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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月16日 20:15:00
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Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon德怀特·艾森豪威尔和理查德·尼克松The odd couple欢喜冤家They were more alike than is often thought他们的相似之处比人们通常想的要多Take a few swings挥几杆Ike and Dick: Portrait of a Strange Political Marriage. By Jeffrey Frank.书名:《艾森豪威尔和尼克松:一场奇特的政治联合》作者:Jeffrey FrankBETWEEN 1933 and 1977 only two Republican presidents were elected, Dwight Eisenhower and Richard Nixon. They are often seen as opposites: the hero and the crook. Eisenhower was the genial, selfless five-star general who seemed to float above the fray of party politics. Nixon was the cold, conniving liar, paranoid and petty. Jeffrey Frank, a former senior editor at the New Yorker, has written a book about the unlikely duo, which offers a more nuanced portrait of their personalities. Though they disagreed about politics and struggled to get on, Ike and Dick were more alike than is often thought.1933至1977年间,只有两名共和党人士当选总统,他们就是德怀特·艾森豪威尔和理查德·尼克松。人们通常认为他俩的为人截然相反—一个是英雄,一个是坏蛋。在人们眼中,艾森豪威尔是一名和蔼可亲、无私奉献的五星上将,似乎总是置身于党派间斗争之外;尼克松则是一个冷酷无情、精于暗算、生性多疑、心胸狭窄的骗子。曾在《纽约客》任资深编辑的Jeffrey Frank写了一本书,内容就是关于这两位并不像搭档的双人组合,该书更加细致地描述了他们的性格。虽然他俩在政治上各执己见、关系也处的不是太好,但艾森豪威尔和尼克松的相似之处比人们通常认为的要多。Eisenhower picked Nixon as his vice-presidential nominee in 1952 because he had qualities Ike lacked. The old warhorse from Kansas needed someone young and nakedly political. An anti-communist would satisfy the party and a Californian would help to win over the Golden State. Nixon it was. It did not matter so much that the pair squabbled. They won 39 out of 48 states and 55% of the popular vote.1952年,艾森豪威尔指定尼克松为他的副总统候选人,因为后者有他自己所不具备的特质。艾森豪威尔——这名来自堪萨斯的老兵需要一个纯政界出身的年轻人。这个人最好是反共的,因为这样可以满足其党派之需;最好还是个加州人,这样就可以帮助他赢得加州人民的持——尼克松就是不二之选。这两人是否相处得融洽并不重要,重要的是他俩获得了48个州中39个州的持,并囊括了55%的选票。They often failed to see eye-to-eye. Nixon was a hawkish adviser who blamed Democrats for losing China to communism. Eisenhower strove to avoid war at any cost. He ended the Korean war and refused to send soldiers to Vietnam, Hungary and Suez. The two had different views about the space race as well. When Russia launched the satellite Sputnik into space in 1957, Nixon saw it as a failure of Western civilisation. Eisenhower said, “Any of you fellows want to go to the moon? I dont. Im happier right here.”他们往往做不到“心有灵犀”。作为一名鹰派顾问,尼克松指责民主党把中国丢到了共产党手中。艾森豪威尔尽最大努力不惜一切代价阻止战争的发生。他结束了朝鲜战争、拒绝派士兵到越南、匈牙利和苏伊士。两人就太空竞赛的意见也不相同。当苏联于1957年把Sputnik卫星发射升空时,尼克松视之为西方文明的失败。而艾森豪威尔则说:“你们有谁想奔月吗?我可不想,我在这儿就挺高兴的”。This was a source of tension between them. Nixon would grumble about foreign policy and defence. He could be bitter. “This ‘togetherness bullshit,” he said of Eisenhowers doveish multilateralist defence policy, “I dont believe in that. I think the time will come when well look back at this era and ask ourselves whether we were crazy or something.” Ike could be standoffish in return.那是他俩不和的一个原因。尼克松常常抱怨美国的外交政策及防御策略,他的言论有时会很尖刻——对于艾森豪威尔的鸽派多边防御政策,尼克松说道:“这种‘团结一致纯是扯淡,我一点儿也不相信。我认为,总有一天,我们会回首这一阶段,并问问自己我们是不是疯了还是怎么的。”对此,艾森豪威尔回应冷淡。But Ike needed Dick to be his political hound dog. Nixon savaged the administrations opponents, which allowed the president to be an apolitical, national figurehead. An aide called this Eisenhowers “dirty work”. When Joseph McCarthy, a Republican Senator, overreached in his crusade to hunt communists from public life, Adlai Stevenson, a targeted Democratic governor of Illinois, pointedly declared that a “political party divided against itself, half McCarthy and half Eisenhower, cannot produce national unity.” Eisenhower decided it was time to restrain McCarthy. A fervent anti-communist and talented orator, Nixon was well placed for this. He laid into McCarthy on Saturday-night television, logically unweaving his illiberal argument. “It was just right, Dick,” Eisenhower said over the telephone.但艾森豪威尔需要尼克松来充当他在政治方面的喉舌。尼克松猛烈抨击艾森豪威尔政府的反对者,这样艾森豪威尔就能成为一名政治中立的国家名誉总统。一名助手称这是艾森豪威尔的“肮脏把戏”。当共和党参议员约瑟夫-麦卡锡过分地从公众生活中抓捕共产党员时,被指定为伊利诺伊州州长的民主党派阿德莱·史蒂文森(Adlai Stevenson)对此直言不讳:“一个内部分裂的政党—一边是麦卡锡、一边是艾森豪威尔——是不能促进国家团结统一的”。因此艾森豪威尔决定,是时候让麦卡锡收敛收敛了。尼克松——这名狂热的反共分子、天才的演说家—正适合这一角色。在周六晚的电视节目上,尼克松把麦卡锡劈头盖脸地一顿骂,条理明晰地一一击破了对方的狭隘论点。艾森豪威尔在电话中对尼克松说:“尼克松,干得好”。Eisenhower could be ignoble, too. After the Supreme Court declared segregated schools unconstitutional in 1954, he wrote, “No other single event has so disturbed the domestic scene in many years.” Martin Luther King observed that Nixon did more for race relations than Eisenhower. Nixon spoke passionately about civil rights on the stump. He took on critics during the passage of the 1957 Civil Rights Act.艾森豪威尔也可能不会正大光明。1954年,在最高法院宣布“实行种族隔离制度的学校是违法的”之后,他写道:“这是多年来最扰乱国内形势的事件了”。马丁路德金称:与艾森豪威尔相比,尼克松在种族间关系方面做的工作更多。尼克松在作巡回政治演说时,洋溢地谈论了公民权利。在1957年民权法案通过期间,尼克松与批评家展开了较量。At a time when political machinations are all too overt, it is entertaining to learn about the wheeling and dealing during a more discreet age. Yet ers may wish less space was devoted to how Dick felt about Ike, and then how Ike felt about Dick. All this gossip seems to take up valuable space: the Suez crisis, for example, covers no more than two pages. The Iran coup and important details about Americas economy are missed out altogether. Mr Frank tells an absorbing story in a breezy, lucid way. But as a work of history, the book leaves something to be desired.在当今政治阴谋得以明目张胆之时,看看在更谨慎的年代人们是如何尔虞我诈的不失为一种有趣的作法。然而,读者朋友们可能希望关于他俩对彼此看法的篇幅不要占的过大。所有的这些流言蜚语似乎占据了宝贵的空间:比如苏伊士运河危机只占了不到两页;1953年伊朗政变和关于美国经济的重要细节全被忽略了。本书作者明晰而风趣地讲述了一个引人入胜的故事。但作为一部历史著作,本书还有些不尽如人意的地方。 /201406/303176

