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2019年10月14日 06:46:58来源:99咨询

Emperor Akihito of Japan Plans to Abdicate Throne, Broadcaster Says日本天皇欲“生前退位”,200年来第一次TOKYO — For the first time in nearly two centuries, an emperor of Japan has said that he will abdicate the throne before he dies.东京——近两个世纪以来的第一次,有日本天皇决定在离世前退位。According to NHK, the public broadcaster in Japan, Emperor Akihito, 82, who in 1989 succeeded his father, the wartime Emperor Hirohito, told close aides that he intended to pass the throne to his son, Crown Prince Naruhito, 56, before he dies. No modern emperor has done so: The last emperor to abdicate was Emperor Kokaku, in 1817.明仁天皇现年82岁。1989年,他继承战时的天皇——父亲裕仁天皇的皇位。根据NHK的报道,明仁天皇告诉身边的助手,他有意在离世前将皇位传给自己的儿子——现年56岁的皇太子德仁。这样的举动在现代可谓史无前例:上一位退位的天皇是于1817年退位的光格天皇(Emperor Kokaku)。The emperor’s role is now entirely ceremonial. Until the end of World War II, the Japanese public revered the emperor as a demigod, and he served as commander in chief of the army. After Hirohito surrendered at the end of World War II, the country’s U.S. occupiers stripped him of all political authority.今天,天皇的职能完全是仪式性的。在“二战”结束之前,日本民众像对待次神一般崇敬天皇。同时,天皇担任军队的总指挥。裕仁天皇在“二战”末期投降之后,美国占领者剥夺了他所有的政治权力。According to NHK, Akihito, who was treated for prostate cancer in 2003 and underwent heart surgery in 2012, plans to make a formal announcement shortly.根据NHK的报道,在2003年和2012年分别接受前列腺癌治疗和心脏手术的明仁天皇,计划不久将正式宣布退位。“It’s a tiring job,” said Robert Dujarric, director of the Institute of Contemporary Asian Studies at Temple University in Tokyo. “He’s getting old.”“这份工作很累人,”天普大学东京校区当代亚洲研究所(Institute of Contemporary Asian Studies at Temple University in Tokyo)的所长罗伯特·杜加里克(Robert Dujarric)说,“他年龄越来越大了。”Akihito may be trying to avoid the drama of his own succession. His father was ill for many years before his death.明仁天皇可能希望借此避免自己继承王位时的戏剧性。他的父亲去世前就已抱病多年。“This emperor seems to want to make it easier and make it more matter of fact,” said Sheila A. Smith, senior fellow for Japan studies at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington.“天皇似乎希望让继承事务更简洁、更实事求是,”华盛顿的美国外交关系委员会(Council on Foreign Relations)资深日本事务研究员希拉·A·史密斯(Sheila A. Smith)说道。After the NHK report, however, the Asahi Shimbun, a left-leaning newspaper, reported that Shinichiro Yamamoto, deputy director of the Imperial Household Agency, denied the abdication report, saying that the emperor had “no such intention.”然而,在NHK的报道出来后,左倾报纸《朝日新闻》报道,宫内厅(Imperial Household Agency)次长山本信一郎(Shinichiro Yamamoto)否认了天皇要退位的报道,称他“没有这样的打算”。A spokesman for the Imperial Household Agency could not immediately be reached for comment.记者无法立即联系到宫内厅的发言人对此事置评。The report of the planned abdication comes just three days after the Liberal Democratic Party of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and its allies won a commanding victory in parliamentary elections, capturing two-thirds of the seats in the upper house, the amount required to initiate a constitutional revision. Abe has long had an ambition to overturn the constitutional clause that calls for Japan’s complete renunciation of war.退位报道出现在日本国会选举仅三天之后。在本次选举中,首相安倍晋三的自民党及其盟友赢得举足轻重的胜利,获参议院三分之二席位,达到启动宪法修订所需的议员数量。安倍一直以来都渴望推翻要求日本完全放弃战争的宪法条款。Although the emperor has no official political authority, Naruhito could offer a counterpoint to Abe’s goals.虽然天皇没有实权,但德仁继位可以提供一个对立于安倍目标的点。 /201607/454558。

