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2020年02月20日 10:28:56 | 作者:新华优惠 | 来源:新华社
The terrorist attacks on France were a shock. The ensuing wave of mostly uninformed foreign opining about France was not. Even more than other countries, France has a distorted international image.对法国的恐怖袭击令人震惊。随之而来的一波外国人对法国不着边际的却并非如此。相对于其他国家,法国的国际形象更为扭曲。Perversely, that’s because foreigners tend to feel they know France. After all, it’s the world’s most visited country. It used to foist its “civilisationon other people. It still takes up disproportionate global mindshare. It rejects many international shibboleths on how to run a country. Many foreigners speak a bit of French. So the temptation is to feel that they understand France, and disagree with it. Hence the phenomenon that the French call le French bashing (something at which they themselves excel). I live in Paris and collect misunderstandings about France. Here are a few:变态的是,造成这种状况的原因是外国人往往觉得自己了解法国。毕竟,法国是世界上游客到访最多的国家。它过去常把自己“文明”强加到其他民族。它在全球意识中仍占有重要一席。它拒绝很多国际上通行的治国套路。许多外国人能说一点儿法语。所以,他们忍不住觉得自己了解法国,但不与其苟同。于是就出现了法国人所称的“敲打法国”现象(其实法国人自己也擅长此道)。住在巴黎的我,收集了一些有关法国的误解。以下列出其中一些:“France is sliding back into anti-Semitism.”Many French Jews are rightly scared. This month’s murder of four people in the kosher supermarket was only the latest anti-Semitic attack here. But it’s the anti-Semitism of a small jihadi cluster, a tiny minority within French Muslims. Meanwhile mainstream anti-Semitism looks weaker than ever: 89 per cent of French people polled by Pew Research last year expressed positive attitudes towards Jews. France today is neither Vichy nor Eurabia.“法国正在倒退至反犹太主义。”许多法国犹太人有理由害怕。本月发生在巴黎一家犹太超市的4人被杀事件只是最新一起反犹太袭击。但这是一小撮圣战分子的反犹太主义,他们在法国的穆斯林中只占极少数。与此同时,主流反犹太主义看起来空前虚弱:在皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Centre)去年调查的法国人中,89%表达了对犹太人的积极态度。今天的法国既不是维希政Vichy),也并非“欧拉伯Eurabia)。“France is a museum, stuck in the past.To the contrary, just before the terrorists attacked, France was having a very creative moment. Fed up with economic stagnation, the French were borrowing ideas from abroad.“法国是一个物馆,被钉在过去。”与此相反,在恐怖分子发动袭击前,法国正处在一个很有创造力的时期。受够了经济停滞的法国人,正在从国外借鉴经验。People across France have become “open to the world argues French economist Robin Rivaton. The Pisani-Ferry report, commissioned by the government to set national targets for 2025, obsessively benchmarks France against other countries, notes Helen Drake of Loughborough University. The report’s aspirations for instance, for France to have 10 “world-class multidisciplinary universitiesreflect the national belief that France should always be number one and cutting-edge.法国经济学家罗宾#8226;里瓦Robin Rivaton)认为,法国人已经开始“对世界开放”。拉夫堡大学(Loughborough University)的海#8226;德雷Helen Drake)指出,法国政府为了设025年国家目标而委托制定的皮萨费里(Pisani-Ferry)报告,念念不忘地将法国与其他国家进行基准对比。报告列出的各项抱负——例如,法国要拥0所“世界级的综合大学”——反映了一种国民信仰,即法国应该永远是第一,永远站在最前沿。International thinking is changing France: les start-ups in the tech sector venerate Silicon Valley; restaurant chefs have brought home ideas from stints in the Anglosphere; and, as French schools wonder how to emulate Finland, there’s a national debate about dumping France’s brutal grading system. Or French novelist Patrick Modiano’s speech accepting the 2014 Nobel Prize for literature: it’s a eulogy to foreign role models from Osip Mandelstam to Alfred Hitchcock.国际上的思维正在改变法国:法国高科技初创企业膜拜硅谷;餐厅厨师从英语文化Anglosphere)的工作经验带回了创意;而且,在法国学校研究如何模仿芬兰时,该国开展了一场关于取消残酷评分制度的辩论。或者,读一下法国小说家帕特里克#8226;莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)接受2014年诺贝尔文学奖时的演讲稿:那是一篇对外国榜样——从奥斯#8226;曼德尔斯塔姆(Osip Mandelstam)到阿尔弗雷德#8226;希区柯克(Alfred Hitchcock)——的颂词。