楼主:中国知识 时间:2019年10月16日 05:36:33 点击:0 回复:0
Did you know that colors can be seen as well as heard? Well, now you do, thanks to 31-year-old Neil Harbisson, a color blind artist who spent years looking for a way of experiencing the colors of the world around him.你知道吗?颜色不仅可以被看见,还能被“听见”!31岁的尼尔·哈维森是一位色盲艺术家,他花费多年时间终于找到了一种感受周围世界色的方法,足以让你大开眼界。For the past 10 years, Neil has been wearing an external electronic eye that picks up the frequencies of the colors before him and converts them into sound vibrations that he can hear. Initially he wore the device outside his head. But later, the London-based artist convinced surgeons to implant the chip int his skull to be able to perceive more intricate colors.在过去的10年中,尼尔一直戴着一个外置电子眼,它可以把颜色的频率转化成声波,然后尼尔就可以“听见”声音了。最初的时候,他在大脑外部佩戴这一装置,但后来这位伦敦艺术家说外科医生把芯片植入自己的头盖骨里面,以便获取更细微的颜色。The idea for the device came about when Neil heard a cybernetics talk by computer scientist Adam Montandon at Dartington College of Arts in 2003. The pair then collaborated to create the device and Neil ended up memorizing various frequencies so he could recognize colors. So he still couldn’t see the colors, he could now hear and identify them.这一想法源自2003年,尼尔在达林顿艺术学院听了一场科学家亚当·蒙坦顿有关自动控制学的讲座。然后这两个人就合作创造了这一装置,后来尼尔通过记忆不同频率来辨识颜色。所以,尽管他还是不能看见颜色,但他可以“听见”并辨识出来。Neil, who was born with achromatopsia (a rare condition that allows him to see only black or white), said during a talk in 2012: “For me the sky is always grey, flowers are always grey and television is black and white. But since the age of 21 instead of seeing color I can hear color. I started to have favorite colors and I started to dream in color.”尼尔是全色盲(只能看见黑色和白色),他在2012年的一次座谈会上说:“对我来说,天空是灰的,花儿是灰的,电视是黑白的。但是从21岁起,我可以听见颜色了,我开始有了自己最喜欢的颜色,并且我做的梦也有了色。”At this point, Neil felt that the software and his brain had united, because in his dreams it wasn’t the software creating the electronic sounds, but his brain. So he decided to have the device implanted permanently.这时候,尼尔感觉芯片软件和自己的大脑已经联为一体,因为在梦里的颜色并不是电子眼产生的声音,而是源自他自己的大脑,所以他决定永久植入这块芯片。The cyborg antenna, or ‘eyeborg’ that Neil now wears is like a long tube with an audio input on one end that is implanted at back of his skull. At the other end is a camera that ‘sees’ the colors before they are transformed to sound. Because every color has a different vibration, Neil is able to distinguish between different images, paintings and faces (each of them has a distinct sound).尼尔所佩戴的机械天线“电子眼”,看上去就像一端带有摄像头、另一端植入头盖骨的长管。由于每种颜色都有一个不同的频率,所以尼尔能够辨别不同的图像、画作或脸庞(每种图像的声音都不同)。In fact, he can even hear colors that the human eye cannot perceive, like infrared and ultraviolet. And the reverse is also true – he is able to make color paintings of the voices of personalities like Hitler and Martin Luther King. He doesn’t even have to actually look at the colors. The images can be sent directly from his mobile phone to a Wi-Fi or Bluetooth connector inside the chip. It’s actually unbelievable – Neil is the first person in the world who can experience an image without actually looking at it.事实上,他甚至能听到人眼无法识别的颜色,如红外线和紫外线。“听声音”的逆过程也是可以实现的,他可以根据人物声音,比如希特勒和马丁·路德·金的声音,画出色画。他甚至不用看颜色,这些图像可以通过他的手机直接发送到芯片内部的无线或蓝牙。在该仪器的帮助下,尼尔成为世界上第一个不用看就可以感觉到图像的人。The implantation of the chip was done in a series of surgeries that took place between December and March in Barcelona. Neil said that the eyeborg has now become such an integral part of his identity that he even convinced authorities to let him take his passport photograph with it.芯片移植由12月至次年3月的多次外科手术完成。尼尔说电子眼现在已经成为他整个身体的一部分,他甚至还说官方让自己戴着它拍护照相片。