  DON:Todays Moment of Science is about lightning bugs.唐:今天的科学一刻我们要讲的是关于萤火虫。Lightning bugs are cool because if you squish em you can make...oh, forget it!萤火虫可是非常酷,因为如果你压扁它们就可以…哦,还是算了吧!YAEL:Whats the problem?雅艾尔:出了什么问题?DON:Im just tired of working for A Moment of Science.唐:我只是厌倦了今天科学一刻的工作。Do you know how hard it is to come up with another fascinating tidbit every day?你知道每天想出另一个引人入胜的话题有多难么?Im going to find a new job.我要另谋高就了。YAEL:Ive got a job for you.雅艾尔:我已经为你找到了一份工作。DON:Oh yeah? Does it pay better than this one?唐:哦,是吗?待遇可比这里更好?YAEL:Ill let you figure that out.雅艾尔:我会让你明白的。The job lasts for one month, and you only get one penny on the first day.这份工作持续一个月, 第一天你只能得到1分钱。DON:Hey! What kind of deal is that?唐:嘿!这是个什么活计?YAEL:Hang on! On the second day Ill pay you twice what you made the first day. Thats two pennies.雅艾尔:坚持听完!第二天我会付给你第一天薪金的2倍。也就是2分钱。DON:Three cents altogether-now were getting somewhere.唐:总共3分钱,现在我们总算有些进展。YAEL:On the third day Ill again pay you twice what youve made the day before.雅艾尔:第3天我会再次给你前一天的2倍。Thats four more cents.也就是4分钱。Every day Ill double the amount made the day before.就这样每天我都给你前一天的2倍。At the end of one month youre out of a job. What do you say?月末你的工作结束。你怎么看?Do you take the offer?接受吗?DON:No, of course not. Who would work for pennies?唐:不,当然不。谁会为区区几分钱折腰?YAEL:Thats a shame, because youre not realizing how numbers work.雅艾尔:太遗憾了,因为你没有意识到这些数字是如何变化的。When a number continually doubles itself we say it is ;increasing geometrically.;当一个数字本身不断翻倍我们说它是以几何数字增加。That means the larger the number becomes, the faster it rises with each additional day.这意味着数字越大,每一天的额外增长就越快。How much would you guess you would earn just on the last day of the month?你猜在月底最后一天你会赚多少钱?DON:Um...ten bucks?唐:嗯…十块钱?YAEL:Over ten million dollars!雅艾尔:超过一千万美元!DON:Ten million dollars? Starting from a penny!?!唐:拿到一千万美元吗?从一分钱开始?YAEL:Thats geometric increase.雅艾尔:几何增长嘛。DON:Hmmm...do I get health insurance too?唐:额…我自己上了健康保险没? 201311/265714

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  Have you ever wondered why some cuisines, like Indian and Thai, are so spicy and others, like English, are so bland?你是否也曾好奇,为何印度菜和泰国菜辛辣无比,而英国菜却近乎清淡无味?Lets see,India and Thailand are very hot countries,while England is cold and damp.印度和泰国气候炎热,英国则又冷又潮,这么说来,或许每一种菜肴都和当地气候有关吧?So the answer has something to do with the climate associated with each cuisine?每一种菜肴都和当地气候有关?Yes,it sure does.是的,当然。The first one is spices mask spoilage, and in a country with a hot climate and without refrigeration, that can come in handy.一种解释是,辛辣香料能防腐,尤其在气候炎热又没有冰箱的国家,可备不时之需。Some scientists suggest that the spices in hot cuisines help protect humans from certain kinds of bacteria found in food.一些科学家推测,辛辣菜肴中的香料有助杀死食物中的某几种细菌,使人们免受其害。In fact, the hotter the country, the more likely it is that its recipes will use the kind of spices that slow down the growth of bacteria.事实上,所处地带越是炎热,食物的烹饪中越会使用辛辣香料来抑制细菌增长。You mean some ingredients can slow down the growth of bacteria?你的意思是一些原材料可以抑制细菌增长Thats right.是这样的。For example, onion, garlic, oregano and all spice alone all kill or inhibit up to twenty-nine different kinds food-borne bacteria.说得对。比如说,洋葱、大蒜、牛至和多香果就能杀灭或抑制多达29种不同的食物细菌。In fact, most spices inhibit bacteria to some extent.实际上,辛辣香料或多或少都能抑制细菌。And if you think about it, this makes sense.细想一下,这是有道理的。As plants evolved, they had to learn to fight off parasites and bacteria in order to survive.在进化过程中,植物必须击退寄生虫和细菌才能得以生存。Thats how they got their distinctive flavoring in the first place.辛辣香料原有的独特味道就因此而来。 /201404/293155At first glance, astronomers and cancer researchers may not seem to have a lot in common.乍一看,天文学家和癌症研究者似乎没有什么共同点。After all, astronomers spend their time gazing at distant stars and galaxies, while oncologists fight tumors.毕竟,天文学家致力于观察遥远的星体和星系,而肿瘤学家则治疗肿瘤。But at the University of Cambridge in the UK, astronomers and cancer researchers have joined forces.但是,在英国的剑桥大学,天文学家和癌症研究者已经开始合作了。Specifically, astronomers there repurposed image analysis algorithms they use to spot distant galaxies to help oncologists diagnose aggressive tumors.具体来说,天文学家改进了过去曾用于观测遥远星系的影像分析法,来帮助肿瘤学家诊断恶性肿瘤。Here is how it works如何实现Astronomers use the algorithms to analyze faint, indistinct images captured by large telescopes.天文学家用这种影像分析方法分析由大型望远镜捕捉到的微弱,模糊的星体图像。Powerful computers help identify these images as galaxies, stars, planets, and other celestial bodies.强大的计算机可以帮助辨认这些图像是星系,恒星,行星还是其它天体。When cancer researchers study tumors, they stain samples to pick out subtle differences that clue them in to what types of proteins a given tumor harbors.当癌症研究者研究肿瘤时,对样本染色,进而辨别出微小的差异,染色可以显示出肿瘤样本的蛋白质类型。Identifying the proteins helps researchers know if a tumor is especially aggressive.鉴别蛋白质可以帮助研究人员确定肿瘤是否是恶性的。This process typically involves individual scientists peering at tumor samples under microscopes, which is time consuming and laborious.这一过程通常需要专业的科学家在显微镜下观察肿瘤样本,既费时又费力。But using reconfigured image analysis algorithms to identify tumor proteins can speed the process up significantly.但是使用改良后的图像分析方法鉴别肿瘤蛋白质,速度就显著加快了。To test the process, the researchers used the adapted algorithms on samples from more than 2,000 breast cancer patients.为了测试这种方法,研究人员对2000多名乳腺癌患者的样本使用改良后的算法分析。They found that computer analysis was just as accurate at detecting specific proteins as scientists peering through microscopes.他们发现,电脑分析和科学家通过显微镜的观察在鉴别特定蛋白质时同样精确。And the computer was much faster.而且计算机的速度更快。The researchers plan to further refine the computerized method by testing it on samples from more than 20,000 breast cancer patients.研究人员计划通过测试20000多名乳腺癌患者样本,进一步改进计算机算法。 /201311/264391Alaskas bush country阿拉斯加乡下,冰原濯濯Hunting for dividends红利何去The virtues and shortcomings of Eskimo capitalism爱斯基资本模式,优耶弊耶ALASKANS like to talk about how distant the rest of America feels. In downtown Anchorage, with its familiar fast-food restaurants and hotel chains, this line can sound a little affected. Not so in rural Alaska, the swathes of frozen tundra that the states inhabitants call the bush. In Napaskiak, a village of 400 people on the west coast of the state, it is not unusual to see a black-robed Russian Orthodox priest riding a four-wheeled motorbike with two children and a wife perched on the back.美国本土鞭长驾远是阿拉斯加人的老生常谈,这种说法要是在安克雷奇市中心却会让人有点儿摸不着头脑,因为这里快餐店林立,连锁旅馆鳞次栉比。但阿拉斯加乡下确是另一番天地,冰冻苔原层层遍布,当地人称此为灌木,在西部海岸纳帕斯杰克这一400人的村庄,时常可见俄罗斯东正教牧师黑袍素裹,四轮托扬长驱驾,而他的妻子和两个孩子坐在后座上。Rural Alaska is different politically, too. In most of the country, the more remote the location the greater hostility to the federal government. Alaskas Eskimos, by contrast, are reliable Democrats, keen on more government. One reason for this is that Washington set up an unconventional experiment in popular capitalism that attracts admiration from development economists and scorn from congressmen in almost equal measure.阿拉斯加乡下的政治也是别有风味,多数村庄地域越是偏远,对于联邦政府也越敌对,相比之下,阿拉斯加的爱斯基人则是最可靠的民主党人,对于联邦政府更加持,原因之一是华盛顿独树一帜采取大众资本主义,此举赢得了发展经济学家的青睐,但与此同时也成为了国会议员的笑柄。After the discovery of Americas biggest oilfield at Prudhoe Bay in 1968, the government needed access to land claimed by the Eskimos in order to build a pipeline, so it made them an offer. They were given 44m acres of land, 1 billion and shares in 12 regional and over 200 village corporations that were created under the deal.It was agreed that the corporations would be favoured for government contracts. These companies now provide a range of services, from running deportation facilities in Texas to providing support for operations in Afghanistan.1968年,美国最大的油田在普拉德霍湾拨云见日,当时政府需在爱斯基人的领地内建造一条输油管道,开门见山后,他们得到了4400万英亩土地,并以此建立了12所地区企业和200所乡镇企业,掌握10亿资产和股份,按要求,这些公司要承包政府的工作,如今,这些公司务范围十分广阔,从运营德克萨斯州的输送设备到为阿富汗的石油生产提供生产,不一而足。The work has been lucrative. The value of contracts awarded to native corporations rose from 508m in 2000 to 5.2 billion in 2008, according to a report from the Senate subcommittee on contracting oversight. Three of the companies—Arctic Slope, Bristol Bay and NANA—now have annual revenues in excess of 1 billion. The dividends from the shares have not turned all Eskimos into rentiers, but they provide most with enough money to pay their large heating bills.这是一项油水丰富的工作,一份参议院承包监督委员会的报告显示,这些公司的承包资产已经从2000年的5.08亿上涨到了2008年的52亿,其中3家公司的年收入已经超过了10亿,分别是北坡,巴斯托湾和北美报业联盟。虽说不是所有的爱斯基人都靠股息生活, 但这至少让大部分人都能付的起供暖费用。The companies were also charged with stimulating economic development and ameliorating social ills in Eskimo villages. Here, they have been less successful. Some of the problems faced by Eskimos, such as high suicide rates, are common in other isolated northerly places. But other ills are distressingly specific—like the prevalence of domestic violence. Alcohol is partly to blame. Booze cannot be bought or sold in Bethel, the regional hub, but there is a vibrant black market. Alcohol-related injuries are common. Bethels prison, which has exceeded its capacity, is full of hungover felons.在爱斯基村庄,这些公司在促进经济发展,缓解社会弊病方面也可圈可点,但这方面的成果并没有这般显著,虽说部分爱斯基人的问题在其他北方孤地也能找到印记如高自杀率,但有些问题却是它“独具一格”,如内部暴力行为普遍。在这方面酒精要负一部分责任,即使它在地区枢纽伯特利的交易市场上销声匿迹,却在活跃的黑市上饱受追捧,酒精导致的伤害十分普遍,伯特利的监狱里塞满了“醉”犯,已超其负荷。The smaller villages around Bethel are emptying out. Some of them only became permanent settlements when Alaskas Supreme Court ruled that the government was obliged to educate Eskimo children where they lived, rather than send them off to boarding school. When a school has fewer than ten pupils it closes, taking with it a source of employment. Another reason for the exodus is the price of petrol which, at 10 a gallon in the villages, makes heating a house through the winter and running a snowmobile expensive.在伯特利周边,很多小型村庄已是空巢一所,只有阿拉斯加最高法院强制规定爱斯基人的孩子必须在居住地就学,而不是去寄宿学校,他们才会迎来永久住民,当一所学校的学生数量不足十人,他就要倒闭,一大批就业岗位也随之流失,至此的另一原因是村庄里10美元一加仑的石油价格,冬季房屋供暖以及雪地托的成本都会因此而十分昂贵Yet rural Alaska is doing better than these developments suggest. More than 10% of its inhabitants may not have plumbing, but it is not as poor as many other parts of America. Besides, poverty feels different in a place where summers are spent fishing for wild salmon and autumn is moose-hunting season. Other indicators auger a bright future. The Yupik Eskimos, in Western Alaska, are in the midst of a baby boom: nearly 36% of the people in the area around Bethel are under 18. In the four decades following the Prudhoe Bay find, Alaskas Eskimo population doubled in size. Demographers reckon it will increase by a further 10% by the end of this decade.、但阿拉斯加乡村的发展远不止这些表象,虽说它超过10%的居民都没有管道系统,但与美国其他地区相比,他的富裕程度也是有过之无不及,况且贫穷二字在这样一个夏捕野鲑,冬逐驼鹿的地方也是披上了不同的外衣。一些其他的指标也暗示了光明的前景:阿拉斯加西部的爱斯基尤皮克人正当婴儿潮,他们在伯特利周边有将近36%的人未满18岁,在普拉德霍湾被发掘后的40年里爱斯基人的人口翻了一番,人口统计学家估计这一十年末它的人口还将增长10%。This complicates the way native corporations sp their wealth around. Many Eskimos who were born after the initial distribution of shares own none. About half of the 13 regional corporations have opened their rolls to “born-afters”, but doing this requires a vote from other shareholders that, in effect, dilutes their dividends. The migration of villagers also means that many shareholders no longer live in the places that the corporations were set up to benefit.这也解释了当地企业的分红方式,很多在股份初次分配后出生的爱斯基人都不参与分红,虽说在13所当地企业中将近一半公司的红利都已对那些后出生的人敞开大门,但这必须得其他股东的投票通过,这与取缔其红利收入无异。村庄里的人员流动也意味着很多人都不再呆在公司的始发地接受分红。