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山东齐都医院做人流好吗济南乳腺炎检查妇科医院Science and technology科学技术Global health全球健康One potato, two potato, three potato一个懒汉,两个懒汉,三个懒汉An effort to count the worlds sloths来数一数世界上的懒汉A PAPER in the Lancet, shamelessly timed to coincide with the Olympic games, compares countries rates of physical activity.《柳叶刀》的一篇文章对世界各国人民进行体育锻炼的比率做了一个比较,而这篇文章的发表时间竟有意选在了奥运会召开之际。The study it describes, led by Pedro Hallal of the Federal University of Pelotas, in Brazil, is the most complete portrait yet of the worlds busy bees and couch potatoes.文章中的研究由巴西佩洛塔斯联邦大学的Pedro Hallal主导,是迄今为止对世界上的勤劳之人和电视懒虫最为完整的描绘。It suggests that nearly a third of adults, 31%, are not getting enough exercise.研究显示,世界上有将近三分之一31%的成年人缺乏锻炼。That rates of exercise have declined is hardly a new discovery.人们的锻炼比率有所下降这并不是什么新发现。Since the beginning of the industrial revolution,自从工业革命开始后,technology and economic growth have conspired to create a world in which the flexing of muscles is more and more an option rather than a necessity.科技和经济发展合谋创造了一个新世界,在这个世界里,锻炼身体越来越成为人们的一种选择,而非迫切的需要。But only recently have enough good data been collected from enough places to carry out the sort of analysis Dr Hallal and his colleagues have engaged in.但直到最近,Hallal士和他的同事才从足够多的地区收集到了充足的数据来进行这类分析研究。In all, they were able to pool data from 122 countries, covering 89% of the worlds population.Hallal士和他的同事总共收集了122个国家的数据,覆盖了89%的世界人口。They considered sufficient physical activity to be 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week,他们认为,充足的体育锻炼应该是每周五天进行半小时的适量运动,20 minutes of vigorous exercise three days a week, or some combination of the two.或是每周三天进行20分钟的激烈运动,或者对这两者进行适当结合。There are common themes in different places.不同的地区出现了同样的模式。Unsurprisingly, people in rich countries are less active than those in poor ones, and old people are less active than young ones.富裕国家的人比那些贫穷国家的人锻炼得更少,老人比年轻人锻炼得更少,这一点在意料之中。Less obviously,但较为隐秘的一个现象是,women tend to exercise less than men—34% are inactive, compared with 28% of men.女性通常比男性锻炼得少。女性懒惰人数占总人数的34%,而男性却只占了28%。But there are exceptions.但是也有例外情况,The women of Croatia, Finland, Iraq and Luxembourg, for example, move more than their male countrymen.如克罗地亚、芬兰、伊拉克、卢森堡这几个国家的女性锻炼得就比本国男性同胞多。Malta wins the race for most slothful country, with 72% of adults getting too little exercise.马耳他有72%的成年人缺乏锻炼,成为世界上最懒的国家。Swaziland and Saudi Arabia slouch in close behind, with 69%.斯威士兰和沙特阿拉伯紧随其后,懒惰人数占全国的69%。In Bangladesh, by contrast, just 5% of adults fail to exercise enough.相比之下,孟加拉国只有5%的成年人缺乏锻炼。Surprisingly, America does not live up to its sluggish reputation.让人吃惊的是,美国竟然没有人们所说的那么懒。Six Americans in ten are sufficiently active by Dr Hallals definition, compared with fewer than four in ten Britons.根据Hallal士的标准,十个美国人中有六个拥有足够的锻炼,而相比之下,十个英国人中拥有足够锻炼的人还不到四个。In an accompanying analysis of peoples habits, Dr Hallal found equally wide differences.同时Hallal士还对人们的生活习惯进行了分析,发现在这方面不同地区的人差别也很大。In South-East Asia fewer than a quarter sit for at least four hours each day; in Europe 64% do.在东南亚,每天至少坐四小时的人不到四分之一,但在欧洲这样的人却占了总人口的64%。And even neighbours may differ.而且即使是邻国之间差别也很大。Only 2% of Swiss walk to work, whereas 23% of Germans do so.在瑞士,只有2%的人走路上班,但在德国却有23%的人这样做。These high rates of inactivity are worrying.这么高的懒惰率实在令人担忧。