What’s really great about the eyeborg is not what it can do, but its future potential. Just think of the possibilities – Neil is connecting with devices now, but if more people get the implant, skull-to-skull communication might just be possible. It’s too fascinating!“电子眼”真正伟大之处不在于它的功能,而是它未来的发展潜力。让我们思考一下未来的可能性吧:尼尔现在使用这一装置,但如果更多的人植入芯片,就可以直接通过大脑进行交流了。简直太迷人了! /201403/281669During Apple#39;s presentation of its new software, new iOS leader Craig Federighi made a bunch of jokes about the old look for iOS.在苹果的新软件发布会上,iOS新领导者克雷格#8226;费德里吉讲了一大堆关于iOS老样子的笑话。When he revealed the new look for the calendar app on the Mac, he said, ;No virtual cows were harmed in the making of this one.;当他透露Mac上日历应用的全新样子时,他说,“在制作这一个东西时没有虚拟奶牛受到伤害。”He also made fun of Apple#39;s Game Center, which currently looks like a craps table in Vegas. The new version doesn#39;t have the fake textures, and Federighi joked, ;We ran out of felt and wood.;他还调侃了苹果的游戏中心,其目前看起来像的一张双骰儿桌。新版本没有假纹理,Federighi开玩笑说,“毛毡和木头我们都用完了。”The jokes were well-received by the people in the audience, but there was something slightly weird about them when you consider that Steve Jobs was a big proponent of the design style Federighi was trashing.这个笑话被现场观众很好地接收了,但当你意识到史蒂夫乔布斯才是Federighi贬低的设计风格的最大提倡者时,对此只是有些略奇怪。It#39;s also weird that just a year ago Apple was pushing further into this style under Scott Forstall. Now, Apple is running away from the Forstall and Jobs style that defined iOS.还让人奇怪的是就在一年前苹果公司还在斯科特#8226;福斯托尔的领导下进一步深入这个风格。现在,苹果公司正远离福斯托尔和乔布斯定义的iOS风格。Everyone considers Jobs to be a genius who understood design. Now, Apple is not only abandoning his design style, but it#39;s also openly mocking it.每个人都认为乔布斯是一个懂设计的天才。现在,苹果不仅放弃了他的设计风格,而且还公开嘲笑它。 /201306/243608Take our patents, please!请收下我们的专利吧!That’s what inventor and automaker Elon Musk is saying today, as the Tesla Motors TSLA 0.07% CEOsaid in a blog post that his company “will not initiate patent lawsuits against anyone who, in good faith, wants to use our technology.” Musk said the patents that used to line a wall in Tesla’s Palo Alto headquarters have been removed “in the spirit of the open source movement” and to help further advance electric car technology.这就是发明人和汽车制造埃隆o穆斯克日前说过的话。这位特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)的CEO在一篇客中表示,他的公司“将不会针对任何善意使用我们技术的任何人提起诉讼”。穆斯克表示,过去曾经用来装点特斯拉帕洛阿尔托总部一面墙壁的专利已经按照“开源运动的精神”移走,以帮助进一步提升电动汽车科技。(The blog post is titled “All Our Patent Are Belong To You” – a nod to an early Internet meme that originated with an early ’90′s game.)【这篇客的标题是:《我们所有的专利都属于你》(All Our Patent Are Belong To You),呼应了源于上世纪90年代视频游戏的互联网文化元素。】Musk added that this announcement represents a reversal of thinking for him, as the Tesla founder used to go out of his way to obtain patents in order to protect his technology from his larger rivals in the auto industry, whose massive infrastructure could potentially push Tesla out of the market. He now says that strategy only serves “to stifle progress” in the field of electric vehicles.穆斯克补充说,这项声明代表了他的反思。因为这位特斯拉创始人过去曾不遗余力地获取专利,以保护自己的技术不被大型汽车厂商染指。这些竞争对手的庞大基础架构可能把特斯拉挤出市场。他现在表示,这个策略只会使电动汽车领域的“发展陷入僵化”。“We couldn’t have been more wrong,” Musk says. “The unfortunate reality is the opposite: electric car programs (or programs for any vehicle that doesn’t burn hydrocarbons) at the major manufacturers are small to non-existent, constituting an average of far less than 1% of their total vehicle sales.”“我们不可能犯比这更严重的错误了,”穆斯克说。“不幸的现实是截然相反的:大汽车厂商的电动汽车项目(或任何不燃烧碳氢化合物汽车计划)很小,甚至都不存在,平均仅占各自汽车销售总量的不足1%。”