswomen.但仍有很多人遭遇了创业失败。或是因为标准化系统的缺失,或是合格女推销员的匮乏。Aakar has forged a partnership with Swayam Shikshan Prayog, an NGO in Osmanabad which will be responsible for manufacture and distribution.公司Aakar已经与Swayam Shikshan Prayog 达成合作关系。后者是一个设在奥斯马纳巴德的非政府组织,它将负责产品的生产和分销。It will also promote awareness by asking local doctors and health-care workers to push the pads at workshops and monthly village gatherings.它还会请当地医师和保健部门的工作人员在工作间及每月的村庄集会时推广卫生护垫产品,借此提高公众的卫生意识。A start will be made next month in Osmanabad, with the aim of catering to about 20,000 women.首次活动将会于下个月在奥斯马纳巴德邦举行,该活动的目的在于迎合约20000名女性的需求。This may reveal whether the pad has genuine appeal in Indias hinterland.这个活动可能会检验这些卫生护垫是否能真正引起生活在印度穷乡僻壤的女性们的注意。It surely will, says Devkanya Jagdale, leader of a group of local saleswomen.它绝对会有吸引力,当地某女性推销员组织的领导Devkanya Jagdale称。And Ratan Jadhav will be my first customer.而且Ratan Jadhav将会是我的第一个客户。 /201309/256957Science and technology科学技术Climate change气候变化Good news at last?终于来了好消息?The climate may not be as sensitive to carbon dioxide as previously believed气候对二氧化碳的敏感性可能低于先前的预期CLIMATE science is famously complicated,气候科学的复杂程度众所周知,but one useful number to keep in mind is climate sensitivity.但把一个指标记在脑中非常好用,那就是气候敏感性。This measures the amount of warming that can eventually be expected to follow a doubling in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide.该指标表示预计大气中二氧化碳浓度翻倍所能引致的升温量。The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in its most recent summary of the science behind its predictions, published in 2007, estimated that,政府间气候变化专门委员会在其最近一次关于其预测背后的科学性的概要中估计,in present conditions, a doubling of CO2 would cause warming of about 3C, with uncertainty of about a degree and a half in either direction.在如今的情况下,二氧化碳浓度翻倍将造成3C左右的升温,上下误差在1.5度左右。But it also says there is a small probability that the true number is much higher. Some recent studies have suggested that it could be as high as 10C.但该概要也声称,真实数据有少许可能还要高得多。一些近期的研究也猜测气温上升可能达到10C之高。If that were true, disaster beckons.如果这种猜测属实,灾难说来就来了。But a paper published in this weeks Science, by Andreas Schmittner of Oregon State University, suggests it is not.但美国俄勒冈州立大学的安德烈亚斯-施密特纳在本周《科学》杂志上刊登的一篇报告认为,情况并非如此。In Dr Schmittners analysis, the climate is less sensitive to carbon dioxide than was feared.在施密特纳士的分析中,气候并不像先前人们所担忧的那样对二氧化碳那么敏感。Existing studies of climate sensitivity mostly rely on data gathered from weather stations, which go back to roughly 1850.现有的关于气候敏感性的研究主要基于气象站收集的数据,可以追溯到公元1850年左右。Dr Schmittner takes a different approach. His data come from the peak of the most recent ice age, between 19,000 and 23,000 years ago.施密特纳士采用了另外一种方法。他的数据来源于最近一次冰河时期的顶峰。His group is not the first to use such data to probe the climates sensitivity to carbon dioxide. But their paper is the most thorough.他的团队不是第一个使用这些数据来探测气候对二氧化碳的敏感性的团队。但他们的报告是最全面彻底的。Previous attempts had considered only small regions of the globe.过去的研究只考虑了全球的小部分地区。He has compiled enough information to make a credible stab at recreating the climate of the entire planet.而他汇编了足够的信息,可以确凿地尝试一下重建整个地球的气候模型。