The companies are facing challenges in Washington, too. Claire McCaskill, a senator from Missouri who chairs the contracting subcommittee, has criticised the way in which the law allows native corporations to fulfil contracts, some of which attract no other bidders, with subcontractors that do not employ any Eskimos. In one case a native company won a 2 billion contract to manage a satellite programme for the Department of Defence, which it promptly farmed out to Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems and General Dynamics. Companies owned by other minorities also receive preferential treatment, but the size of the contracts they can bid on is capped. This is a source of tension between black-owned businesses and their Alaskan competitors.这些公司也面临着来自华盛顿的挑战。密苏里州议员麦卡斯基尔掌控者契约下属委员会,他指责法律纵容这些公司一手遮天,有一些公司不再招标,次承包者也不再雇佣爱斯基人,例如,一家当地公司赢得了为国防部运营卫星系统的承包任务后,就立马委托给了洛克希德马丁公司,BAE系统公司和通用动力。一些其他少数民族的公司也会得到优待,但他们可承包的规模有限,这造成黑人企业和他们阿拉斯加竞争者之间关系紧张。The aim of the corporations, says Ana Hoffman, a Stanford-educated Yupik speaker who runs the Bethel Native Corporation, is to let people choose how they want to live. Some will continue to be subsistence hunters; others will choose to move away. So long as the money from the corporations makes its way back to the Eskimos, the race of their employees should not matter.伯特利本土公司运营者安娜霍夫曼从斯坦福毕业,说尤比克语,他说公司的目的就是让人们选择自己的生活方式,有些人继续捕猎,有些人选择搬离,但只要这些公司的收益仍会流入爱斯基人手中,公司的竞争便不足一提。 /201409/326418

  Science and technology科学技术Cryptography密码术The solace of quantum量子之慰Eavesdropping on secret communications is about to get harder现在想窃听秘密联系会越来越难CRYPTOGRAPHY is an arms race between Alice and Bob, and Eve.艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙之间正在进行一场密码术的军备竞赛。These are the names cryptographers give to two people who are trying to communicate privily, and to a third who is trying to intercept and decrypt their conversation.这里所说的艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙是译解密码者的代号,前两位在努力进行秘密联系,而第三位伊芙则试图阻止他们的联系,并且在尽力破解他们的联系密码,希望能够知道联系的具体内容。Currently, Alice and Bob are ahead—just.目前,艾莉斯和鲍伯只是暂时领先,But Eve is catching up.但是伊芙正在迎头赶上。Alice and Bob are therefore looking for a whole new way of keeping things secret.因此,艾莉斯和鲍伯正在寻找另一种全新的联系方式,以保他们联系的秘密性。And they may soon have one, courtesy of quantum mechanics.借助于量子力学,他们可能很快就会找到。At the moment cryptography concentrates on making the decrypting part as hard as possible.眼下,密码系统正集中力量让解密部分尽可能地难以实施。The industry standard, known as RSA , relies on two keys, one public and one private.被称为RSA的行业标准,取决于两种密钥,一种是公开密钥,另一种是秘密密钥。These keys are very big numbers, each of which is derived from the product of the same two prime numbers.这此密钥都是非常庞大的数字,每一个都来源于两个相同素数的乘积。Anyone can encrypt a message using the public key, but only someone with the private key can decrypt it.任何人都可以使用公开密钥加密消息,但只有拥有秘密密钥的人才能解密。To find the private key, you have to work out what the primes are from the public key.为了找到这个秘密密钥,人们不得不进行大量的运算,从公开密钥中找到这两个素数。Make the primes big enough—and hunting big primes is something of a sport among mathematicians—and the task of factorising the public key to reveal the primes, though possible in theory, would take too long in practice.虽然,从理论上讲,1、要保素数足够大—发现大的素数是数学家们热衷的一种游戏,2、对公开密钥进行因式分解希望找到这些素数,这两项任务是可能的,但是在实际中将会花费很长时间。Since the 1970s, though, the computers that do the factorisation have got bigger and faster.但是,从二十世纪七十年代以来,能够进行因式分解的电脑越来越大,速度越来越快。Some cryptographers therefore fear for the future of RSA.一些密码破译者因此开始担心RSA的未来。Hence the interest in quantum cryptography.因此,他们把眼光放到了量子密码术上。Alice, Bob and Werner, too?艾莉斯,鲍伯,沃莫也这样吗?The most developed form of quantum cryptography, known as quantum key distribution, relies on stopping interception, rather than preventing decryption.量子密钥分配是量子密码学最流行的方式,它主要是依靠阻止拦截,而不是防止解密上。Once again, the key is a huge number—one with hundreds of digits, if expressed in the decimal system.这个系统的密钥还是一个庞大的数字—如果以十进制表示的话,一个就有几百个数字。Alice sends this to Bob as a series of photons before she sends the encrypted message.艾莉斯在发送加密信息之前,会先发送一系列的光量子给鲍伯。For Eve to this transmission, and thus obtain the key, she must destroy some photons.因为伊芙要想读到这个信息,从而获得密钥,她必须要破坏一些光量子。Since Bob will certainly notice the missing photons, Eve will need to create and send identical ones to Bob to avoid detection.因为鲍伯肯定会注意到这些消失的光子,伊芙就必须创造并向鲍伯发送相同的光子,才能不会被发觉。But Alice and Bob can stop that by using two different quantum properties, such as the polarities of the photons, to encode the ones and zeros of which the key is composed.但是艾莉斯和鲍伯通过将两种不同属性—比如不同极性的光子--的量子转译成1和0,以阻止伊芙的拦截。According to Werner Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle, only one of these two properties can be measured, so Eve cannot reconstruct each photon without making errors.根据海森堡的不确定性原理,伊芙只能捕捉到这两种不同属性光子中的一种,所以她无法完全再造出一模一样的光子。If Bob detects such errors he can tell Alice not to send the actual message until the line has been secured.如果鲍伯发现这种错误的话,他就会通知艾莉斯,在通信渠道安全之前,不要发送真正的信息。One exponent of this approach is ID Quantique, a Swiss firm.运用这种编码方式的典型代表是一家叫ID Quantique的瑞士公司。In collaboration with Battelle, an American one, it is building a 700km fibre-optic QKD link between Battelles headquarters in Columbus, Ohio, and the firms facilities in and around Washington, DC.在与一家名称巴特尔的美国公司合作过程中,该公司在巴特尔位于俄亥俄州哥伦布市的总部,和该公司在华盛顿特区附近及市区的工厂之间,建立了一条700公里的光纤量子密码的链接。Battelle will use this to protect its own information and the link will also be hired to other firms that want to move sensitive data around.巴特尔将使用这个光子链接来保护它的自身信息,同时这个链接也会在其它打算频繁交换信息的公司中使用。QuintessenceLabs, an Australian firm, has a different approach to encoding.一家名叫QuintessenceLabs的澳大利亚公司的编码方式却不一样。Instead of tinkering with photons polarities, it changes their phases and amplitudes.这家公司并没有在光子的极性上做文章,而是改变了它们的相位和振幅。The effect is the same, though: Eve will necessarily give herself away if she eavesdrops. Using this technology, QuintessenceLabs is building a 560km QKD link between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which organises many of NASAs unmanned scientific missions, and the Ames Research Centre in Silicon Valley, where a lot of the agencys scientific investigations are carried out.