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2019年06月21日 01:32:30 | 作者:大河报 | 来源:新华社
Scientists who have won a Nobel prize live nearly two years longer than those who were merely nominated, suggesting that social status confers "health-giving magic," British researchers said.The researchers said there was evidence to link health and status in monkeys but it had been difficult until now to do the same for humans because status often brought more wealth, which improves living standards and medical care."Status seems to work a kind of health-giving magic," said Andrew Oswald, an economist at Warwick University who conducted the study with Matthew Rablen, a former Warwick postgraduate researcher who is now a government economist."Once we do the statistical corrections, walking across that platform in Stockholm apparently adds about two years to a scientist's life-span. How status does this, we just don't know," he said in a university press release.The study entitled "Mortality and Immortality," published this month, focused on Nobel prize winners "as an ideal group to study as the winners could be seen as having their status suddenly dropped on them," it said.The researchers studied 524 men -- 135 winners and 389 nominees, who were in the competition for the physics and chemistry prizes between 1901 and 1950.They looked at one sex only to avoid differences in life span between sexes. The total had been 528, but they dropped four who died in war or from other causes that were not natural.The average life span for the nominee group was just over 76 years.Prize winners lived 1.4 years longer on average -- or 77.2 years -- than those who were nominated for the award.英国研究者日前公布,“诺贝尔奖”得主要比那些仅获提名的科学家寿命长将近两年,这表明社会地位能为“健康带来魔力”。研究者称,此前有研究表明猴子的健康与地位之间确实存在联系,但到目前为止还很难对人做相同的研究,这是因为地位往往会给人带来更多财富,而拥有更多财富就能提高生活水平和医疗保健的水平。瓦立克郡大学的经济学家安德鲁·奥斯尔德说:“地位似乎拥有某种能给人带来健康的魔力。”安德鲁和马修·罗伯伦共同进行了这项研究,马修曾是瓦尔克大学的研究生研究员,现在他是一名政府经济学家。安德鲁在瓦尔克大学的一个新闻发布会上说:“我们进行数据修正后发现,得过诺贝尔奖的科学家的寿命明显要长两年。但其中的原因是什么,我们还不得而知。”这项于本月公布的名为“死亡与不朽”的研究之所以将“诺贝尔奖”得主作为研究对象,主要是因为他们可谓“一夜成名”。研究者对524位男性进行了研究,其中包括135位“诺贝尔奖”得主和389位提名者,这些人都是1901年至1950年间“诺贝尔”物理学奖和化学奖的角逐者。为了避免性别上的差异,此项研究仅在男性中开展。参加此项研究的总人数原为528人,但由于战争和其他非自然原因,其中有四人已经去世。提名者小组的平均寿命略高于76岁。而“诺贝尔”奖得主平均寿命则比提名者长1.4年,为77.2岁。 /200808/46333Discipline is freedom. You may disagree with this statement, and if you do you are certainly not alone. For many people discipline is a dirty word that is equated with the absence of freedom. In fact the opposite is true. As Stephen R. Covey once wrote, “the undisciplined are slaves to moods, appetites and passions”. And in the longer term, the undisciplined lack the freedom that comes with possessing particular skills and abilities – e.g. to play a musical instrument or speak a foreign language.自律就是自由。你有可能质疑这句话,也有人相信这句话。对很多人而言,自律是一个贬义词,因为它意味着自由的丧失。事实上,只有自律的人才能拥有真正的自由。Self-discipline involves acting according to what you think instead of how you feel in the moment. Often it involves sacrificing the pleasure and thrill of the moment for what matters most in life. 自律要求我们按照自己计划行事,而不是根着冲动走,当然这也要求我们为了人生最重要的事去放弃眼前的小利。If you struggle with self-discipline, the good news is that it can be developed. For example, it is only in the past two years that I have trained myself to wake early. The following are what I have found to be the five traits of self-discipline:如果你正在为如何成为一名自律的人儿烦恼,那么请放心,它是可以培养的。