Paradoxically, human beings seem to have evolved to benefit from exercise while eschewing it whenever they can.人类似乎已经进化到一种自相矛盾状态,尽管运动十分有益,但人类却唯恐避之不及。In a state of nature it would be impossible to live a life that did not provide enough of it to be beneficial, while over-exercising would use up scarce calories to little advantage.在自然状态下,缺乏锻炼的生活是不可能对人有益的,但过度锻炼又可能耗尽宝贵的卡路里,对人体无益。But that no longer pertains.但现在这种说法已经不再适用现代人了。According to another paper in the Lancet, insufficient activity these days has nearly the same effect on life expectancy as smoking.《柳叶刀》中的另一篇文章称,缺乏锻炼对寿命造成的影响几乎和抽烟差不多。 /201308/251077莱芜市莱城区人民医院挂号预约 Women and work女性和工作Girl talk女人之间的事Working women today have it better than ever before. But few agree on how to help them rise further—or whether they still need help at all今天,职场女性的地位比过去已经有了显著进步。但关于怎样帮助她们进一步攀登职业生涯的更高峰,或者她们到底还需不需要帮助,仍然存在着很大的意见分歧。Work With Me: The 8 Blind Spots Between Men and Women in Business.和我一起工作:男性和女性在职场中的八大盲点By Barbara Annis and John Gray. Palgrave Macmillan; 272 pages; .作者:芭芭拉·安妮丝,约翰·格雷。麦克米伦出版社;272页;27美元。To be published in Britain by Piatkus next month; 13.99.下月将由Piatkus出版社在英国出版;13.99英镑。Buy from Amazon.comAmazon.com有售A Rising Tide: Financing Strategies for Women-Owned Firms.新潮:女性主导公司的金融策略By Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb.作者:苏珊·科尔曼,艾丽西亚·罗布。Stanford University Press; 288 pages; and 77.50.斯坦福大学出版社;288页;85美元/77.5英镑。Buy fromAmazon.com, Amazon.co.ukAmazon.com, Amazon.co.uk有售The XX factor: How Working Women are Creating a New Society.XX因子:职场女性如何创造新社会By Alison Wolf. Profile; 464 pages; 15.99. Buy fromAmazon.co.uk作者:艾莉森·伍尔芙。Profile出版社;464页;15.99英镑。Amazon.co.uk有售PEOPLE have been holding heated discussions recently about women’s experience in the workplace.最近,关于女性职场角色的讨论尤为火热。The catalyst? A single Silicon Valley executive.点燃这场讨论的是一位硅谷的女主管。Last month Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer at Facebook, published “Lean In”, a controversial manifesto on why women have not ascended to the most senior positions at companies.上月,Facebook的首席营运官雪莉·桑德伯格发表了颇受争议的新书《跻身:女性、工作与领导意愿》,讲述女性难以在公司担任高层职位的原因。She concludes that it is partly women’s own fault: they do not “lean in” and ask for promotions, pipe up at meetings and insist on taking a seat at the table.在书中,桑德伯格女士总结说,这一部分是女性自身的问题:她们不愿“跻身”,不主动要求升职,不积极在公司会议上发言,甚至在开会时都不愿上桌。Three new books will not have the same impact as “Lean In”, but they offer some interesting new perspectives on how women are coping at work, and what is holding them back.本文要介绍的三本新书虽然无法在影响上与《跻身》相媲美,但也为我们了解女性如何适应职场、是什么阻碍了她们晋升提供了一些有趣的新视角。Some of it is down to simple miscommunication.有时这仅仅是因为简单的沟通障碍。Barbara Annis and John Gray argue in “Work With Me” that men and women are biologically wired to think and react differently to situations, and have “gender blind spots” when it comes to understanding their co-workers’ behaviour.芭芭拉·安妮丝和约翰·格雷在《和我一起工作》一书中说,男人和女人因为生理结构的差异而注定对同一情况有不同的看法和反应,并且在理解异性同事的行为时,会存在“性别盲点”。Ms Annis, who leads workshops on gender for big companies and governments, and Mr Gray, author of “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, a bestselling book in 1992 about relationship problems, have collaborated to produce an easy-to- guide to workplace communications.安妮丝女士平时经常为大公司和政府机构主持关于性别问题的研习班,格雷先生则是《男人来自火星,女人来自金星》一书的作者,这本书出版于1992年,是一本讲述恋爱关系中存在的问题的畅销书。