The result offers that rarest of things in climate science—a bit of good news.研究的结果给出了气候科学中最为罕见之物—一丁点好消息。The groups most likely figure for climate sensitivity is 2.3C, which is more than half a degree lower than the consensus figure,该研究组给出最有可能的气候敏感性数字是2.3C,比公认的数据低了半度多,with a 66% probability that it lies between 1.7 and 2.6C.并且该数字有66%的几率位于1.7C到2.6C之间。More importantly, these results suggest an upper limit for climate sensitivity of around 3.2C.更重要的是,研究结果指出,气候敏感性的上限在3.2C左右。Before you take the SUV out for a celebratory spin, though, it is worth bearing in mind that this is only one study,但是在你把SUV开出去兜风以作庆祝之前,要记住这只是一项研究而已,and, like all such, it has its flaws.并且—就如同所有这类研究一样—研究自身也有缺陷。The computer model used is of only middling sophistication, Dr Schmittner admits.施密特纳士承认,该研究采用的电脑模型的复杂程度一般。That may be one reason for the narrow range of his teams results.这可能也是他的团队实验结果范围较窄的一个原因。And although the studys geographical coverage is the most comprehensive so far for work of this type, there are still blank areas,而且,尽管这项研究的地理覆盖范围是迄今为止同类中最大的,它仍有空白区域notably in Australia, Central Asia, South America and the northern Pacific Ocean.尤其指澳洲,中亚,南美和北太平洋地区。Moreover, some sceptics complain about the way ancient data of this type were used to construct a different but related piece of climate science:此外,一些怀疑论者对这些远古数据被用来构建一个不同的但是相关的气候学分:the so-called hockey-stick model, which suggests that temperatures have risen suddenly since the beginning of the industrial revolution.所谓的曲棍球棒模型认为气温自从工业革命以后就突然上升满腹牢骚。It will be interesting to see if such sceptics are willing to be equally sceptical about ancient data when they support their point of view.看看当远古数据持这些怀疑论者的观点时,这些人是否还愿意以同等的怀疑态度对待,这一定会非常有趣。 /201308/250601浙江嘉兴割双眼皮手术价格

嘉兴修眉毛多少钱嘉兴曙光中西医整形美容医院隆鼻好吗 Crabgrass,that ugly, obnoxious weed that is the scourge of theperfect lawn and its perfectionist gardener.杂草丑陋而令人生厌。是整齐的草坪和崇尚完美主义园丁的祸害。Along with being an eyesore,除了难看之外,its also responsible for asubstantial amount of crop loss on commercial farms.它还要为商业农场农作物收成大量受损承担责任。Common wisdom says that crabgrass is hard to get rid of because it crowds out the plants aroundit, and does not allow them to get enough space and nutrients.按照常理,这种杂草很难根除是因为它排挤周围的植物使得它们没有充足的生长空间和养料。However, scientists have longwondered if crabgrass dominates your lawns real estate by using a technique called allelopathy.然而,科学家们一直想知道,这种杂草是否通过使用一种名为植化相克的方法配你家草坪的居住权。This literally means “others suffering,”这个术语字面上的意思是;非我族类,连根清除;。and occurs when a plant harms another by emitting toxicsubstances into the environment, usually through the soil.当某种植物通过释放有毒物质到环境中来伤害其他植物时,这种现象就在发生。Researchers from Nankai University, China Agricultural University, and the Chinese Academy ofSciences all found that crabgrass uses this method of “weeding out” neighboring plants.来自南开大学,中国农业大学,和中国科学院的研究人员都发现这种杂草使用这个方法清除周围的植物。In their experiment, researchers isolated three chemicals from crabgrass roots and nearby soil,在实验中,研究人员从这种杂草的根部和其周围土壤中隔绝出三种化学物质,and then added them to potted plants of wheat, maize, and soybeans.然后将它们加入盆栽的小麦,玉米和大豆中。Sure enough, the plantstreated with crabgrass toxins did not grow as well.