The Tesla founder says it is impossible for his company to build new cars quickly enough to make a difference when it comes to climate change. “We believe that Tesla, other companies making electric cars, and the world would all benefit from a common, rapidly-evolving technology platform,” Musk writes.这位特斯拉创始人说,他的公司生产新车的速度还不够快,不可能改变气候变化的形势。穆斯克写道:“我们认为,这个快速进化的公共科技平台能给特斯拉、其他制造电动汽车的公司以及整个世界都带来好处。He adds that a “determined competitor” can usually find a way around patents anyway, and that taking an open source position is the best way “to attract and motivate the world’s most talented engineers.”他补充说,“意志坚定的竞争者”通常无论如何都会找到绕开专利的途径,而这使得开源成为“吸引、激励世界上最有才华工程技术人才的最佳方式”。The announcement comes a week after Tesla’s annual shareholder meeting, at which Musk – a billionaire who is also CEO at private space exploration company SpaceX – said he plans to stay on as Tesla’s CEO for at least another four or five years.声明发布之前的一周,特斯拉召开了年度股东大会。这位同时也在担任私人空间开发公司SpaceX公司 CEO的亿万富翁在这次股东大会上表示,他计划未来至少四、五年将继续担任特斯拉公司CEO。 /201406/306057A doughnut created in a lab and made of silk on the outside and collagen gel where the jelly ought to be can mimic a basic function of brain tissue, scientists have found.科学家发现,实验室里制造的一个类似甜甜圈的东西,可以模仿脑组织的一项基本功能。这个圆圈的环状部分由丝材料制成,圈里面填的是胶原蛋白凝胶。Bioengineers produced a kind of rudimentary gray matter and white matter in a dish, along with rat neurons that signaled one another across the doughnut’s center. When the scientists dropped weights on the material to simulate traumatic injury, the neurons in the three-dimensional brain model emitted chemical and electrical signals similar to those in the brains of injured animals.生物工程师在培养皿中制成了相当于原始灰质和白质的材料,其中用了大鼠神经元,这些神经元能通过圆圈中间的物质相互交换信号。当科学家让重物掉到这个圆圈上,以模拟创伤性损伤时,这个三维大脑模型中的神经元释放出了化学信号和电信号,与受伤动物的大脑释放的信号类似。It is the first time scientists have been able to so closely imitate brain function in the laboratory, experts said. If researchers can replicate it with human neurons and enhance it to reflect other neurological functions, it could be used for studying how disease, trauma and medical treatments affect the brain — without the expense and ethical challenges of clinical trials on people.专家们表示,这是科学家首次能在实验室里如此逼真地模仿大脑功能。如果研究人员能用人的神经元重建这个模型,并提升到足以反映其他一些神经系统功能的水平,那么这个模型或可用于研究疾病、创伤和治疗如何影响大脑,从而避免人体临床试验的高费用和伦理问题。“In terms of mechanical similarity to the brain, it’s a pretty good mimic,” said James J. Hickman, a professor of nanoscience technology at the University of Central Florida, who was not involved in the research. “They’ve been able to repeat the highest level of function of neurons. It’s the best model I’ve seen.”“从与大脑的机械相似性来看,这是一个相当不错的模仿,”詹姆斯·J·希克曼(James J. Hickman)说。他是中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida)的纳米科学与技术教授,没有参与这项研究。“他们能够复制出最高水平的神经元功能。这是我看到过的最好的模型。”The research, led by David Kaplan, the chairman of the bioengineering department at Tufts University, and published Monday in the journal PNAS, is the latest example of biomedical engineering being used to make realistic models of organs such as the heart, lungs and liver.该研究由塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)生物工程系主任戴维·卡普兰(David Kaplan)主持,于周一发表在《美国科学院院刊》(PNAS)上。这是用生物医学工程手段制造器官——比如心脏、肺和肝脏——仿真模型的一个最新例子。Most studies of human brain development rely on animals or on brain slices taken after death; both are useful but have limits.研究人类大脑发育的工作大多依赖于动物实验,或人死亡后获取的大脑切片;两者都有用,但都具局限性。Brain models have been mostly two-dimensional or made with a three-dimensional gel, said Rosemarie Hunziker, program director of tissue engineering and biomaterial at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which funded Dr. Kaplan’s research.