这样的两个人合作出一本关于职场沟通的简明指南,可谓是珠联璧合。Women ask more questions, gather more people’s opinions and seek collaboration with co-workers more frequently than men.和男性相比,女性通常更喜欢提问题,更多地寻求他人的意见,并且也更愿意与同事合作。Men view these preferences as signs of weakness, and women, in turn, grow annoyed by how competitively men work, and how quickly and unilaterally they arrive at conclusions.这些特点在男性看来是软弱的标志,而女性同样也很讨厌男人工作时的好胜心,以及他们不征求别人意见、迅速作出自己单方面结论的作风。If both female and male employees became more “gender intelligent” about how their work and behavioural preferences are hard-wired, it would contribute to a more harmonious workforce.如果男女职员都能够更加明智地认识到性别对他们的工作和行为习惯的固定影响,或许工作团队中的关系会更加和谐。Women have been choosing to leave companies at twice the rate of men, and more than half the women whom the authors met in workshops were considering leaving their firms.女职员主动辞职的比率是男职员的两倍,本书作者在研习班里接触的女职员中也有一半以上都在考虑离开现在的公司。Women often tell their bosses that they are quitting for personal reasons, but the majority actually leave because they feel excluded from teams and not valued for their contributions.她们通常会对老板说,自己辞职是出于私人原因,但实际上,大部分人真正的理由是她们在团队中没有参与感,而且感到自己的贡献没有得到重视。Yet the reality is that women often have trouble communicating with other women at work as well, though the authors do not explain in quite as much detail why this is so.其实还有另外一个现实的原因,女职员经常在工作中与其他女性也存在沟通问题,尽管这一点在本书中并没有详细阐述。Communication and gender equality are not just problems at large firms.沟通和性别平等不是只有大公司才存在的问题。In “A Rising Tide” Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb look beyond women’s experience at big companies.在《新潮》一书中,作者苏珊·科尔曼和艾丽西亚·罗布关注的就是女性在大公司之外的经历。They focus instead on women entrepreneurs, who have the potential to become leaders in their field, earn a high income and hire more women.她们的兴趣点在女企业家身上,这些女性拥有成为本行业领袖的潜力,收入高,并且倾向于雇佣更多的女性为自己工作。In a positive shift, women have been starting more firms in the past decade.过去的十年见了一个积极的转变—女性正在创办越来越多的公司。However, these tend to be in the service and retail industries.然而,这些公司大多从事的是务业和零售业一类的传统产业。They also remain smaller than men’s firms.而且通常在规模上也比不上男性主导的公司。Ms Coleman and Ms Robb point out that part of this may be by design; women sometimes want to keep their businesses small in order to balance their family responsibilities.科尔曼女士和罗布女士指出,这种情况一部分可能是有意为之;女老板们有时就是想要保持公司较小的规模,以便兼顾自己的家庭责任。However, women also often lack the financing that male entrepreneurs enjoy.除此之外,女老板们也经常缺少男老板们所拥有的那样充足的资金。They have fewer savings, so usually launch their businesses with less capital than men, and are less likely to apply for a loan for fear of being denied.她们的存款较少,所以经常在创办公司时,启动资金就比不上男企业家。And they have not had as much access to the masculine world of Silicon Valley: in 2000 they obtained only 5% of funding from venture capitalists, a notoriously male-dominated industry.而且,因为害怕被拒绝,她们也不太愿意去申请贷款。因此,在硅谷这个男权世界中,女性的跻身空间很小。2000年,她们仅从风险投资家手中获得了5%的资金。During their first year of operation men raised 27 times more equity from outsiders for their start-ups than women.众所周知,风险投资也是一个男性主导的行业。新公司运营第一年里,男老板们从公司外部募得的投资是女老板们的27倍。How has the success of high-achievers differentiated them from other women?那么,成功的女性精英们与其他女性有什么不同呢?In “The XX Factor”, Alison Wolf, the director of public policy and management at Kings College London, argues that there are now around 70m highly educated, high-earning women around the world.