Is France a museum? Economist Jean Tirole just won a Nobel too, Thomas Piketty is changing the global economic debate and on January 11 million marched for freedom of expression.法国是一个物馆吗?经济学家#8226;梯若Jean Tirole)刚刚也获得了诺贝尔奖;托马斯#8226;皮凯Thomas Piketty)正在改变全球经济辩论1日,数百万人为捍卫言论自由而游行。“The French reject change because they want to hang on to their privileges.It’s true that whenever any government timidly proposes a reform, some group shouts it down: farmers, notaries, pilots, trade unions, etc. But these are small privileged interest groups. Only 8 per cent of French workers belong to a union fewer than in the US. Ever more French people are unprivileged outsiders on temporary contracts. Most of them want change.“法国人拒绝改变,因为他们想保住自己的特权。”没错,每当政府(无论由谁主政)胆怯地提议一项改革,总会有一些群体强烈抗议:农民、公员、飞行员以及工会等等。但这些都是小范围的享受特殊待遇的利益集团。只%的法国工人加入了工会——比例小于美囀?越来越多的法国人签订临时合同,成为享受不到特权的局外人。他们中大多数人希望改变。来 /201504/367506

JPMorgan Chase Chairman and CEO Jamie Dimon on Tuesday told the company’s employees and shareholders that he’s been diagnosed with curable throat cancer and that his prognosis is excellent.上周二,根大通(JPMorgan Chase)董事长兼首席执行官吉米·戴蒙告知公司员工及股东,他已被诊断出患有可治愈的喉癌,而且预后效果非常奀?While Dimon’s diagnosis isn’t apparently life-threatening, it nonetheless prompted the question of who will succeed him at JPMorgan’s JPM -1.04% helm. But his announcement raised an even broader question: just what is expected of CEOs when it comes to their health?虽然诊断结果显示戴蒙的生命看来没有受到威胁,但人们仍然要问,谁会接替他执掌根大通。此外,戴蒙的声明还带来了一个更大的问题,那就是对于CEO的健康状况,人们到底应该了解哪些信息。The U.S. president receives regular check-ups and discloses the results every few years. (At President Barack Obama’s last exam in June, doctors deemed him healthy since he “exercises daily, remains tobacco-free, and only drinks alcohol occasionally and in moderation. Is the same expected of business leaders, who are often indelibly linked to a company’s financial performance?美国总统定期接受体检,而且每隔几年都会公布体检结果(美国总统奥巴月份刚刚进行了体检,医生的结论是他很健康,原因是他“每天都运动,不抽烟,偶尔适度饮酒。”)企业负责人往往牢固地跟本公司的财务表现联系在一起,他们是否也该这样做呢?A JPMorgan spokesman told Fortune on Wednesday that the company has no requirement that Dimon receive regular check-ups. Though he gets regular exams anyway because, as a person close to Dimon told us, the JPMorgan CEO “focuses on his health, regularly playing tennis and running with his wife and kids.”根大通发言人上周三告诉《财富》(Fortune)杂志,公司从未要求戴蒙定期体检。不过,一位接近戴蒙的人士告诉我们,他确实定期体检,原因是戴蒙“很关心自己的健康,而且经常跟妻子儿女一起打网球、跑步”。While that’s the case at JPMorgan, practices certainly vary from company to company, says Dennis Carey of Korn Ferry, who has led CEO recruitment and succession planning efforts for companies like 3M, ATamp;T, and Office Depot.猎头公司Korn Ferry副董事长丹尼斯o凯里指出,这是根大通的情况,各公司在这方面的做法当然各不相同。Korn Ferry曾牵头为3M、美国电话电报公司(ATamp;T)和欧迪办公(Office Depot)等公司规划CEO招聘和继任事务。Companies are known to buy so-called “key personinsurance policies for their CEOs, which put a dollar amount on executivescontributions to the company and protects against a financial hardship should they die. Before those policies are issued, a CEO is usually required to disclose any health risks, says Keith Martinsen, executive vice president at ABD Insurance and Financial Services. And, depending on the policy, a CEO might also be expected to get a physical every year or so, the hope being that any catastrophic illness would be caught early.人们都知道,各家公司都会为CEO购买所谓的“关键人物”保险,投保金额根据高管对公司的贡献决定,目的是防止这些高层人员身故导致公司陷入财务困境。ABD Insurance and Financial Services执行副总裁基思o马丁森指出,签订保险合同前,一般都会要求企业负责人披露所有的健康风险。而且,CEO可能每年或者每隔一段时间都要进行体检,目的是尽早发现重大疾病,具体如何执行则取决于保险合同。