  • Many of us think we are harder working, more intelligent and better drivers than the average person. 我们当中有很多人认为自己比一般人更努力、更聪明而且驾驶技术更娴熟。We also think we are morally superior. 我们还认为,自己在道德上更胜一筹。A 2014 study found that even convicted prisoners thought they were morally better — not just than the average prisoner but than the average person outside.2014年的一项研究发现,就连被判有罪的囚犯都认为自己在道德上更优秀,不仅好于一般的囚犯,还超过监狱外的一般人。The study, at a prison in the south of England, asked inmates to rate themselves against the average prisoner and the average member of the community for traits such as morality, kindness, honesty, self-control and being law-abiding.这项研究是在英格兰南部的一所监狱展开的,它请囚犯们在道德、善良、诚实、自控和遵纪守法等特质方面,把自己与普通囚犯和普通社区成员进行比较。Although the convicts were serving sentences for violence, robbery, drug offences and burglary, they rated themselves as virtuous. 尽管这些罪犯正因暴力、抢劫、吸毒和盗窃刑,但他们认为自己是品行端正的。Only on one trait did they think they were not superior to the average non-prisoner: being law-abiding. 他们只在一种特质上不认为自己优于那些没有犯法的普通人:遵纪守法。They felt they and people outside were equally law-abiding.他们认为,自己和监狱外的人一样守法。Now a new study in the Social Psychological and Personality Science journal has shown that people, this time in the non-prison population, think they are more just and virtuous than average. 现在,《社会心理和人格科学》(Social Psychological and Personality Science)期刊发表的一项新研究显示,人们(这次是监狱外的人群)认为,他们比一般人更公正和品德高尚。But it goes on to pose an interesting question: can people’s sense of moral superiority lead them to behave dishonestly?但这篇论文接着提出了一个有趣的问题:人们的道德优越感会不会导致他们做出不诚实的行为?The researchers, Ben Tappin and Ryan McKay of Royal Holloway, University of London, say previous studies provide competing answers on this issue. 伦敦大学(University of London)皇家霍洛威学院(Royal Holloway)的研究员本.塔平(Ben Tappin)和瑞恩.麦凯(Ryan McKay)表示,之前的研究就这个问题给出了相互对立的。Some research has found that the illusion of moral superiority can lead people to behave badly because, like the prisoners in the first study, they think they really are, deep down, good people. 一些研究发现,道德优越感的幻觉可能导致人们做出糟糕的行为,因为与第一项研究中的囚犯一样,他们认为,自己在内心深处真的是好人。Other research shows that to the extent that people value belief-behaviour consistency, people who think they are honest behave honestly.还有一些研究表明,从人们重视言行一致的角度来说,那些认为自己诚实的人会做出诚实的行为。We defer to future research to test these hypotheses, the Royal Holloway study says. 皇家霍洛威学院的研究称:我们交给未来的研究来测试这些假说。I was, however, struck by the first hypothesis because I thought it might explain a puzzle: why do companies that believe themselves to be ethically virtuous find themselves doing unvirtuous things?然而,第一种假说让我印象深刻,因为我认为,它或许可以解释一个谜题:为什么认为自己注重道德的企业,会发现自己做着不高尚的事情?Two examples are the banks HS and Wells Fargo, which have both found themselves in trouble. 两个例子是汇丰(HS)和富国(Wells Fargo),它们都发现自己陷入了麻烦。Last year, HS confessed that the tax evasion scandal at its Swiss private banking arm was a source of shame. 去年,汇丰坦承,其瑞士私人的逃税丑闻是羞耻之源。The scandal was all the more striking because Stephen Green, HS’s previous boss, had written a book called Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World.这桩丑闻更加引人关注的原因是汇丰前任首席执行官葛霖(Stephen Green,见上图)曾写过一本名为《优秀价值观:反思金钱、道德和不确定世界》(Good Value: Reflections on Money, Morality and an Uncertain World)的著作。Wells Fargo admitted this year that its staff had tried to meet their sales targets by setting up accounts for customers without their consent. 富国今年承认,其员工曾试图在客户不知情的情况下为客户开立账户,以达到自己的销售目标。