1. Self-KnowledgeDiscipline means behaving according to what you have decided is best, regardless of how you feel in the moment. Therefore the first trait of discipline is self-knowledge. You need to decide what behavior best reflects your goals and values. This process requires introspection and self-analysis, and is most effective when tied to written expression. I highly recommend taking the time to write out your goals, dreams and ambitions. Even better, write out a personal mission statement. I found that writing such a statement gave me a greater understanding of who I am, what I am about and what I value. Dr. Covey has an excellent Mission Statement Builder on his site.自我认识自律就是意味着你去根据自己最好的打算行事,因此第一个前提就是要很好地认识自己。你要清楚地知道怎样去做有利于你的目标和理想的实现。我建议大家去把自己的目标,理想和追求写下来。最好能有自己的一个座右铭。这样你就能更清楚地认识自己。 /200912/91000Talk on the phone while you're driving? Fix your makeup? Check e-mail? You're not alone.A survey shows 81 percent of Americans do more than drive when they're behind the wheel.More than eight of 10 people surveyed by Nationwide Mutual Insurance said they adjust the radio or music while they drive, while 73 percent talk on the phone, 68 percent eat, 19 percent send text messages and 5 percent checked their e-mail.Personal hygiene(1) was also a big driver distraction, with 19 percent fixing their hair, 12 percent putting on makeup and 2 percent shaving while at the controls of a car."Clearly Americans have much to do and little time to do it, so to cope with that we've become multi-taskers," said Bill Windsor, associate vice president of Safety at Nationwide."The problem with that is driving requires focus, and multi-tasking while driving puts you and your fellow drivers(2) at risk."Drivers in the survey also admitted to changing seats with passengers, watching a movie, painting their toenails(3), nursing a baby and putting in contact lenses(4) while driving.Younger drivers multi-task the most, the survey found, with 35 percent of 18-to-27 year olds saying they always multi-task in the car, compared to 21 percent of baby boomers.Windsor said the consequences for young drivers are severe, with car accidents being the number one cause of death for Americans aged 18 to 27."The bottom line is if it can be done in the kitchen, bathroom, office or bedroom, it should not be done in the car," Windsor said.While some U.S. jurisdictions(5) require hands-free devices for cellphone use in cars, most of the activities listed in the survey are not illegal unless they are determined to be the cause of an accident.The survey of 1,200 drivers between the ages of 18 and 60 found that while 83 percent believe they are safe drivers, 38 percent admitted they have driven a certain distance without any recollection of doing so. 驾车时候打电话?化妆?查阅电子邮件?这样做的并非只有你一个!一项调查显示,百分之八十一的美国人开车的时候都有“小动作”。超过五分之四的受测者承认他们在驾驶过程中调广播台或者音乐,百分之七十三的人打电话,百分之六十八的人吃东西,百分之十九的人发短信,百分之五的人查阅邮件。此调查由美国互助保险公司赞助主持。另一大分神行为是打理个人形象,百分之十九的人整理头发、百分之十二的人化妆、百分之二的人刮胡子。保险公司安全部副主席说:“显然美国人的时间入不敷出,只好同时处理多项事务。”“问题是开车需要精力高度集中,同时做其他的事情会置你和其他司机于险境。”受测司机还承认曾在驾驶中与乘客换座位、看电影、涂脚指甲、照看宝宝和戴隐形。年轻司机最会一心多用,18-27岁的司机中有百分之三十五承认他们驾驶时还做别的事情,六十年代生人中仅有百分之二十一。Windsor说年轻司机的做法会带来很严重的后果,车祸已经成为18-27岁美国青年的最大杀手。Windsor说:“能在厨房、浴室、办公室或者卧室做的事情就不要带到车上做。”尽管一些美国法律规定驾驶时必须使用“解放双手”式手机,但是这张调查问卷上提到的行为法律上都未作规定,除非这些行为成为事故主因。1200名受测者的年龄从18岁到60岁,虽然百分之八十三的人认为自己是安全司机,却有百分之三十八的人承认驾驶了好长一段距离后才能意识到自己在开车。 /200805/39978How do you spend your off hours? Do you watch television? Do you surf the web? Read articles here at Lifehack.org? There are many ways you can spend your leisure time. But is it really possible to get more out of your time off? Not just making this time more productive, but actually making it more enjoyable.Breaking the Work/Play DistinctionI believe the answer goes against what many of us have been taught about how to spend our free time. From early childhood we’ve been taught to divide everything to do into two groups, work and leisure. Work consists of all the things we need to do and leisure is everything else.Splitting the world this way isn’t necessarily wrong. But the subtle message contained in this split is that work and leisure shouldn’t resemble each other. Your work needs to be productive, efficient and challenging. Therefore leisure should be relaxing, accomplish nothing and be free of pressures.Why This Kills Your Free TimeThe problem is this assumption, that work should be the opposite of leisure, ruins your free time. The belief that the most enjoyable moments of life are spent relaxing in the fruits of our labor doesn’t match the real world. Research has shown that the most enjoyable moments of our life are the ones where we are most engaged.Psychology researcher Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi recorded this phenomenon. He did this through a device that pinged at random points in time. The subject then filled out a form based on their feelings, thoughts and current activity. What he found was people have more enjoyable experiences from work than from their time off. He mentions this paradox in his book, Flow:“Thus we have the paradoxical situation: On the job people feel skillful and challenged, and therefore feel more happy, strong, creative and satisfied. In their free time people feel that there is generally not much to do and their skills are not being used, and therefore tend to feel more sad, weak dull and dissatisfied. Yet they would like to work less and spend more time in leisure.” [emphasis mine]I believe the dissatisfaction for work stems from the external need to work. Since we cannot exercise freedom in choosing to show up every morning, it is easy to begrudge the time there. Even if it produces positive experiences in our lives.The Answer Isn’t Becoming a WorkaholicI don’t believe the resolution of this problem, is to work all the time. I think that would only exacerbate a situation where people feel trapped by oppressive work schedules. Even if jobs can produce,challenging flow experiences, putting all your eggs into one basket can be risky.Instead, Fill Your Spare Time With Active LeisureActive leisure is free activities you choose that challenge and fulfill you. But because you take up these tasks through internal desires, not external constraints, you won’t feel trapped by them.Many people have found ways to incorporate active leisure into their lives. Taking up hobbies, sports and learning new skills even when time is limited. But as the standard forty hour workweek gets pushed longer and passive entertainment becomes easier to consume, it is harder to take up active leisure.Leisure is Hard WorkUpgrading your leisure time to make it more enjoyable isn’t always easy. This may sound backwards, since many