美国国家生物医学成像和生物工程研究所(National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering)的组织工程与生物材料项目主任罗斯玛丽·亨齐克(Rosemarie Hunziker)称,以前的大脑模型大多是二维的,或是用三维凝胶制作。该研究所资助了卡普兰的工作。None of those systems replicate the brain’s gray or white matter, or how neurons communicate, Dr. Hunziker said. “Even if you get cells to live in there, they don’t do much,” she said.亨齐克还表示,过去的系统都没有复制大脑的灰质或白质,也没有复制出神经元如何传导信号。“就算你能让细胞在模型中存活,它们基本上也做不成什么。”Dr. Kaplan’s team found that a spongy silk material coated with a positively charged polymer could culture rat neurons, a stand-in for gray matter. By itself, silk did not encourage neurons to produce axons, branches that transmit electrical pulses to other neurons.卡普兰的研究小组发现,一种涂有带正电聚合物的海绵状丝制材料可以培养大鼠神经元,用以替代灰质。丝制材料本身并不能让神经元产生轴突,也就是把电脉冲传递给其他神经元的突出部分。The researchers formed the silk material into a doughnut and added collagen gel to the center. Axons grew from the ring through the gel — the white matter substitute — and sent signals to neurons across the circle.这些研究人员将丝制材料做成一个圆圈,在其中心添加了胶原蛋白凝胶。轴突从圆圈的一边长出来,通过替代白质的凝胶,把信号发送给圆圈另一边的神经元。They got “these neurons talking to each other,” Dr. Hunziker said. “No one’s really shown that before.”亨齐克说,他们让“这些神经元互相交流。以前没人真正做到了这一点。”By adding nutrients and growth factors, scientists kept the brainlike tissue alive in an incubator for two months, at which point they experimented on it.通过添加营养物质和生长因子,科学家把这个类似脑的组织放在孵化器中,让其存活了两个月,然后开始在它上面做试验。Adding a neurotoxin essentially killed the neurons, as it would in a real brain. To simulate traumatic brain injury, they dropped weights from different heights.添加一种神经毒素基本上会把神经元杀死,就像在真正的大脑中那样。为了模拟脑外伤,他们从不同高度让重物掉到模型上。Dr. Kaplan said the brain-in-a-dish “didn’t go splat,” but reacted like “a kitchen sponge, and it would compress down and then partially spring back up.”卡普兰称,这个培养皿中的大脑“没有四处飞溅”,其反应更像是“厨房里的海绵,先是向下压缩,然后部分反弹起来。”He said measurements of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that surges in injury, showed that “the more severe the damage, the higher the spike” in glutamate.他说,大脑受伤会导致神经递质谷氨酸激增,而对模型中谷氨酸的测量显示,“受伤越重,激增的峰值越高。”Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, a biomedical engineering professor at Columbia who has worked with Dr. Kaplan on other studies, described the model as a kind of “Lego approach,” a “modular structure” that can be expanded and made more complex.哥伦比亚大学生物医学工程系教授戈尔达娜·乌尼亚克-诺瓦科维奇(Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic)曾与卡普兰在其他研究上有过合作。她称这个模型的建造有点像“乐高用的方法”,是一种“模块结构”,可以扩展成更复杂的形态。“It is the first proof of principle that something like this can be achieved outside of the body,” she said.她说,“这是首次在原理上明,类似这样的东西可以在体外实现。”Dr. Hickman said future experiments would need to study other cells and regions in the brain. “They’ve set up an architecture so some clever person in the future could then do it,” he said. Dr. Kaplan said his team was working on sustaining the brainlike tissue for six months — and with human neurons created from stem cells. He plans to add a model of the brain’s vascular system, so researchers can study what happens when drugs cross the blood-brain barrier.希克曼表示,还需要有未来的实验来研究大脑的其他细胞和区域。他说,“他们已经建立了一个构架,将来会有聪明人用它来做工作。”卡普兰称,他的研究小组正在努力让这个类似脑的组织存活六个月,还要用上从干细胞生成的人类神经元。他打算加建一个大脑血管系统的模型,让研究人员得以观察当药物通过血脑屏障时会发生什么。Ultimately, he hopes the bioengineered model can be used “to study everything from drugs to disease to surgical effects to electrode implants,” he said. “I mean, the list is endless.”他的最终目标,是让生物工程模型能被用于“所有的研究,从药物,到疾病,到手术效果,再到植入电极,”他说。“我的意思是,可做的研究多得没完没了。” /201408/323607