但是结果却是一样:如果伊芙窃听的话,她肯定会露出马脚的。该公司正使用这个技术,在加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市的喷气推进实验室—该实验室组织了多次美国航空航天局无人驾驶的科研任务,和进行大量机构科学调查的硅谷艾姆斯研究中心之间建立一条560公里的QKD链接。A third project, organised by Jane Nordholt of Los Alamos National Laboratory, has just demonstrated how a pocket-sized QKD transmitter called the QKarD can secure signals sent over public data networks to control smart electricity grids.量子运用于密码术上的第三个项目,则是由洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的简-纳德特组织的。这个项目演示了,一个口袋大小的称为OKarD的QKD发报机是如何捕捉发送到公共数据信息网的信号,来控制智能电网的。Smart grids balance demand and supply so that electricity can be distributed more efficiently.智能电网可以平衡电力供应与需求,从而让电力分配更有效。This requires constant monitoring of the voltage, current and frequency of the grid in lots of different places—and the rapid transmission of the results to control centres.这需要对不同地区电网的电压,电流和频率进行不间断地监测,同时监测结果要快速地传回到控制中心。That transmission, however, also needs to be secure in case someone malicious wants to bring the system down.然而,也需要确保这种传输的安全,以防某些人恶意地破坏这个系统。In their different ways, all these projects are ambitious.虽然他们防止窃听的方式不一样,但是这些项目都充满着远大的抱负。All, though, rely on local fixed lines to carry the photons.但是,它们都要依靠当地固定的线路来传送光子。Other groups of researchers are thinking more globally.另外一些研究者的思维则更加全球化。To do that means sending quantum-secured data to and from satellites.要想达到这些研究者的要求,就必须通过卫星来传送量子安全信息。At least three groups are working on this: Thomas Jennewein and his team at the Institute for Quantum Computing in Waterloo, Canada; a collaboration led by Anton Zeilinger at the University of Vienna and Jian-Wei Pan at the University of Science and Technology of China; and Alex Ling and Artur Ekert at the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore.现在至少有三个研究团体都在进行着这方面的研究。分别是加拿大滑铁卢的量子研究所托的马斯-詹内怀恩和他的团队,维也纳大学的安东-塞林格和中国科技大学的潘建国为首的合作团队,还有新加坡量子技术中心的阿莱克斯-林和阿图-恩科特团队。Dr Jenneweins proposal is for Alice to beam polarisation-encoded photons to a satellite.詹内怀恩士的计划建立在以艾莉斯为基础上的,她计划发送偏振编码的光子给卫星。Once she has established a key, Bob, on another continent, will wait until the satellite passes over him so he can send some more photons to it to create a second key.一旦她建立起一个密钥,那么当卫星运行到位于另一个大陆的鲍伯附近时,鲍伯就可以发送更多的光子给它,就建立起了第二个密钥。The satellite will then mix the keys together and transmit the result to Bob, who can work out the first key because he has the second.卫星届时会把这两个密钥混合起来,再把结果传输给鲍伯,拥有第二个密钥的鲍伯就可以解开第一个密钥。Alice and Bob now possess a shared key, so they can communicate securely by normal terrestrial networks.艾莉斯和鲍伯则会拥有一个共享密钥,所以他们能够通过正常的地面网络进行安全地联系。Dr Jennewein plans to test the idea, using an aircraft rather than a satellite, at some point during the next 12 months.詹内怀恩士计划在未来一年内的某个时候,用飞机,而不是卫星测试一下这个想法。An alternative, but more involved, satellite method is to use entangled photon pairs. Both Dr Zeilingers and Dr Lings teams have been trying this.一个更复杂的卫星方法是运用混杂在一起的光子对。塞林格士和林士所领导的两个团队一直专攻于这个方向。Entanglement is a quantum effect that connects photons intimately, even when they are separated by a large distance.量子缠结是一种即使光子相隔很远也能快速连接的量子效应。Measure one particle and you know the state of its partner.如果能测到一个粒子,你就能知道它同伴的状态。In this way Alice and Bob can share a key made of entangled photon pairs generated on a satellite.通过这种方式,艾莉斯和鲍伯能够共享一个在卫星上产生的,缠结光子对组成的密钥。Dr Zeilinger hopes to try this with a QKD transmitter based on the International Space Station.寒林格士希望能够用国际空间站的QKD发射器进行这项试验。He and his team have been experimenting with entanglement at ground level for several years.他和他的团队在地面上进行这种缠结试验已经几年了。In 2007 they sent entangled photon pairs 144km through the air across the Canary Islands.2007年,他们利用空气让光子对穿过了加那利群岛,传输了144公里。Dr Lings device will test entanglement in orbit, but not send photons down to Earth.林士的设备将会在轨道上测试缠结效应,但是不会把光子传回到地球。If this sort of thing works at scale, it should keep Alice and Bob ahead for years.如果这方面工作的规模不断扩大,那么艾莉斯和鲍伯将会保持领先很多年。As for poor Eve, she will find herself entangled in an unbreakable quantum web.对于可怜的伊芙来说,她会发现自己身陷于一个牢不可破的量子网中无法解脱。 /201311/265455

  Science and technology科学技术Cryptography密码术The solace of quantum量子之慰Eavesdropping on secret communications is about to get harder现在想窃听秘密联系会越来越难CRYPTOGRAPHY is an arms race between Alice and Bob, and Eve.艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙之间正在进行一场密码术的军备竞赛。These are the names cryptographers give to two people who are trying to communicate privily, and to a third who is trying to intercept and decrypt their conversation.这里所说的艾莉斯,鲍伯和伊芙是译解密码者的代号,前两位在努力进行秘密联系,而第三位伊芙则试图阻止他们的联系,并且在尽力破解他们的联系密码,希望能够知道联系的具体内容。Currently, Alice and Bob are ahead—just.目前,艾莉斯和鲍伯只是暂时领先,But Eve is catching up.但是伊芙正在迎头赶上。Alice and Bob are therefore looking for a whole new way of keeping things secret.因此,艾莉斯和鲍伯正在寻找另一种全新的联系方式,以保他们联系的秘密性。And they may soon have one, courtesy of quantum mechanics.借助于量子力学,他们可能很快就会找到。At the moment cryptography concentrates on making the decrypting part as hard as possible.眼下,密码系统正集中力量让解密部分尽可能地难以实施。The industry standard, known as RSA , relies on two keys, one public and one private.被称为RSA的行业标准,取决于两种密钥,一种是公开密钥,另一种是秘密密钥。These keys are very big numbers, each of which is derived from the product of the same two prime numbers.这此密钥都是非常庞大的数字,每一个都来源于两个相同素数的乘积。Anyone can encrypt a message using the public key, but only someone with the private key can decrypt it.任何人都可以使用公开密钥加密消息,但只有拥有秘密密钥的人才能解密。To find the private key, you have to work out what the primes are from the public key.为了找到这个秘密密钥,人们不得不进行大量的运算,从公开密钥中找到这两个素数。Make the primes big enough—and hunting big primes is something of a sport among mathematicians—and the task of factorising the public key to reveal the primes, though possible in theory, would take too long in practice.