Warren Buffett, head of Berkshire Hathaway, Wells Fargo’s biggest shareholder, described it as a great bank that made a terrible mistake.富国最大股东伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)掌门人沃伦.巴菲特(Warren Buffett)称其为一家犯下严重错误的伟大。There are possible explanations for these falls from grace. 这些堕落故事可能有一些合乎情理的解释。HS had acquired its Swiss bank and said it had not integrated it properly. 汇丰收购了其瑞士,但该行表示没有整合好。Wells Fargo appeared to be a classic case of financial incentives distorting employees’ behaviour.富国似乎是金钱激励扭曲员工行为的典型案例。But I wondered about the better than average research cited above. 但上面提到的好于一般人的研究让我感到好奇。Could the illusion of moral superiority apply to organisations as well as individuals? And could companies believe they were so superior morally that the occasional lapse into immorality did not matter much? The Royal Holloway researchers said they had recently conducted experiments examining just these issues and were preparing to publish the results. 道德优越感的幻觉是否既适用于个人也适用于公司?公司是否有可能认为,自己在道德上优于其他企业,因此偶尔的故态复萌并不重要?皇家霍洛威学院的研究人员表示,他们最近做了一些实验,考察了这些问题,并准备发表结果。They had found that political groups with a sense of moral superiority felt justified in behaving aggressively towards opponents. 他们发现,具有道德优越感的政治集团认为自己有理由对对手做出咄咄逼人的行为。In experiments, this meant denying them a monetary benefit.在实验中,这意味着不让对手获得金钱利益。It isn’t difficult to imagine a similar scenario arising in a competitive organisational context. 在竞争性的组织背景下想象一副类似的场景并不困难。To the extent that employees may perceive their organisation to be morally superior to other organisations, they might feel licensed to ‘cut corners’ or behave somewhat unethically — for example, to give their organisation a competitive edge.就员工可能认为自己所在公司在道德上优于其他公司而言,他们可能认为自己有权‘走捷径’或做出某种不道德行为,例如,为了让自己的公司获得一种竞争优势。These behaviours may be perceived as justified#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or even ethical, insofar as they promote the goals of their morally superior organisation, they told me.这些研究人员告诉我:这些行为可能被视为合情合理……甚至合乎道德,因为这些行为有利于实现他们所在的道德优越公司的目标。In explaining its behaviour, HS suggested that inquiring too closely into its customers’ tax affairs might have led to them taking their business elsewhere. 汇丰在解释其行为时暗示,过多地询问其客户的税收事宜可能会让客户把业务转往其他。The Wells Fargo incentives were originally put in place to drive the opening of new accounts, which would have given the bank an advantage over its competitors.富国的激励举措最初是为了推动开设新账户,这原本会赋予该行相对于竞争对手的优势。What both cases show is that the illusion of moral superiority can be dangerous. 这两个案例表明,道德优越感的幻觉可能是危险的。A company that believes it embodies ethical virtue can develop blindness to its lapses. 认为自己体现高尚道德的公司,可能会无视其过失。It can begin to think that, as it is a force for good in the world, anything that it does to advance itself must be good, too.它可能会开始认为,既然自己是世界上的仁义力量,任何增进自己利益的行为都必定是善举。When it emerges that outsiders, or regulators, do not see it that way, the institutions and their supporters often conclude that this is a rare deviation from goodness. 当外部人士或监管者不这么认为时,这些公司及其持者往往会总结称,那是罕见的偏离善举的行为。It may be, but the damage can be far-reaching and long-lasting. 或许是这样,但其损害可能是深远和长久的。Maintaining a corporate reputation is a daily task, however virtuous you think you are.维护公司的声誉是一项日常任务,不管你认为它的品德有多么高尚。 /201612/481600。