不出所料,受这种杂草毒素影响的植物都生长不佳。Tests revealed that the compounds reduced the amount of carbon in the soils microbial biomass.这些试验揭示了该复合物降低了碳在土壤中微生物生物量中碳的数量。This means crabgrass can actually change the makeup of the bacteria in the dirt around it.这意味着这种杂草确实能够改变其周围泥土中细菌的组成。Sinceplants rely on bacteria in order to absorb key nutrients such as nitrogen and organic compounds,因为植物依靠细菌来吸收诸如氮和有机化合物这样的重要养分,the vicious weed makes life extremely hard on its surrounding neighbors.邪恶的杂草使它的邻居的生存极为艰难。So the next time you squirt Round Up on that pesky patch of crabgrass,所以下次,当你向那一撮讨厌的杂草喷除草剂时,remember that theweed is emitting a little herbicide of its own.要记住杂草自身会释放一些除草剂。Its chemical warfare, right under your nose.在你的眼皮子底下进行一场化学战争。 /201403/280529嘉兴哪里绣眉比较好

嘉兴市开眼角多少钱Don:Hey, Yale. Would you rather be bitten by a saber-toothed tiger or a modern day tiger?唐:嘿,雅艾尔。你宁愿被剑齿虎咬还是被现代的老虎咬?Yael:Neither, of course. But if I have to pick, I supposed I choose the modern tiger. Since the saber-toothed tiger massive fangs.雅艾尔:都不愿意。如果一定要选的话,我情愿选现代的老虎。因为剑齿虎长有巨大的獠牙。Don:Well, you may be surprised to learn that paleontologists now think that despite their huge, fearsome looking canine teeth, the prehistoric American sabercat, Smilodon fatalis, had a bite force only about one-third as strong as modern big cats.唐:不过,古生物学家认为除了巨大的、长相可怕的犬齿之外,美国史前剑齿虎 Smilodon fatalis 的咬合力只有现代大猫的三分之一,知道这一点你可能会觉得很惊讶。Yael:How can they told that from fossilized bones?雅艾尔:他们是如何根据骨头化石得知咬合力的?Don:They used very fine CT scans of the skull, jaw and neck bones to create a highly detailed 3 D computer model. Then using careful analysis of the size and placement of muscle attachment points and mathematical modeling they were able to calculate the power of the jaw muscles and the bite force of the now extinct sabercats. This was the most detailed computer model ever created for a vertebrate.唐:他们用精密的CT扫描仪扫描头骨,颚和颈椎骨,用来建立一个高度精确的3D电脑模型。然后仔细分析肌肉附着点的尺寸和位置,利用这些数据进行数学建模,这样他们才能够计算出目前已经灭绝的剑齿虎的颚肌的力量和咬合力。这是人们迄今建立的最精确的脊椎动物电脑模型。Yael:Neat! So if they had such a wimpy bite, whats with the huge fangs?雅艾尔:做得好!那么如果它们的咬合力小,那么这些獠牙还有何用?Don:The function of the sabercats eight inch teeth is one of the longest running debates in paleontology. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the sabercats brought down and subdued large prey, like mammoths, with their strong forelimbs. Once the prey was safely restrained on the ground, sabercats used their large fangs to pierce through the thick hide on the neck of their quarry. In contrast, modern day big cats use their more powerful jaws to bite the neck of their prey for an extended period to subdue them by asphyxiation.唐:剑齿虎的门牙有八英尺长,至于它的作用至今仍是古生物学届最持久的争议话题之一。这项研究的结果持这种假说:剑齿虎使用强壮的前肢扑倒和制像猛犸象这样的大型猎物。一旦猎物被彻底制在地上,剑齿虎便用它那巨大的獠牙刺穿猎物脖子上的厚皮。相反,现代的大猫则利用更锋利的颚来长时间咬住猎物的脖子,直到它们窒息而亡。Yael:Yikes!I think Ill pass on being bitten by either a sabercat or a modern day tiger.雅艾尔:呀!我想在剑齿虎或者现代老虎咬我的时候,我就会不行了。Don:Wise choice.唐:明智的选择。原文译文属!201304/233270 嘉兴治疗狐臭手术多少钱嘉善县职工医院治疗疤痕多少钱

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