The JPMorgan spokesman said that the bank has no specific insurance policy on Dimon, though he may be covered by a group plan for the bank’s top employees.根大通发言人称,公司并没有给戴蒙够买保险,不过他可能参加了公司最高层的集体保险。Carey says he always advises his clients to include at least a stress test as part of their due diligence when hiring executives from the outside. “In some cases, companies are billing out tens of millions of dollars to buy out an executive [from a previous employer] only to find out that the exec has an illness,Carey says. “It’s more prevalent in the Fortune 200 and less so as you go down into mid-market companies.”凯里说,他一直建议客户从外部招聘高管时至少把压力测试作为尽职调查的一部分。他说:“有时候,为了把某位高管(从前任雇主那里)挖过来,一家公司要付出数千万美元的资金,结果却发现这位高管有病在身。这种情况在《财富00强企业中比较普遍。在排名低一些的中型企业中,出现这种情况的公司较少。”While there is no overarching standard on how to handle an executive’s health, in general, boards of directors and CEOs are adhering to a more liberal interpretation of the Securities and Exchange Commission’s rule that requires companies to publicly disclose material information about a CEO (i.e. anything that would influence an investor’s decision to buy or sell securities) in what Carey referred to as the “post-Jobs era.”虽然在高管身体健康的问题上并没有统一的标准可循,但一般来说,美国券交易委员会的规定要求各家公司公开披露涉及CEO的实质性信息(即所有可能影响投资者就买卖券作出决定的信息)。在凯里所说的“后乔布斯时代”,董事会成员和首席执行官需要遵守对这项规定更为宽泛的解释。When Steve Jobs was diagnosed with cancer and received a liver transplant, Apple’s mishandling of his sickness became the standard of what not to do when a CEO falls ill. The company never fully informed investors about Job’s failing health, even as the Apple founder became noticeably thin and took leaves of absence. The SEC later investigated whether the company had misled investors.史蒂夫o乔布斯当初被诊断患有癌症并接受肝移植手术时,苹果公司(Apple)对他的病情处理欠妥,已经成为CEO患病时公司处理方式的反面教材。苹果方面从来没有把乔布斯每况愈下的健康情况完全告知投资者,甚至是在乔布斯明显消瘦、开始休假的时候也是如此。美国券交易委员会后来还对这家公司是否误导投资者进行了调查。Dimon’s announcement on Tuesday mirrors the approach Warren Buffett took when he was diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2012. Even though doctors had said it was “not remotely life-threatening or even debilitating in any meaningful way,the Berkshire Hathaway chairman and CEO chose to announce his early-stage diagnosis in a letter to shareholders戴蒙在上周二发布声明的做法跟2012年沃伦o巴菲特被诊断出患有前列腺癌时采用的方法一致。尽管医生说病情“对他的生命没什么威胁,甚至不会让他明显衰弱”,但作为伯克希哈撒韦(Berkshire Hathaway)的董事长兼首席执行官,巴菲特仍然决定致信股东,宣布医生的初步诊断结果。“The Steve Jobs situation was the tour de force in terms of reminding boards to get out in front of this sort of stuff,Carey says.凯里说:“出现这种局面时,有的公司会告诉董事会不要插手,史蒂夫o乔布斯的情况就是这方面的典型事例。”Additional reporting by Stephen Gandel.史蒂芬·甘德尔也参与了这次报道 /201407/310074

North Korea has fired artillery into South Korea for the first time since 2010, and threatened further action if a recently launched propaganda campaign is not halted, Seoul said on Thursday.韩国周四表示,朝鲜自2010年以来首次向韩国开炮,并威胁称,如果最近发起的宣传活动不停止,朝方将采取进一步行动。The ministry said a North Korean rocket exploded in a border area at 3.25pm on Thursday, without causing casualties. It said South Korean artillery responded with dozens of rounds aimed at the presumed source of the rocket.韩国有关部门表示,周四下5分,朝鲜的一枚火箭弹在边境地区爆炸,未造成人员伤亡。韩方称,韩国炮兵向测算的朝方开火来源处发射了数十发炮弹作为回应。The exchange comes at a time of particular strain in inter-Korean relations, after Seoul last week accused North Korea of laying three mines on the southern edge of the demilitarised zone that divides the states. The mines were detonated by a South Korean army patrol and maimed two soldiers.此次交火发生之际,朝韩关系特别紧张。上周首尔指责朝鲜在分隔朝韩的非军事区的南部边缘埋下三个地雷。韩国陆军的一巡逻队触发了地雷,导致两名士兵身受重伤。