  • Forget grass-fed beef and free-range poultry. China’s farmers say they have found the next big health-food craze: cows, pigs and ducks raised on a steady diet of ancient Chinese medicine.不要再谈什么吃草的肉牛和散养的家禽了。中国的农民表示,他们找到了健康饮食界的下一个狂热增长点:规律喂食传统中草药的猪牛鸡鸭。Practitioners in China have prescribed bitter blends of medicinal plants and herbs for centuries to ward off disease in humans. Now, farmers are adapting the age-old elixirs — a dash of ginseng here, a speck of licorice there — for use on livestock. They’re hoping to tap into the growing popularity of traditional medicine and health food in Chinese society.许多世纪以来,中国的医师将药用植物和芳草混合成口感苦涩的方子,用以抵御人体疾病。如今,农民在把这种古老的灵丹妙药用在牲畜身上——这里加点人参,那里放点甘草。他们希望以此搭上传统医药与健康食品日益风靡中国社会的便车。The results, they promise, are not only delicious but healthy: lean, juicy meats that can protect against colds, arthritis and other illnesses. (The science is less resounding, though one study did find that cows that were fed Chinese medicines performed better in hot weather.)他们保,这样养出的肉类不仅可口,而且健康:肉质精瘦多汁,还可以预防感冒、关节炎及其他多种疾病。(其中的科学原理并不那么令人信,不过有一项研究的确认为,吃了中草药的牛在天气较热的情况下表现更好。)In the southern region of Guangxi, Lin Wenluo, 53, began mixing 22 kinds of herbs into the daily feed for his livestock several years ago. The pigs that Mr. Lin raises sell for 0, about 0 more than the typical price for conventional pigs, he said, and some customers even eat his meats instead of taking medicine.在华南省份广西,现年53岁的林文罗几年前开始将22味草药加入自家牲畜的日常饲料中。他表示,自己养的生猪售价为3000元人民币,比传统喂养的市价高1300元左右,一些顾客甚至用吃他出产的猪肉来代替药。“The pigs raised this way don’t get sick, they have good texture and they’re meaty,” he said.“这样养出来的猪不会得病,猪肉口感好,肉质高,”他说。Farmers like Mr. Lin hope that China’s increasingly health-conscious middle class will help bring medicinal meats into the mainstream. The health-food market in China reached trillion last year, and it is expected to grow 20 percent annually for the next several years.林文罗这样的农户希望,越来越重视健康问题的中国中产阶级会有助于中草药养殖的肉类成为主流。中国的健康食品市场在去年达到了1万亿美元的规模,预计将在未来几年里取得每年20%的增长。Mr. Lin said China was returning to something good from the past that had been neglected. “In the old days, we used traditional methods to feed the animals,” he said. “People’s longevity was very long.”林文罗认为,中国是在回归一度遭到忽视的优良历史传统。“过去的时候,我们用传统办法喂牲口,”他说。“人们很长寿。” /201607/455044。
  • Groundbreaking new traffic lights fitted with artificial intelligence could create safer roads and bring an end to rush hour gridlock.开创性的人工智能交通灯将为行人创造更为安全的道路环境,使路况高峰期的交通拥堵不再发生。#39;Smart#39; traffic lights will monitor speed and congestion, prioritise cyclists, buses and ambulances with green lights and use heatmaps to analyse how pedestrians and motorists are using the roads.智能交通灯可以检测车流速度及道路堵塞状况,为骑行者、公交车和救护车“开放绿灯”,并通过热图分析行人与汽车驾驶员的道路使用情况。Milton Keynes is set to be the first city to trial the £3 million project from September, with 2,500 sensors monitoring all major junction points and car parking spaces.从九月份起,米尔顿凯恩斯将成为首个试行这项投资300万英镑项目的城市。全市最主要的十字路口及停车区域总计安装了2500个感应监测器。The monitors recognise different vehicles and individual road users and will be able to regulate traffic in real-time.监测仪可以识别不同的车型和行人,从而实时调节交通。At present, traffic lights are sequenced but not reactive to the vehicles around them and traffic monitoring is still done manually.目前,交通灯都是编码排序,但无法对附近车辆做出反应。交通监测依然由人工完成。Cameras will also allow traffic lights to prioritise cyclists, buses or ambulances with green lights.智能交通系统中的摄像头可以使交通灯优先放行骑行者、公交车或者救护车。