people believe the purpose of leisure is to be easy. But sometimes the benefits of being active in your time off aren’t immediately apparent.Activity requires that you invest your attention. The body was designed to be efficient, not enjoyable, so it may resist your attempts to invest energy in anything non-essential.How to Start the Active Leisure HabitThere are many ways you can upgrade your leisure time, but it requires effort. Unlike watching television or relaxing, opportunities for flow need to be structured in advance. It can sometimes require planning and always requires an initial push of momentum to get started.I suggest an experiment. Try replacing some low-energy task with a more engaging one. Continue it for a month. After that month, if you don’t feel the new task is more satisfying than your old usage of time, quit. This is about enjoyment, not productivity, so you don’t need to feel guilty if you decide to switch back later.Suggestions for Active LeisureHere are a couple ideas to get the ball rolling:1. Join Toastmasters -At toastmasters.org you can find clubs near your location. There are thousands of them and they are a great experience. I’ve known many people who tell me Toastmasters is the highlight of their week.2. Start a Craft -Try learning a new hobby or restarting an old one. Painting, woodworking, sculpting, programming or blogging are all great starts. Buy a tutorial book to get you started and learn from there.3. Play Sports -Find a physical activity that will get you to move and provides a challenging environment. Not only will this keep you healthy, but it will put your mind into a state of flow more easily than sitting on the couch.4. Learn a New Language -Challenge yourself to learn a new language. This has always been a goal of mine. I’ve heard from many sources that it can be both challenging an enjoyable to gain fluency in a non-native tongue.5. Play a Game -Computer games and interactive entertainment can be great ways to produce flow. Although you can get addicted to the enjoyable environment, structuring a small amount of time to play games can engage you mind to have fun.6. Start a Project -One of my personal favorites is to get a new project going. Starting a project to complete something over the course of a couple months can be exciting and incredibly rewarding. Go start that novel you’ve been thinking about. 你是如何度过休闲时间的?看电视?网上冲浪?还是在Lifehack.org上浏览文章?度过休闲时间的方法有很多。但是,你真的能从休闲中得到更多的东西吗?不仅要使休闲生活更丰富多,还要切实享受更多的快乐。  打破工作和的界线  我相信这个和很多人受到的如何度过休闲时间的教导背道而驰。很小的时候就有人教导我们把生活分为两部分:工作和。工作包含了所有我们需要做的事情,而则是另一回事。  这样划分生活不一定是错的。但是,这里蕴含着工作和不应该相类似的信息。工作需要有成果、效率和挑战,因而就应该是轻松的、无目的、没压力的。  这样的划分毁掉休闲生活的原因  毁掉休闲生活的问题在于一个假设:工作应该是的对立面。生活中最快乐的时刻是轻松享受劳动成果的时刻,这个信念与现实不符。研究表明,生活中最快乐的时刻在我们最忙碌的时候。  心理学研究员Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi对此现象做了记录。他通过能及时在任意点发出呯的声响的装置做了这个记录。实验对象根据自己的感觉、想法和当前活动填写一张表格。他发现,人们从工作中获得的快乐感受比在休闲时得到的更多。他在自己的书《心流》中提到了这个悖论:  “这样,就出现了自相矛盾的情况:在工作中,人们能感觉到能力和挑战,因而感觉到更多的快乐、更优秀、更有创造力,对自己也就更满意。而在休闲时间,人们一般都感到没什么事可做,他们的娴熟技能也得不到应用,因而更容易感到沮丧、无聊,对自己也更不满意。然而,他们还是宁愿少点工作时间,多些休闲时间。”(我的特别强调)  我认为,人们对工作的不满源于外界对工作的需要。由于不能自由选择每天早上上班的时间,就很容易因此发牢骚,尽管上班能为我们的生活创造快乐的体验。  解决办法不是要你成为工作狂  我认为解决这个问题的办法不是全天候工作。我想那样的话只能使情况恶化,使人有受到令人压抑的工作日程限制的感觉。尽管工作中充满挑战的机会,但把一切希望都寄托在工作上是很危险的。  那么,就以积极的休闲活动占用你的空余时间  积极的休闲活动是由你随意选择自己感兴趣而且满意的活动。由于做这些事出自个人的意愿,而非他人强迫所为,你就不会感到压抑。  