NOT LONG after a jury in the Californian city of San Jose concluded on August 24th that Samsung should pay Apple just over billion in damages for infringing six of the American firm#39;s software and design patents, stills from a year-old sitcom episode, in which a character demonstrates an absurd triangular tablet computer, began recirculating on the internet. The images were being used to poke fun at the jury#39;s ruling that the South Korean firm had copied the shape of Apple#39;s wildly popular iPhone, which (like most) is rectangular with curved corners.8月24号加州圣何塞的陪审团裁定三星侵犯苹果公司6项软件和设计专利,需付给苹果超过10亿美元的赔偿金。不久后互联网广泛传播一个已经一岁的情景喜剧剧照:一个角色展示一个可笑的三角形平板电脑。这些剧照被用来取笑陪审团的裁决:三星抄袭了苹果公司广受欢迎的常见的长方带圆角形状的iPhone。The titanic tussle between the two giants, which has led to one of the biggest penalties for patent violations in legal history, is far from over. On August 28th Apple said it wanted Lucy Koh, the judge presiding over the case, to ban the sale in America of eight of Samsung#39;s smartphones. Samsung, which is trying to persuade the judge to overturn the jury#39;s overall verdict, said it would ;take all necessary measures; to keep its products on sale. Judge Koh has scheduled a hearing for September 20th to review an existing ban on sales in America of a version of Samsung#39;s Galaxy Tab tablet computer. Another hearing is set for December to consider imposing a ban on the phones targeted by Apple.两大巨头间导致法律史上最大的专利侵权处罚的剧烈争斗远没有结束。8月28号苹果公司表示希望案件主持法官Lucy Koh禁止8款三星智能手机在美国的销售。三星试图说法官推翻陪审团的整体裁决,表示将采取一切必要措施保自己产品的销售。Lucy Koh法官已定于9月20号的听会上复审现有的对三星一版Galaxy Tab平板电脑在美国销售的禁令。另外一场听会在12月考虑对苹果瞄准的手机实施禁令。Even if these devices are blocked, the impact on Samsung#39;s bottom line should be modest because a ban will affect older devices, not the firm#39;s snazzy new Galaxy phones. But the case still has big implications for the tech industry, which is facing a tsunami of patent-related lawsuits. It shows how patents covering the look and feel of devices are increasingly being ;weaponised; by their holders. It highlights the propensity of juries to award huge damages in intellectual-property disputes. And it will give added ammunition to those who feel that the current system of granting and policing tech patents in America needs to be overhauled.即使禁售这些设备,对三星的底线并没有太大影响,因为禁令只会影响老款设备,并不影响三星华丽的新款Galaxy手机。但此案对于正面临专利诉讼海啸的科技行业有重大意义。此案显示了设备外观专利正如何越来越被持有者当作武器使用。也突出了在知识产权纠纷中陪审团的巨额赔偿的倾向。也给那些感觉现有批准和监管技术专利的系统需要大修的人补充了弹药。The legal battle between Samsung and Apple is also intriguing because the archenemies work closely together. Samsung is one of the biggest suppliers of components such as memory chips for Apple#39;s gadgets. But its phones and tablets, which so far have used Google#39;s Android operating system, compete head-on with Apple#39;s iPhones and iPad tablets. The tension between the two firms has grown as competition in the smartphone arena has intensified (see article). Gartner, a research firm, says that more than half of the smartphones shipped worldwide in the second quarter run on Android. Apple#39;s late boss, Steve Jobs, promised ;thermonuclear war; against what he saw as Android#39;s systematic copying of Apple features.三星和苹果的法律战也很有趣的是两个对手还在紧密合作。三星是比如苹果装备内存芯片等组件的的最大供应商之一。但是三星的手机和平板电脑,目前使用google的android系统,与苹果的iphone和ipad形成正面竞争。随着智能手机领域的竞争变激烈,两家公司的紧张也在加剧。研究公司Gartner宣称第二季度过半数的全球推出的智能手机运行在android系统上。苹果已故老板Steve Jobs承诺将向android对苹果系统性的抄袭发起热核战争。