虽然,从理论上讲,1、要保素数足够大—发现大的素数是数学家们热衷的一种游戏,2、对公开密钥进行因式分解希望找到这些素数,这两项任务是可能的,但是在实际中将会花费很长时间。Since the 1970s, though, the computers that do the factorisation have got bigger and faster.但是,从二十世纪七十年代以来,能够进行因式分解的电脑越来越大,速度越来越快。Some cryptographers therefore fear for the future of RSA.一些密码破译者因此开始担心RSA的未来。Hence the interest in quantum cryptography.因此,他们把眼光放到了量子密码术上。Alice, Bob and Werner, too?艾莉斯,鲍伯,沃莫也这样吗?The most developed form of quantum cryptography, known as quantum key distribution, relies on stopping interception, rather than preventing decryption.量子密钥分配是量子密码学最流行的方式,它主要是依靠阻止拦截,而不是防止解密上。Once again, the key is a huge number—one with hundreds of digits, if expressed in the decimal system.这个系统的密钥还是一个庞大的数字—如果以十进制表示的话,一个就有几百个数字。Alice sends this to Bob as a series of photons before she sends the encrypted message.艾莉斯在发送加密信息之前,会先发送一系列的光量子给鲍伯。For Eve to this transmission, and thus obtain the key, she must destroy some photons.因为伊芙要想读到这个信息,从而获得密钥,她必须要破坏一些光量子。Since Bob will certainly notice the missing photons, Eve will need to create and send identical ones to Bob to avoid detection.因为鲍伯肯定会注意到这些消失的光子,伊芙就必须创造并向鲍伯发送相同的光子,才能不会被发觉。But Alice and Bob can stop that by using two different quantum properties, such as the polarities of the photons, to encode the ones and zeros of which the key is composed.但是艾莉斯和鲍伯通过将两种不同属性—比如不同极性的光子--的量子转译成1和0,以阻止伊芙的拦截。According to Werner Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle, only one of these two properties can be measured, so Eve cannot reconstruct each photon without making errors.根据海森堡的不确定性原理,伊芙只能捕捉到这两种不同属性光子中的一种,所以她无法完全再造出一模一样的光子。If Bob detects such errors he can tell Alice not to send the actual message until the line has been secured.如果鲍伯发现这种错误的话,他就会通知艾莉斯,在通信渠道安全之前,不要发送真正的信息。One exponent of this approach is ID Quantique, a Swiss firm.运用这种编码方式的典型代表是一家叫ID Quantique的瑞士公司。In collaboration with Battelle, an American one, it is building a 700km fibre-optic QKD link between Battelles headquarters in Columbus, Ohio, and the firms facilities in and around Washington, DC.在与一家名称巴特尔的美国公司合作过程中,该公司在巴特尔位于俄亥俄州哥伦布市的总部,和该公司在华盛顿特区附近及市区的工厂之间,建立了一条700公里的光纤量子密码的链接。Battelle will use this to protect its own information and the link will also be hired to other firms that want to move sensitive data around.巴特尔将使用这个光子链接来保护它的自身信息,同时这个链接也会在其它打算频繁交换信息的公司中使用。QuintessenceLabs, an Australian firm, has a different approach to encoding.一家名叫QuintessenceLabs的澳大利亚公司的编码方式却不一样。Instead of tinkering with photons polarities, it changes their phases and amplitudes.这家公司并没有在光子的极性上做文章,而是改变了它们的相位和振幅。The effect is the same, though: Eve will necessarily give herself away if she eavesdrops. Using this technology, QuintessenceLabs is building a 560km QKD link between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, which organises many of NASAs unmanned scientific missions, and the Ames Research Centre in Silicon Valley, where a lot of the agencys scientific investigations are carried out.但是结果却是一样:如果伊芙窃听的话,她肯定会露出马脚的。该公司正使用这个技术,在加利福尼亚州帕萨迪纳市的喷气推进实验室—该实验室组织了多次美国航空航天局无人驾驶的科研任务,和进行大量机构科学调查的硅谷艾姆斯研究中心之间建立一条560公里的QKD链接。A third project, organised by Jane Nordholt of Los Alamos National Laboratory, has just demonstrated how a pocket-sized QKD transmitter called the QKarD can secure signals sent over public data networks to control smart electricity grids.量子运用于密码术上的第三个项目,则是由洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的简-纳德特组织的。这个项目演示了,一个口袋大小的称为OKarD的QKD发报机是如何捕捉发送到公共数据信息网的信号,来控制智能电网的。Smart grids balance demand and supply so that electricity can be distributed more efficiently.智能电网可以平衡电力供应与需求,从而让电力分配更有效。This requires constant monitoring of the voltage, current and frequency of the grid in lots of different places—and the rapid transmission of the results to control centres.这需要对不同地区电网的电压,电流和频率进行不间断地监测,同时监测结果要快速地传回到控制中心。That transmission, however, also needs to be secure in case someone malicious wants to bring the system down.然而,也需要确保这种传输的安全,以防某些人恶意地破坏这个系统。In their different ways, all these projects are ambitious.虽然他们防止窃听的方式不一样,但是这些项目都充满着远大的抱负。All, though, rely on local fixed lines to carry the photons.但是,它们都要依靠当地固定的线路来传送光子。Other groups of researchers are thinking more globally.另外一些研究者的思维则更加全球化。To do that means sending quantum-secured data to and from satellites.要想达到这些研究者的要求,就必须通过卫星来传送量子安全信息。At least three groups are working on this: Thomas Jennewein and his team at the Institute for Quantum Computing in Waterloo, Canada; a collaboration led by Anton Zeilinger at the University of Vienna and Jian-Wei Pan at the University of Science and Technology of China; and Alex Ling and Artur Ekert at the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore.现在至少有三个研究团体都在进行着这方面的研究。分别是加拿大滑铁卢的量子研究所托的马斯-詹内怀恩和他的团队,维也纳大学的安东-塞林格和中国科技大学的潘建国为首的合作团队,还有新加坡量子技术中心的阿莱克斯-林和阿图-恩科特团队。Dr Jenneweins proposal is for Alice to beam polarisation-encoded photons to a satellite.詹内怀恩士的计划建立在以艾莉斯为基础上的,她计划发送偏振编码的光子给卫星。Once she has established a key, Bob, on another continent, will wait until the satellite passes over him so he can send some more photons to it to create a second key.一旦她建立起一个密钥,那么当卫星运行到位于另一个大陆的鲍伯附近时,鲍伯就可以发送更多的光子给它,就建立起了第二个密钥。The satellite will then mix the keys together and transmit the result to Bob, who can work out the first key because he has the second.卫星届时会把这两个密钥混合起来,再把结果传输给鲍伯,拥有第二个密钥的鲍伯就可以解开第一个密钥。Alice and Bob now possess a shared key, so they can communicate securely by normal terrestrial networks.艾莉斯和鲍伯则会拥有一个共享密钥,所以他们能够通过正常的地面网络进行安全地联系。Dr Jennewein plans to test the idea, using an aircraft rather than a satellite, at some point during the next 12 months.詹内怀恩士计划在未来一年内的某个时候,用飞机,而不是卫星测试一下这个想法。