伦敦大学国王学院公共政策与管理系负责人艾莉森·伍尔芙在《XX因子》一书中说,目前全世界大约有七千万接受过高等教育、拿高收入的女性。They have more in common with elite men than with other women.与其他女性相比,她们与男性精英拥有更多相同之处。These grandes dames tend to marry more often and have fewer children than less-educated women.这些“女强人”通常会比教育程度不高的女性结更多次婚,生更少的孩子。They spend more time working, and, unexpectedly, more time parenting.她们花在工作上的时间更多,但令人意外的是,她们花在养育儿女上的时间也更多。Ms Sandberg also makes this point.桑德伯格女士也表达过同样的观点。As the demands on women in the workplace have increased, so too have the standards for being a good, involved mother—which adds to the challenges for women at the top.随着职场对女性的要求越来越高,要做一个合格的、全身心投入的母亲也越来越难。这也增加了女高管们面临的挑战。Ms Wolf and Ms Sandberg ultimately differ, however, on whether the glass is half full or half empty for women.但是,在对待女性职场前景的态度上,伍尔芙女士和桑德伯格女士有着很大的差别。Ms Sandberg’s book is a call to female arms to change their behaviour so they can rise further.桑德伯格女士的书意在呼吁女性改变她们的一些做法,以便攀登事业的更高峰。Ms Wolf concludes with an economist’s detachment. She says that given how much things have improved for women in the past century, it is “a little surprising to find so many elite women still arguing passionately for directed, top-down social change—change designed to improve things for female elites”.而伍尔芙女士的结论则显示出一位经济学家所拥有的淡然和超脱。她说,在过去一个世纪里,女性地位已经有了很大提升,考虑到这一点,她“有些不理解为什么很多女性精英仍然在乐此不疲地要求有序的、自上而下的社会变革,要求进一步改善女性精英的处境”。Most people agree that more needs to change in the workplace. Men still occupy most top jobs, do not feel comfortable mentoring younger women and judge young men differently from young women.大多数人都同意,职场确实还有很多需要改变的地方。男性仍然霸占了大多数的高层职位,不愿意指导年轻的女职员,并且在评价年轻的男女职员时采取双重标准。However, after decades of women failing to gain equal representation in executive suites, it is notable how many books now focus on women altering their behaviour, rather than men changing their way of doing things.但是,在女性奋斗了几十年,仍然未能在主管办公室打下半壁江山之后,我们应该注意到,现在的很多书只关注女性如何调整自己的行为,而不是男性怎样改变他们的行事风格。Women cannot change their fate on their own. What happened to the responsibility for men to “lean in” to listen and advance women in the workforce, as well?女性仅靠自己改变不了命运。难道男性不是也有责任要主动倾听女性的声音,帮助女性在职场进步吗? /201404/285006The signs are unmistakable: the eyes water, the chest heaves, the nose twitches, the body tenses, suspense builds... until finally a sneeze blasts forth, concluding the drama.眼睛湿润,胸部隆起,鼻子一阵抽搐,身体紧绷,就这样待定着,到最后一个喷嚏响起,像是演了一出戏剧!Its a momentarily paralyzing experience that can seize one at almost any time.这使得人的身体短暂麻痹,它几乎可以在任何时间让一个人给紧缩。But try and recall if youve ever been jarred out of a peaceful sleep by an explosive sneeze.但是,试想你曾经有过在安详的睡眠中被一个突然的喷嚏给震醒的情况吗?Chances are you cant, because, thankfully, we dont sneeze while we sleep.你是不会有的,因为很庆幸,我们在睡觉的时候不会打喷嚏。To understand why, first we need to know why we sneeze while were awake.要理解其原因,我们首先需要了解为什么我们会在醒的时候打喷嚏。Sneezing is a reflex, which means that its an uncontrollable physical response to an outside stimulus.打喷嚏是一种反射,也就是说它是一种生理对外界环境的反应,不可控制。When something, say a piece of dust or a strong odor, stimulates nerve endings in the lining of the nose, the stimulus travels to the central nervous system and is then routed back to the muscles of the face, throat and chest.有时候,像一颗尘埃或一股强烈的味道刺激了鼻子里的神经末梢,这个刺激就会到达中枢神经系统,继而再返回到脸部、喉咙和胸部的肌肉。