South Korea responded to that incident by resuming loudspeaker propaganda broadcasts over the border, which had been suspended in 2004 in a goodwill gesture, at a time of better relations. Pyongyang denied responsibility for the mine incident, and said it was prepared to “blow upthe loudspeakers in response to what it called a “grave military provocation针对这起事件,韩国在边境地区恢复向朝鲜进行扩音器喊话。这种宣传活动在2004年韩朝关系较好时作为示好被暂停。平壤方面拒绝对地雷事件承担责任,并表示准备“炸毁”韩方的扩音器,以报复朝鲜所称的“严重军事挑衅”。Seoul’s defence ministry said there had been no damage to any of the loudspeakers. But in a message soon after the exchange of fire, Pyongyang said it would “start military actionif the broadcasts were not halted within 48 hours, Seoul said.韩国国防部表示扩音器未受任何损坏。但首尔方面表示,发生交火后,朝鲜传递出一个信息,称如果扩音器喊话8小时内不停止,朝方将“开始军事行动”。President Park Geun-hye responded by calling a meeting of the national security council to discuss the situation, according to a report by the Yonhap national news agency, which Ms Park’s office declined to confirm.据韩国官方的韩联Yonhap)报道,作为回应,韩国总统朴槿Park Geun-hye)召集国家安全委员会讨论局势。朴槿惠办公室拒绝实这一消息。Ms Park came to power promising to “build truston the Korean peninsula but critics accuse her of failing to move on from the conservative policies of her predecessor Lee Myung-bak, having maintained the sanctions and low levels of aid that he oversaw. Other analysts say that blame for the lack of progress lies with Pyongyang’s lack of interest, under its young leader Kim Jong Un, in holding talks on ending its nuclear weapons programme.朴槿惠上任时承诺在朝鲜半岛“建立信任”,但批评者指责她未能摆脱前任李明Lee Myung-bak)的保守政策,因为她保持了李明出台的制裁措施和较低援助水平。其他分析人士表示,缺乏进展的原因是年轻领导人金正恩(Kim Jong Un)执掌的朝鲜对于弃核谈判缺乏兴趣。Thursday’s incident was the first inter-Korean exchange of artillery fire since December 2010, when North Korean shells killed four people on the South Korean island of Yeonpyeong and like that previous attack, it coincided with a joint South Korean-US military exercise.周四的事件是20102月炮击事件以来韩朝首次相互炮击。之前那次炮击中,朝鲜向韩国延坪岛开火,导致四人死亡。朝鲜的两次炮击都发生在韩美联合军演期间。On Monday a major annual exercise began with tens of thousands of troops from both nations, as well as smaller contingents from seven others including France and the UK. Pyongyang views these regular exercises as preparations for an invasion of North Korea, and routinely warns that they could result in conflict.周一,韩美开始举行大规模年度演练,双方投入数万兵力,还有另外七个国家(包括法国和英国)派来的小分队。平壤认为这些例行演习是入侵朝鲜的准备,经常警告它们可能导致冲突。来 /201508/394366

A South Korean activist says he has launched balloons carrying thousands of copies of the Hollywood film The Interview into North Korea.一名韩国活动人士说,他向朝鲜放飞了携带数千盘好莱坞影片《采访》光盘的气球。The film, which depicts a fictional CIA plot to kill North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, was included in the balloons along with anti-Pyongyang leaflets.这部影片虚构了美国中央情报局策划暗杀朝鲜领导人金正恩的故事。气球上还携带了反平壤的传单。Lee Min-bok, a North Korean defector-turned activist, says he sent the balloons in four separate launches. The most recent occurred Saturday.韩国“脱北者”活动人士李民福说,他四次放飞气球。最近一次是星期六。The North strongly opposes such launches. Last October it shot at some of the balloons, triggering a brief exchange of fire with Seoul forces.平壤强烈反对这类气球放飞活动。去0月,朝鲜向一些气球开,并引发了与韩国军队的短暂交火。The South Korean government has urged activists to refrain from sending the balloons, but says the launches are an act of free speech.韩国政府敦促活动人士不要放飞气球,但同时表示放飞气球属于言论自由。Some South Koreans living near the border have complained the activists are putting local residents lives at risk by making them potential targets.一些居住在边界附近的韩国人抱怨说,活动人士为了达到自己的目的而使当地居民面临生命危险。来 /201504/369108

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