An alternative, but more involved, satellite method is to use entangled photon pairs. Both Dr Zeilingers and Dr Lings teams have been trying this.一个更复杂的卫星方法是运用混杂在一起的光子对。塞林格士和林士所领导的两个团队一直专攻于这个方向。Entanglement is a quantum effect that connects photons intimately, even when they are separated by a large distance.量子缠结是一种即使光子相隔很远也能快速连接的量子效应。Measure one particle and you know the state of its partner.如果能测到一个粒子,你就能知道它同伴的状态。In this way Alice and Bob can share a key made of entangled photon pairs generated on a satellite.通过这种方式,艾莉斯和鲍伯能够共享一个在卫星上产生的,缠结光子对组成的密钥。Dr Zeilinger hopes to try this with a QKD transmitter based on the International Space Station.寒林格士希望能够用国际空间站的QKD发射器进行这项试验。He and his team have been experimenting with entanglement at ground level for several years.他和他的团队在地面上进行这种缠结试验已经几年了。In 2007 they sent entangled photon pairs 144km through the air across the Canary Islands.2007年,他们利用空气让光子对穿过了加那利群岛,传输了144公里。Dr Lings device will test entanglement in orbit, but not send photons down to Earth.林士的设备将会在轨道上测试缠结效应,但是不会把光子传回到地球。If this sort of thing works at scale, it should keep Alice and Bob ahead for years.如果这方面工作的规模不断扩大,那么艾莉斯和鲍伯将会保持领先很多年。As for poor Eve, she will find herself entangled in an unbreakable quantum web.对于可怜的伊芙来说,她会发现自己身陷于一个牢不可破的量子网中无法解脱。 /201311/265455

  Buttonwood梧桐树On their own自力更生What explains the surge in self-employment?是什么样的因素导致了自我雇佣现象激增呢?PERHAPS the future belongs to the self-employed. Steady jobs, after all, are hard to find. The idea that a young graduate should expect to work for 40 years with the same employer until retirement seems quaintly dated.或许,未来就是自我雇佣者的天地。毕竟,稳定的工作是很难找的。寄希望于一名年轻的毕业生只为一个雇主工作四十年直到退休,这样的想法是真的过时了。There has been a structural shift towards self-employment on both sides of the Atlantic as well as a cyclical one. In the fourth quarter of 2013, 90% of the new jobs created in Britain were classed as self-employment. Is the shift a sign of a thriving entrepreneurial spirit or an indicator of desperation? Are we talking Mark Zuckerberg and Facebook or Walter White and “Breaking Bad”?在大西洋的东西两岸,自我雇佣的情况均发生了结构性的转变,并且这种变化是周期性的。2013年的第四季度中,英国90%的新工作岗位是被归为自我雇佣类。这样的转变到底意味着一次创业精神的繁荣成长,还是预示着社会绝望感的产生呢?我们现在所面临的情况到底是马克·扎克伯格与他的网络帝国Facebook,还是沃尔特·怀特与“绝命毒师”呢?Answering the question is made harder by the limitations of the data, drawn as they are from a combination of surveys, tax records and registers of company creation. Some people may incorporate as a business in order to reduce their tax bill; others may fail to report their self-employment income as a way of avoiding taxes. Some may play dual roles, having a full-time job but earning money on the side. Still others may be working for their old employer as contractors, rather than for a salary.基于数据的局限性,我们更加难以回答上述问题。前者通常是由问卷调查、缴税记录和公司注册资料所构成的。一些人或许只是为了减少应交税费而联合成立公司;另一些人或许没有报告登记自己的自我雇佣业务收入以逃避税负。部分人或许同时扮演着两种角色,既是一位有全职工作的人,同时也在其他方面赚取外快。还有其他一些人正在为自己的老雇主做事,但并不是以雇员的形式,而是以合约承包商的身份来工作。Desperation must play a part. A paper by Robert Fairlie of the University of California, Santa Cruz found a close link between the unemployment rate in a given American locality and the rate of new business startups. A survey by the Kauffman Foundation found that the rate of new-business creation in America declined last year, even as the economy turned up; as the report comments, there was “less pressure on individuals to start businesses out of necessity”.绝望感肯定是其中一个原因。来自加州大学圣克鲁兹分校的罗伯特·费尔利的论文发现了在给定美国的地点关于失业率和新公司成立的比率的密切联系。一份来自考夫曼基金会的调查结果显示,就算在经济复苏的环境下,去年美国新公司成立的比率出现下降的情况。正如报告里所的一样,“人们不太会觉得有创业的必要性”。Self-employment may be more socially acceptable than it used to be. Middle-class people can call themselves consultants or freelancers, rather than unemployed. The businesses they create are unlikely to be the growth engines of the future. In Britain, by far the fastest growth in recent years has been in businesses that are one-man bands.目前自我雇佣要比从前更容易被社会所接纳。中产阶级的人们能够称自己为咨询顾问或者自由工作者而不是失业者。这样的事业不太可能成为未来经济增长的引擎。在英国,近几年来增长最快的部门是在一人独立公司。The numbers also show self-employed Britons tend to be male, work longer hours than salaried employees and earn less. Indeed, the real wages of the self-employed fell faster than those in contractual employment between 2007 and 2012. This may help to explain why British productivity has grown only sluggishly in recent years. Setting up a new business involves a lot of time tracking down new clients or handling a host of issues that were previously dealt with by a company.数字还显示出自我雇佣的英国人大多为男性,工作的时间比全职工作的员工长而且赚得少。确实,2007年至2012年间,自我雇佣人的真实薪水要比合同制员工下降得更快。这或许能解释为何英国近几年的生产率只提高了一丁点。开创一个新的事业需要花费大量的时间去构建新的客户网以及处理一堆事务,而这些事务本来是由公司去处理的。The new self-employed are also older. British people aged 50 and above comprised five-sixths of the increase in the category between 2008 and 2012. And there has been a rise of 160,000 in the number of self-employed people aged 65 and over since 2007. Some of that may reflect the need to replace shortfalls in pension income.此外,新晋自我雇佣的人们通常是年龄比较大的。英国50岁及以上的人在2008年至2012年间,构成了六分之五新增的自我雇佣人口。与此同时,自2007年起有160000位年龄在65及以上的人进入到自我雇佣的领域。上述的情况也许反映了退休金短缺所带来的工作需求。But these changes are not all negative. The rise of the service economy means it is easier for people aged 65 and over to find jobs that suit them; retirees are fitter than they would have been 40 years ago, when many had been through a long career in manual labour. Getting people to work for longer is the best way of dealing with the costs of an ageing population. In addition, a survey by the Royal Society of Arts suggests that the self-employed are happier than those in paid employment—independence counts for a lot, as does the feeling that ones work has meaning.但这些转变带来的并不全是负面影响。务业经济的增长意味着年龄在65及以上的人更容易找到一份适合的工作;当退休人员已经进行了很长时间的体力劳动工作,他们现在要比40年前更适合从事务业工作。