Once stimulated, these muscles go to work and cause us to forcefully expel air from the mouth and nose.这些肌肉一旦被刺激,它们就会运动,导致我们强有力的排出口腔和鼻子里面的空气。Or, in other words, we sneeze.或者,换句话说就是打喷嚏。Because the nose lining tends to swell when we lie down, making it even more sensitive to sneeze-causing particles, it would seem that sneezing would be likely during sleep.因为在我们躺下的时候,鼻子里面部分趋于隆起,这使得它对引起打喷嚏的微小颗粒更加敏感。这样看来,似乎在睡觉的时候更容易打喷嚏。However, since there is little airflow in most bedrooms at night, and little movement to stir up dust and other particles, the nose is not bombarded by as many foreign particles as it is during the day.然而,由于我们的卧房里在晚上几乎没有空气流动,也没有什么运动会扬起灰尘及其它微粒,所以就不会有像白天那么多外界微粒来刺激我们的鼻子。Furthermore, the area of the brain responsible for the sneeze reflex relaxes while we sleep.而且,当我们睡觉的时候,脑袋中负责打喷嚏反射的区域也休息了。So, even when a particle does touch the nose lining, the brain doesnt notice, and we dont sneeze. 所以,即使有微尘碰触了鼻子内部,大脑也没意识到,我们就不会打喷嚏。 201401/271451济南区哪里无痛人流医院

济南市阳光女子怎么预约A camel can travel hundreds of miles, over several days, without stopping to drink.骆驼可以行走数百英里,并在几天之内也不用喝水。On todays Moment of Science, well learn how camels survive the dry desert.在今天的科学一刻中,我们将会学习骆驼是怎样在干燥的沙漠中生存的。Lets start with the hump.我们先从驼峰说起,Contrary to what you might have heard, camels do not store extrawater here.和你所听说的不一样的是,骆驼并没有储存多余的水在这里。The hump stores fat, providing energy for their long, desert trek.驼峰积聚着脂肪,为它们长距离的沙漠旅行提供能量。This fat, however,can help keep a camel from getting thirsty.然而就是这些脂肪,可以帮助骆驼止渴。As the fat is burned, water is produced as one of thebyproducts.水就是这些脂肪燃烧所产生的副产物之一。This extra water enters the camels bloodstream to add to its water supply.这些额外的水进入骆驼的血液,增加其水分的供应。Camels conserve water by not sweating as much as we do.骆驼不像我们那样出汗,这样也可以储存水分。A camels metabolism lowers at night,making its body temperature much lower than a humans.骆驼的新陈代谢到晚上就会降低,让它的体温低于人类。Because we sweat to cool ourselves off,starting with a lower body temperature means less need to sweat.出汗可以冷却我们自己,因此如果体温较低的话,对汗水的需求也会比较少。Camels are also covered withheavy fur which keeps the daytime heat out.骆驼同样覆盖着厚重的皮毛,这些皮毛可以防止白天的热量进入体内。Because its so good at keeping its cool, a camel cantravel a long way without sweating very much.正因为骆驼如此擅长保持其身体的冷却,所以它可以走很长时间,却不会流很多汗。Camels are also good at maintaining their blood volume.骆驼同样也很擅长保持它们的血容量。Once we humans lose about twelvepercent of our bodys water, our blood becomes too thick to work properly.我们人类一旦流失了身体百分之十二的水分,血液就会变得太浓稠以至于不能正常工作。A camels blood,however, stays more or less consistent, allowing the camel to lose up to twenty-five percent of itsweight by dehydration.可是骆驼的血液,总是可以坚持到让其脱水到其重量的百分之二十五。Another thing that helps a camel conserve water is its nasal passages.另一个有助于骆驼储存水的东西就是鼻腔。When we exhale, we loosea lot of water vapor, as any fogged up car window will prove.当我们呼气的时候,我们会流失许多水蒸汽,被雾气模糊的车窗可以明这一点。Camels have extra dry nasalpassages which actually recondense the water out of each breath, allowing much less to escape.骆驼有额外的干燥鼻腔,可以凝聚每次呼吸的水分,让水分的蒸发的变少。As you can see, there is no single explanation for a camels desert survival abilities.就如你所见,没有关于骆驼沙漠生存能力的单一解释。Instead, a cameldraws on a whole range of adaptations.相反地,骆驼有一系列的适应能力。 /201408/323661济南无痛人流手术要多少费用 滨州人民医院打胎流产好吗

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