许多人找到了让积极的休闲活动融入生活办法。即使在时间有限的时候,也把它花在业余爱好、体育锻炼和学习新技能上。但是,随着标准的每周四十小时的工作时间拉长,消极的活动令人感到更自在,因而人们难得参加积极的休闲活动。  休闲是个艰苦的工作  升级休闲活动使之带来更多快乐,往往不能令人感到舒心。这似乎说反了,因为人们认为休闲的目的就是要舒心快乐。不过,有时用于消闲的积极活动产生的好处并不能马上体现出来。  活动需要你投入注意力。而体能是为工作能力,而不是为得到快乐务的,因此,它可能会在任何不必要的事情上抵制你的企图。  如何启动积极休闲的习惯  升级休闲活动的办法有很多,但都需要付出努力。能产生心流的机会不像看电视或休息,它需要预先规划。它可能有时需要编制计划,而且总是需要一个开始实行的初始时间。  我建议做个实验。以一种活力不足的活动替代更具吸引力的事情。坚持一个月。一个月以后,如果你觉得新的活动不如原来的令你高兴,就停下来。这是为了快乐,不是为了产出,因此,如果你决定再改回去,不必感到内疚。  几种积极休闲活动  以下是几个关于开始积极休闲活动的设想:1. 参加讲演会-在toastmasters.org 网站能找到离你所在地最近的俱乐部。俱乐部有很多,那是很棒的体验。我认识许多人,他们告诉我,参加演讲会是他们一周内最重要的事情。2. 开始一门手艺-试着培养新的业余爱好,或重新捡起老手艺。绘画,做木工,雕刻,编程和写客都是很好的开始。买一本指南书,指导你开始学习。3. 进行体育锻炼-选择一项体育运动,能让你活动起来,给你提供具挑战性的环境。这不仅能保持你的身体健康,而且能让你的思维处于比坐在沙发上更敏捷的活动状态。4. 学习一门新的语言-激励自己学习一门外语。这一直是我自己的目标。我从很多方面了解到这样能激发快乐,也能使说外语的舌头更灵活。5. 玩个游戏-电脑游戏和互动活动可能是激发心流的最好方法。尽管你可能沉迷于快乐的活动,但是安排一点时间玩玩游戏能吸引你的注意力,让你开心。6. 启动一项计划-我个人最喜欢做的是运作一项新的计划。启动一项计划,在几个月时间内一步步完成计划能令人感到兴奋,而且能获得意想不到的回报。开始写你一直想写的小说吧。 /200811/56280

No matter how bad your heart has been broken the world doesn’t stop for your grief. The sun comes right back up the next day. 不管你曾经多受伤,世界都不会停下来。太阳第二天照样升起。 /201106/138957

干旱期 dry spell自去年10月下旬以来,我国北方省区降水明显偏少,旱情持续发展,多省市连发旱情,甚至是重度干旱。此次干旱持续时间之长、受旱范围之广、受旱程度之重均为历史罕见。据预测,2月份华北、黄淮大部、江南东南部降水较常年同期偏少2-5成,有可能出现冬春连旱。请看《中国日报》的报道:The dry spell since November has affected at least 9.53 million hectares of farmland, or 43 percent of the country's winter wheat supplies. The situation is expected to continue as no rain has been forecast for the next 10 days in the affected regions, meteorological agencies said.始于去年11月的干旱期已导致953万公顷农田受旱,波及至43%的冬小麦产区。据气象部门预测,由于未来10天内受灾地区没有降水,旱情还将持续。在上面的报道中,dry spell就是指“干旱期”,指的是降水偏少的一段时间,也就是气候上常说的“旱季”,还可以用dry season来表示。Spell在这里表示“连续的一段时间”。比如寒流过后,我们终于可以享受到a spell of warm weather(持续的温暖天气)。除了dry spell以外,常见的类似用法还有cold spell(春寒期),rain spell(雨期),sinking spell(跌价期)。Spell还可以用来表示“认真琢磨、招致”等意思。因为英语不好,Jim每次看合同都要spell out the meaning(很吃力地读懂),甚至有时候spell backward(产生误解),而且也不能clearly spell it out(清楚地阐明出来),这不仅spell losses(招致损失),而且还会spell trouble(带来麻烦)。把“干旱、干燥”,引申开来,dry还可以用来表示“枯燥无味的”。比如看了a dry novel(一本枯燥无味的小说),得到了a dry answer(一个冷淡的回答)等等。 /200902/62357

+ plus 加号;正号   - minus 减号;负号   ± plus or minus 正负号   × is multiplied by 乘号   ÷ is divided by 除号   = is equal to 等于号   ≠ is not equal to 不等于号   ≡ is equivalent to 全等于号   ≌ is equal to or approximately equal to 等于或约等于号   ≈ is approximately equal to 约等于号   < is less than 小于号   > is more than 大于号   ≮ is not less than 不小于号   ≯ is not more than 不大于号   ≤ is less than or equal to 小于或等于号   ≥ is more than or equal to 大于或等于号   % per cent 百分之...   ‰ per mill 千分之...   ∞ infinity 无限大号   ∝ varies as 与...成比例   √ (square) root 平方根   ∵ since; because 因为   ∴ hence 所以   ∷ equals, as (proportion) 等于,成比例   ∠ angle 角   ⌒ semicircle 半圆   ⊙ circle 圆   ○ circumference 圆周   π pi 圆周率   △ triangle 三角形 /200803/28672

Too difficult. People set out with a lot of ambition and enthusiasm, and start out with a big goal. “I’m going to go to the gym for an hour a day!” or “I’m going to run 30 minutes every day!” The problem is that the goal is too difficult to sustain for very long. You can do it for a few days, but you soon run out of energy, and it becomes a drag to do it. 1、太苛刻。人们满载雄心和热情,开始时为自己制定了伟大的目标。“我打算每天去健身房健身一小时!”或者“每天跑步三十分钟!”问题是这些目标制定的过于苛刻,以至于无法维持很长时间。也许你能坚持一段时间,但不久你会耗尽精力,无法完成既定的目标。 /201005/103567

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