让人们工作的时间延长,是应对人口老龄化所带来的社会福利成本问题的最好方法。除此之外,一份由皇家艺术学会所进行的调查显示,自我雇佣人员要比全职上班的人更加开心-独立所带来的影响是深远的,正如一个人认为工作是有意义时所带来的感受一样。In the long run, this rise in self-employment will raise some interesting macroeconomic and political questions. Does it mean, as Morgan Stanley suggests in a research note, that the labour market is not as robust as it appears; that many people have been forced into self-employment and will happily take a paid job if offered one? That would imply there is still plenty of slack in the labour market and monetary policy can stay looser for longer.长远来看,在自我雇佣领域的增长会引起一些有趣的宏观经济和政治问题。正如根士丹利的一份研究报告所提到的,上述的增长是否意味着劳动力市场并不像其显示出的一样强健;如果被迫进入自我雇佣境地的人们得到一份全职工作,是否会很开心地选择后者呢?这些问题的肯定将会显示出劳动力市场依旧处于一个低迷时期,并且货币政策可以继续在更长的时间里保持更为宽松的状态。But perhaps the structural trend means those paid jobs will not become available. If so, the economy may have created a vast reserve labour force, akin to the “spinsters” of early 19th-century Britain—single women who were paid piece rates for spinning textiles at home—or the dockers who used to mass outside port gates in the hope of being selected for a days work. That would suggest an economy where wages are permanently kept under pressure and where profit margins remain high. Good news for the stockmarket perhaps, but not so good for the self-employed.但也许这一结构性的趋势意味着全职工作岗位不会出现空缺。如果真的如此,那经济体或许已经制造了大量的劳动力储备,类似于19世纪早期英国的“老姑娘”—单身女人在家进行纺织品制造而获得计件工资---或者是码头工人们拥堵在港口大门处等待被挑选进入工作。这表示经济体当中工资水平长期保持在高度压榨的水平,同时利润空间依然巨大。这对股市来说或许是好消息,但对自我雇佣者来说可就不是那么回事了。 /201404/289237。

  

  Made in Spain西班牙制造A pressing issue迫在眉睫The government frets about foreign hands on the nations olive-presses外国人插手本国橄榄油产业让政府很不安These are Spanish, not Italian这些是产自西班牙的橄榄,不是产自意大利的THE French government once scuttled a possible foreign bid for Danone, a big dairy firm, on the ground that it was a national industrial “jewel”. If yogurt is strategic for the French, olive oil has the same exalted status inSpain. Four savings banks wanted to sell their combined 31% stake in Deoleo, the countrys largest producer, and under Spains stockmarket rules anyone buying such a large stake has to bid for the whole company. Earlier this month, when it emerged that all the bidders were foreign, ministers said they would prefer that it remained in Spanish hands, and raised the possibility of the state taking a stake in the firm.达能集团是法国一家大型乳制品公司。法国政府曾以它是法国工业的“瑰宝”为理由,否决一项可能达成的国外买家对它的收购案。如果把酸奶产业看作是法国的战略产业,那么橄榄油产业在西班牙拥有同样高的地位。Deoleo是西班牙最大的橄榄油生产商,四家储蓄想抛售他们所持有共计31%的Deoleo股份,而根据西班牙股市交易规则,不论是谁购入如此大额的股份,他都必须向整个公司股东发出收购要约。本月初,当发现所有的竞购者都来自国外,部长们表示他们更希望Deoleo公司的所有权留在西班牙手中,随即提出了国家参股的可能性。On April 10th a British private-equity firm, CVC Capital, won the backing of Deoleos board after making the highest offer, valuing it at 439m. But given the controversy over selling to foreigners, two of the four would-be sellers now look like keeping their stakes. CVC will end up owning 30% of Deoleo but will later seek to buy the rest.4月10日英国一家私募股权公司CVC Capital以4.93亿欧元的最高价竞投,赢得了Deoleo董事会的持。但考虑到买家是外国人而引发的争议,现在四家储蓄中的两家看来要拒绝出售他们所持有的股份。CVC公司最终将拥有Deoleo 公司30%的股份,但之后将寻求购买其余股份的机会。Olive oil accounts for a mere 0.8% ofSpains exports. Yet it is an extra-sensitive matter. The country is the worlds largest producer of the oil, but one-third of its exports are sent in bulk toItalywhere it is bottled and sold, often for a significant markup, under Italian labels. Some of the oil sold with the Bertolli brand, one ofItalys andAmericas favourites, is in fact pressed by Deoleo from the fruits of Spanish olive groves.橄榄油出口额仅占西班牙出口额的0.8%。然而它却是一个特别敏感的问题。西班牙是世界上最大的橄榄油生产国,但是其出口的橄榄油有三分之一是批量发送到意大利的,在那里橄榄油以装瓶出售,通常带着明显的意大利标签,以意大利自有品牌进行销售。Bertolli是意大利人和美国人最青睐品牌之一,然而,有些冠以Bertolli的品牌出售的橄榄油,实际上是使用产自西班牙橄榄园的橄榄,由Deoleo公司压榨的。It is a similar story for wine.Spainhas overtakenFranceandItalyto become the worlds largest producer, but sells almost half of its exports in bulk to markets likeFrance, some of which is retailed under French labels. French- and Italian-labelled wines typically fetch higher prices than Spanish-labelled ones, though the gap is narrowing. And despite the global success of Spanish fashion retailers such as Inditex and Mango, the fancy handbags turned out by artisans in the small Andalusian town ofUbriqueare sold under French and Italian labels. Stuart Weitzman, an American shoe designer who makes his products inSpain, says the country produces the worlds best footwear, but its domestic labels have barely left a footprint on the world stage.对于葡萄酒,情况也类似。西班牙已经超过法国和意大利,成为世界上最大的葡萄酒生产国,但其出口的葡萄酒有几乎一半都批量送往国外零售市场,如法国零售市场,其中一些葡萄酒被冠以法国品牌出售。被冠以法国和意大利品牌标签的葡萄酒通常比西班牙品牌的葡萄酒售价更高,但这一差距正在缩小。尽管西班牙快时尚零售商在全球取得了成功,例如Inditex集团和芒果饰,但是由乌夫克里的安达卢西亚小镇中的工匠所制作的高档手袋,却被冠以法国和意大利的品牌销售。美国的鞋设计师斯图尔特.威兹曼在西班牙生产他的产品,他说:西班牙出产全世界最好的鞋,但其本土品牌却鲜有在世界舞台上留下足迹。Spainhas come a long way, compared with the relatively closed economy it had before joining the European Union in 1986. More recently, rising exports have helped pull the country out of a deep recession, with the economy returning to growth in the third quarter of 2013. Exports are now 34% of Spains GDP, up from 24% in . Its olive oil is winning new customers in places likeChinaandMexico. Prominent chefs like Ferran Adria have raised the profile of Spanish cuisine and attracted foodie tourists. But the country clearly has some way to go in raising the prestige of the “Made inSpain” label.1986年加入欧盟前,西班牙还是个相对封闭的经济体,到如今,它已取得很大进展。最近,出口的增长已帮助西班牙走出了深度的经济衰退。随着2013年第三季度经济回暖,日益增长的出口逐步拉动西班牙走出大萧条的泥沼。年,西班牙的出口额仅占国内生产总值的24%,如今已增长到34%。其橄榄油产品正在赢得中国和墨西哥等国顾客的青睐。像Ferran Adria这样的著名厨师提高了西班牙美食的知名度,也吸引了美食游客的到来。但显然,对于提高“西班牙制造”的声望,西班牙还有一段路要走。 /201404/293152

  

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