Vehicle dashboards that communicate with traffic lights could also flag the presence of cyclists to lorry drivers.能接收交通灯信号的汽车仪表盘可以提醒货车司机有行人经过。The technology could also enable traffic lights to communicate with driverless cars around the corner and inform them if pedestrians are crossing the road.该技术也可以让红绿灯向正在转弯的无人驾驶车发送信号,告诉它们是否有行人正在过马路。Vivacity Labs, which created the technology, has now secured a £1.7m project grant to roll out a city-wide sensor network.这项技术由“生机实验室”研发。该实验室目前已获得170万英镑的资金持,正在准备架设覆盖全市的感应网络。Yang Lu, Chief Technology Officer at Vivacity Labs said: #39;There is very limited intelligence to the current management of urban roads.“生机实验室”首席技术官杨路(音译)说:“在目前的城市道路管理系统中,智能技术的运用非常有限。”#39;By introducing AI into the camera itself, Vivacity Labs has created a system that accurately identifies and reports road usage, removing the need for cumbersome manual interpretation and significantly reducing the potential for human error.“‘生机实验室’将人工智能技术运用到摄像头中,创造出一个可以准确识别和上报道路使用情况的系统,取代了先前繁琐的人工监测流程,大大地降低了人为错误出现的可能。”This lays the groundwork for the smart city of the future, using data flows to guide driverless vehicles to their destination with minimal congestion.这项技术为未来的智能城市奠定了坚实的基础。通过数据流的指引,无人驾驶汽车将畅通无阻地直达目的地。#39;It also improves traffic today as it can be linked with existing management systems to keep vulnerable road users, such as cyclists, safe by giving priority at lights, or alter signs to direct traffic away from congestion.#39;“该技术也可以改善当今的交通状况。它可以和现存的管理系统联系起来,通过优先放行保一些较易受伤的道路使用者的安全,如骑行者。它也可以通过改变标识信号的方式疏通堵塞的交通。” /201705/511834。
  • More than 13,000 jurors have been selected to participate in a two-year pilot program to increase public participation in legal proceedings and improve the standing of court rulings, according to the Supreme People#39;s Court (SPC) last Tuesday.最高人民法院上周二表示,已选任超过1.3万名陪审员参与一个为期两年的试点项目,该项目旨在提高法律程序的公众参与度及提高法院裁决的地位。Since the launch of the pilot program in April 2015, jurors at 50 courts in ten provincial regions including Beijing, Hebei, Shandong and Chongqing have participated in hearing concerning 10,002 criminal cases, 59,616 civil cases and 4,711 administrative cases, accounting for 73.2 percent of first trial cases, said the SPC in a statement.最高法在一份声明中称,自2015年4月该试点项目实施以来,北京、河北、山东、重庆等10个省市区的50家法院的陪审员参审刑事案件10002件,民事案件59616件,行政案件4711件,占一审案件总数的73.2%。Unlike the jury system in the ed States, where jurors are randomly selected, jurors in China are chosen from a group of candidates that are recommended by local communities or authorities.不同于美国随机选取陪审员的陪审制度,我国的陪审员是从当地社区或机关举荐的候选人中选出的。The reform program increased the minimum age for jurors from 23 to 28 but lowered education requirements. It also changed the selection procedure to allow more people from different walks of life.此改革计划提高了陪审员的最低年龄要求,从23岁提高到了28岁,但是降低了学历要求。此外,该计划还修改了选拔程序,允许更多来自各行各业的人加入。The SPC noted that jurors in the program were involved in major cases that may have a big impact on public interests and group interests. A special collegiate bench involving more than three jurors and a judge were involved in the hearing of 818 sensitive cases, it added.最高法指出,参与试点项目的陪审员参审了可能对公共利益和群体利益产生重大影响的重大案件。此外,最高法还补充道,由3名以上陪审员和法官组成特殊合议庭的审理机制,审理重大敏感案件818件。A large number of common people who know public opinions will be selected as jurors, said the statement.该声明称,一大批知民意的普通群众将被选任为陪审员。 /201607/453268。
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