Samsung has been leading the charge of the Androids. To counter it, Apple has launched a bombardment of lawsuits against its rival around the world, claiming that Samsung#39;s devices breach various patents it holds. On the day that the jury in San Jose delivered its ruling, a court in South Korea hearing a similar case said both firms were guilty of patent violations against the other and banned some of their devices from sale in the country. But since America is the world#39;s largest market for consumer electronics, the Californian ruling will have a far greater impact.三星一直在领导android行业。为了对付三星,苹果在世界各地提出了对他进行诉讼轰炸,声称三星的设备违反了苹果拥有的各项专利。在圣何塞陪审团裁决那天,韩国的一个对类似案件进行听的法庭表示两家公司都对对方犯了专利侵权罪行,禁止他们的某些设备在韩国销售。但是由于美国是世界最大的消费电子市场,加州的裁决有更巨大的影响。The jury in San Jose concluded that Samsung had violated several of Apple#39;s utility patents covering things such as bounce-back scrolling, which makes such things as on-screen icons and web pages rebound if swiped too far, and tap-to-zoom functionality, which makes it easy to zero in on, say, an image or a map. It also said the South Korean company had copied the overall look of the iPhone, including the rounded corners of icons, thus breaching several of Apple#39;s design patents. To add insult to injury, the jurors tossed out the South Korean firm#39;s claims that Apple had ripped off some of its own innovations.圣何塞的陪审团裁决三星侵犯了几项苹果应用专利包括比如:画面跳回滚动,使得比如在滑动太快时屏幕图标和网页可以反弹;点击缩放功能,使得焦点集中在比如图片或地图上变得容易。陪审团还宣称三星抄袭iphone的整体外观,包括圆角图标,因此侵犯了数个苹果设计专利。雪上加霜的是陪审员驳回三星关于苹果曾经偷窃某些三星自己的创新的声明。Samsung and other firms are likely to tweak the design of their devices to avoid further legal bombshells in America. Some patent lawyers say this is as it should be. ;In many ways, the system is working well from an economic viewpoint,; says Wil Rao of McAndrews, Held amp; Malloy, a law firm. But other experts worry that design patents in particular are often drawn too broadly and granted too easily.三星和其他公司可能他们设备的设计,以避免美国的更多地法律诉讼。有些专利律师说这是理所应当的。;从经济角度看该系统在许多方面都运行良好,;一家律师事务所McAndrews, Held amp; Malloy的Wil Rao如此说道。但也有专家担心特别是外观设计专利,往往界定太宽泛,授权太容易了。Whopping penalties imposed on patent infringers are also a cause for concern. Some experts blame these on the increased use of juries in patent cases. According to a study published last year by PWC, a consultancy, juries decided an average of 14% of such cases in America in the 1980s; since 2000 that figure has risen to 56%. The problem, says Brian Love, a law professor at Santa Clara University, is that jurors tend to have a gut reaction against patent violators and therefore often award damages that are vastly higher than the economic harm that has been done. Experienced judges tend to see things in a more nuanced light.对专利侵权的天价罚金也是引起关注的一个原因。一些专家认为,专利案件的审理越来越多地使用陪审团是其(天价罚金)原因。。根据一家咨询公司PWC去年发布的一个报告,在20世界80年代美国平均14%此类案件由陪审团决定,但从2000年以来这个数字上升到56%。Santa Clara University的法律教授Brian Love认为问题在于陪审员往往对专利侵权者有个直觉反应,因此通常判罚远高于已造成的经济损害的赔偿金。有经验的法官往往以一种更精确细致的见解来看待问题。A well-known federal judge, Richard Posner, an outspoken critic of America#39;s patent system, has even suggested that the country#39;s Patent and Trademark Office be given the job of hearing patent disputes-and sufficient resources to handle a wider remit. Apple knows Judge Posner all too well. Earlier this year, he dismissed a lawsuit it brought against Motorola Mobility, mocking some of the claims Apple had made about the harm it had suffered. Samsung#39;s lawyers, trying to get the August ruling reversed, will be hoping Judge Koh looks closely at her colleague#39;s findings when battle resumes in San Jose.著名的联邦法官Richard Posner,一个对美国专利制度的直言不讳的批评者,甚至建议国家的专利和商标局被赋予听专利纠纷的工作以及处理更广范围工作的足够资源。苹果公司对Posner法官非常了解。今年早些时候,他驳回了一起苹果对托罗拉移动的诉讼,拒绝了苹果提出的关于自己受到损害的索赔。三星的律师们,试图扭转8月的裁决,希望在圣何塞法院听时Koh法官能审视一下她的同僚的判决。 /201209/197638

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